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Recent Advancements in Sustainable Solar Photovoltaic Power Technology

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy Sustainability".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 July 2023) | Viewed by 19804

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Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Kamaraj College of Engineering and Technology, Virudhunagar 626001, India
Interests: renewable energy; solar PV systems; power drives

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Guest Editor
Department of EEE, Vardhaman College of Engineering, Hyderabad 501218, Telangana, India
Interests: solar PV systems; renewable energy; reconfiguration; optimization; energy sustainability; MPPT

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is our pleasure to announce a new Special Issue in the journal Sustainability: “Recent Advancements in Sustainable Solar Photovoltaic Power Technology”.

Energy plays a decisive role in realizing the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), such as employment growth, industry, innovation, and infrastructure, sustainable cities and communities, clean energy, and climate change. Moreover, solar energy has huge potential as a source of electricity, space heating and cooling, water heating, energy storage, solar cooking, drying, distillation, industrial process heat, and much more. This Special Issue aims to provide a platform with which researchers may present new research findings as well as reviews of significant work in the field of solar photovoltaic systems and critical issues in solar power generation technology. We are particularly interested in papers presenting the latest achievements and current problems in solar power generation technology and proposing corresponding solutions to key technical challenges in the utilization of solar power, pointing out future directions for the sustainable development of solar power generation technology. 

Original research articles and reviews are welcome. Research areas may include (but are not limited to) the following:

  • Modeling, simulation, optimization, and performance assessment of sustainable solar technologies
  • Environmental impacts, social aspects, policy, and economic aspects of sustainable solar technologies
  • Energy storage technologies
  • Solar based Hybrid PV/T systems
  • Floating solar plants
  • Solar in Agriculture
  • End of Life cycle and Circular Economy of sustainable solar systems
  • Solar applications in buildings
  • Maximum power point tracking techniques
  • Reconfiguration of solar PV system
  • Parameter estimation of PV cells

We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Prof. Dr. Prince Winston David
Dr. Praveen Kumar Balachandran
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • solar energy
  • DC– DC converters
  • MPPT
  • solar PV
  • energy storage
  • demand-side response
  • building-integrated photovoltaics
  • partial shading in photovoltaic systems
  • design, modeling and optimization
  • parameter estimation
  • reconfiguration

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

25 pages, 3833 KiB  
Article
Solar Panel Cooling System Evaluation: Visual PROMETHEE Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Approach
by Ateekh Ur Rehman
Sustainability 2023, 15(17), 12947; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151712947 - 28 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 891
Abstract
The energy sector is interested in sustainable solar power plants. It is obvious that the working temperature of solar panels, which is significantly higher than the specified working cell temperature in hot climes, has a significant impact on efficiency and longevity. The selection [...] Read more.
The energy sector is interested in sustainable solar power plants. It is obvious that the working temperature of solar panels, which is significantly higher than the specified working cell temperature in hot climes, has a significant impact on efficiency and longevity. The selection of solar panel cooling systems, on the other hand, is worrisome since the choice process incorporates ergonomic, technical, economic, and environmental issues. The goal of this research is to (1) present a multi-criteria decision-making approach that is both quantitative and qualitative in nature for selecting solar panel cooling systems; (2) outrank nine alternative solar panel cooling systems with eleven performance measures for each alternative to assist decision makers in determining the best viable choice; and (3) visualize the relationship between the different solar panel cooling systems and performance measures under consideration. The proposed approach is to compare and rank solar panel cooling systems, as well as their validation and evaluation through sensitivity analysis. When operating efficiency is prioritized, finned air cooling is shown to be the best solar panel cooling technique, whereas thermosiphon cooling is the best alternative when emission reduction criteria are prioritized. A comparison of the findings shows that phase change material cooling and forced convection cooling performed worst in almost all cases. Full article
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21 pages, 4760 KiB  
Article
A Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization with Butterfly Optimization Algorithm Based Maximum Power Point Tracking for Photovoltaic Array under Partial Shading Conditions
by Yonggang Wang, Shengnan Dai, Pinchi Liu and Xinyu Zhao
Sustainability 2023, 15(16), 12402; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151612402 - 15 Aug 2023
Viewed by 818
Abstract
The key objective of this paper is to develop a photovoltaic (PV) maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm based on particle swarm optimization–butterfly optimization algorithm (PSO-BOA) that is adapted for partial shading conditions (PSCs). Generally, conventional MPPT techniques are often unable to accurately [...] Read more.
The key objective of this paper is to develop a photovoltaic (PV) maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm based on particle swarm optimization–butterfly optimization algorithm (PSO-BOA) that is adapted for partial shading conditions (PSCs). Generally, conventional MPPT techniques are often unable to accurately locate the global maximum power point (GMPP) generated by partial shading in PV systems. As a result, a significant decrease in power output occurs. The traditional particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm traps the local maxima point easily, while the butterfly optimization algorithm (BOA) has slow convergence speed and large oscillations during its use in research. To address the limitations of the aforementioned PSO and BOA algorithms, the MPPT strategy of PV systems combining PSO-BOA is presented, which can ameliorate the efficiency and accuracy in PSCs. In this paper, the control parameter of sensory modality in the BOA can be acquired based on logistic mapping, and the self-adaptive adjustment of the inertial weight of the PSO algorithm is designed. According to the simulation findings, the suggested method is more suitable than PSO and BOA with respect to intricate shading-induced variations in irradiance and changes in external temperatures. The average tracking time is less than 0.5 s, and the tracking accuracy is not less than 99.94%. Especially under sudden variations in irradiance and temperature conditions, the tracking time of the PSO-BOA algorithm is only 49.70% of that of the PSO algorithm and 55.63% of that of the BOA. Therefore, the MPPT method presented has the ability to improve the oscillations and result in less convergence speed, which in turn accurately tracks the GMPP. Full article
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28 pages, 9303 KiB  
Article
Innovative Methodologies for Higher Global MPP of Photovoltaic Arrays under PSCs: Experimental Validation
by Belqasem Aljafari, Rupendra Kumar Pachauri, Sudhakar Babu Thanikanti and Bamidele Victor Ayodele
Sustainability 2023, 15(15), 11852; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151511852 - 01 Aug 2023
Viewed by 644
Abstract
Partial shading conditions (PSCs) are responsible for the root causes of photovoltaic (PV) system performance deprivation such as hotspots (damaged PV cells), mismatch power losses and multiple power maxima. Recently, PV array reconfiguration strategies have proven to be beneficial in improving PV system [...] Read more.
Partial shading conditions (PSCs) are responsible for the root causes of photovoltaic (PV) system performance deprivation such as hotspots (damaged PV cells), mismatch power losses and multiple power maxima. Recently, PV array reconfiguration strategies have proven to be beneficial in improving PV system performance and achieving improved shade dispersion properties. This research analyzes the improved Su-Do-Ku (I-SDK) PV array configuration in order to counteract the shading effect. This approach implements a 6 × 6 size PV array configuration and performance evaluation under different realistic shading scenarios. The performance of the I-SDK configuration is assessed and compared to that of the total-cross-tied (TCT) and Su-Do-Ku (SDK) arrangements. The performance indices such as power loss (PL), power at global maximum power point (GMPP), fill-factor (FF), performance ratio (PR), power enhancement (PE) and execution ratio (ER) are analyzed to show comprehensive comparison. An experimental analysis confirms the MATLAB/Simulink findings, demonstrating that the I-SDK configuration outperforms both the TCT and SDK array setups. The GMPP values of 143.5 W, 141.7 W, 138.1 W and 129.3 W also show the superiority of I-SDK during four shading instances compared to conventional SP, TCT, SDK and SM arrangements. Moreover, under similar PSCs, higher %FF (74.61%, 76.10%, 77.1%, 75.92%) and lower PL (36.7 W, 38.5 W, 42.1 W, 50.9 W) support the adoptability of I-SDK for experimental validation/commercial viability. Full article
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26 pages, 8384 KiB  
Article
Horse Herd Optimized Intelligent Controller for Sustainable PV Interface Grid-Connected System: A Qualitative Approach
by Anupama Ganguly, Pabitra Kumar Biswas, Chiranjit Sain, Ahmad Taher Azar, Ahmed Redha Mahlous and Saim Ahmed
Sustainability 2023, 15(14), 11160; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151411160 - 18 Jul 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1087
Abstract
The need for energy is always increasing as civilization evolves. Renewable energy sources are crucial for meeting energy demands as conventional fuel resources are slowly running out. Researchers are working to extract the most amount of power possible from renewable resources. Numerous resources [...] Read more.
The need for energy is always increasing as civilization evolves. Renewable energy sources are crucial for meeting energy demands as conventional fuel resources are slowly running out. Researchers are working to extract the most amount of power possible from renewable resources. Numerous resources are in demand, including solar, wind, biomass, tidal, and geothermal resources. Solar energy outperformed all the aforementioned resources in terms of efficiency, cleanliness, and pollution freeness. Intermittency, however, is the resource’s main shortcoming. Maximum power point tracking algorithm (MPPT) integration is required for the system to achieve continuous optimum power by overcoming the feature of intermittency. However, generating electrical energy from solar energy has presented a significant problem in ensuring the output power’s quality within a reasonable range. Total harmonic distortion (THD), a phenomenon, may have an impact on the power quality. Depending on the properties of the load, variables like power factor, voltage sag/swell, frequency, and unbalancing may occur. The quality of power and its criterion exhibits a non-linear connection. The article’s primary objective is to analyze the PV interface grid-linked system’s qualitative and quantitative performance. With respect to varying solar irradiation conditions, partial shading conditions, and solar power quality within the acceptable dimension, a novel intelligent multiple-objective horse herd optimization (HHO)-based adaptive fractional order PID (HHO-AFOPID) controller is used to achieve this goal. Adaptive fractional order PID (AFOPID), conventional FOPID, and PID controllers were used to evaluate the performance of the suggested controller, which was then validated using a commercially available PV panel in MATLAB/Simulink by varying the productivity of non-conventional resources, the inverter’s level of uncertainty, and the potential at the grid’s end. In order to realize the features of the system, sensitivity examination is also carried out for solar energy’s sensitive parameters. The stability analysis of the proposed control topology is also carried out in terms of the integral absolute error (IAE) and integral time absolute error (ITAE). The examination of the sensitivity of variations in solar radiation in kilowatt per square meter per day is based on the total net present cost (TNPC) and levelized cost of energy (LCOE), as optimal dimension and energy cost are both aspects of priority. The suggested control methodology is an approach for the qualitative and quantitative performance analysis of a PV interface grid-oriented system. Full article
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33 pages, 8650 KiB  
Article
A New Hybrid Multi-Population GTO-BWO Approach for Parameter Estimation of Photovoltaic Cells and Modules
by Hossam Hassan Ali, Mohamed Ebeed, Ahmed Fathy, Francisco Jurado, Thanikanti Sudhakar Babu and Alaa A. Mahmoud
Sustainability 2023, 15(14), 11089; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151411089 - 16 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 990
Abstract
Modeling the photovoltaic (PV) generating unit is one of the most important and crucial tasks when assessing the accurate performance of the PV system in power systems. The modeling of the PV system refers to the assigning of the optimal parameters of the [...] Read more.
Modeling the photovoltaic (PV) generating unit is one of the most important and crucial tasks when assessing the accurate performance of the PV system in power systems. The modeling of the PV system refers to the assigning of the optimal parameters of the PV’s equivalent circuit. Identifying these parameters is considered to be a complex optimization problem, especially with the deviation of the solar irradiance and the ambient temperature. In this regard, this paper proposes a novel hybrid multi-population gorilla troops optimizer and beluga whale optimization (HMGTO-BWO) model to evaluate the optimal parameters of the PV cell/panel; it is based on a multi-population strategy to improve its diversity and to avoid the stagnation of the conventional GTO. The BWO explorative and exploitative powers, which are based on synchronized motion and Lévy flight, are used. The suggested HGTO-BWO is implemented to minimize the root mean square error (RMSE) between the simulated and measured data for each cell/panel represented by a double diode model (DDM) and triple diode model (TDM). The proposed HGTO-BWO is investigated according to the standard and CEC-2019 benchmark functions, and the obtained results are compared with seven other optimization techniques in terms of statistical analysis, convergence characteristics, boxplots, and the Wilcoxon rank sum test. The minimum obtained RMSE values of the PVW 752 cell were 2.0886 × 10−4 and 1.527 × 10−4 for the DDM and TDM, respectively. Furthermore, the minimum fetched fitness value for the STM6-40/36 modules was 1.8032 × 10−3. The obtained results proved the effectiveness and preference of the suggested HGTO-BWO in estimating the parameters of the PV modules. Full article
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21 pages, 3538 KiB  
Article
Energy Performance Analysis of Photovoltaic Integrated with Microgrid Data Analysis Using Deep Learning Feature Selection and Classification Techniques
by Sana Qaiyum, Martin Margala, Pravin R. Kshirsagar, Prasun Chakrabarti and Kashif Irshad
Sustainability 2023, 15(14), 11081; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151411081 - 15 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 905
Abstract
Microgrids are an essential element of smart grids, which contain distributed renewable energy sources (RESs), energy storage devices, and load control strategies. Models built based on machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) offer hope for anticipating consumer demands and energy production from [...] Read more.
Microgrids are an essential element of smart grids, which contain distributed renewable energy sources (RESs), energy storage devices, and load control strategies. Models built based on machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) offer hope for anticipating consumer demands and energy production from RESs. This study suggests an innovative approach for energy analysis based on the feature extraction and classification of microgrid photovoltaic cell data using deep learning algorithms. The energy optimization of a microgrid was carried out using a photovoltaic energy system with distributed power generation. The data analysis has been carried out for feature analysis and classification using a Gaussian radial Boltzmann with Markov encoder model. Based on microgrid energy optimization and data analysis, an experimental analysis of power analysis, energy efficiency, quality of service (QoS), accuracy, precision, and recall has been conducted. The proposed technique attained power analysis of 88%, energy efficiency of 95%, QoS of 77%, accuracy of 93%, precision of 85%, and recall of 77%. Full article
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18 pages, 8215 KiB  
Article
P2P Coordinated Control between SPV and STATCOM in a Microgrid for Power Quality Compensation Using LSTM–Genetic Algorithm
by Durgamadhab Swain, Meera Viswavandya, Ritesh Dash, Kalvakurthi Jyotheeswara Reddy, Dhanamjayulu Chittathuru, Arunkumar Gopal, Baseem Khan and Manam Ravindra
Sustainability 2023, 15(14), 10913; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151410913 - 12 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1011
Abstract
The deployment of a static synchronous compensator within a microgrid can facilitate voltage and reactive power regulation, leading to enhanced stability and reliability. Within a microgrid setting, the effectiveness of a STATCOM in balancing the power supply is influenced by several factors, including [...] Read more.
The deployment of a static synchronous compensator within a microgrid can facilitate voltage and reactive power regulation, leading to enhanced stability and reliability. Within a microgrid setting, the effectiveness of a STATCOM in balancing the power supply is influenced by several factors, including the system configuration, the operating conditions, and the specific requirements of the power grid. The capacity, response time, and magnitude of system disturbances also play a role in determining the STATCOM’s ability to balance the power supply. To ensure the successful integration of a STATCOM within a microgrid, coordinating the control system with other distributed energy resources (DER), especially when multiple control strategies are employed, can be a challenging task. Therefore, a meticulously designed control system is indispensable to guarantee the microgrid’s efficient and effective operation. The use of GA in LSTM tuning can accelerate the process of identifying the optimal hyperparameters for a specific task, obviating the need for time-consuming and computationally expensive grid searches or manual tuning. This method can be particularly advantageous when handling large data sets and complex models. In this paper, an attempt has been made to model the STATCOM to communicate with the microgrid, tuned using LSTM–GA, for the effective calculation of real and reactive power support during grid disturbances. Full article
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25 pages, 8018 KiB  
Article
High-Order Sliding-Mode Control Strategy for Improving Robustness of Three-Phase Interleaved Bidirectional Converter
by Yifan Jia, Dazhi Wang, Guofeng Sun, Yongliang Ni, Keling Song and Yanming Li
Sustainability 2023, 15(12), 9720; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15129720 - 18 Jun 2023
Viewed by 951
Abstract
In response to the era background of “comprehensive electrification” and “dual carbon plan” of electric vehicles, DC/DC converters have a good performance in terms of weight, volume, and efficiency and are widely used in fields such as solar power generation, UPS, communication, computers, [...] Read more.
In response to the era background of “comprehensive electrification” and “dual carbon plan” of electric vehicles, DC/DC converters have a good performance in terms of weight, volume, and efficiency and are widely used in fields such as solar power generation, UPS, communication, computers, and electric vehicles. At present, the DC bus voltage is an important indicator for measuring the safe and stable operation of high-voltage DC power systems in electric vehicles. Therefore, regulating the stability of bus voltage through converters has good economic benefits for the sustainable development of electric vehicles in terms of maintenance costs and effective energy management. In order to solve the problem of bus voltage resonance instability caused by negative impedance characteristics of constant power load in an electric vehicle DC power system, a sliding-mode control design strategy of three-phase interleaved bidirectional converter under constant power load was proposed. Firstly, a GPI observer was designed to estimate the state and concentrated disturbances of the system. Then, the estimated value was introduced into the controller for feedforward compensation, thereby achieving fast-tracking of the output voltage to the reference voltage. Finally, the simulation results show that the controller can effectively maintain the influence of disturbances and better improve tracking characteristics and robustness to disturbances and uncertainties. Full article
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15 pages, 5197 KiB  
Article
Long-Term Field Observation of the Power Generation and System Temperature of a Roof-Integrated Photovoltaic System in South Korea
by Muhammad Hanif Ainun Azhar, Salh Alhammadi, Seokjin Jang, Jitaek Kim, Jungtaek Kim and Woo Kyoung Kim
Sustainability 2023, 15(12), 9493; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15129493 - 13 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1111
Abstract
A miniature house roof-integrated photovoltaic (PV) system in South Korea was monitored for 2.5 years. System performance was evaluated through power generation, solar irradiance, and system temperature. The comparison of each month’s power generation and solar irradiance revealed a parallel correlation over the [...] Read more.
A miniature house roof-integrated photovoltaic (PV) system in South Korea was monitored for 2.5 years. System performance was evaluated through power generation, solar irradiance, and system temperature. The comparison of each month’s power generation and solar irradiance revealed a parallel correlation over the entire observation period. The internal module temperature was almost always higher than the roof rear and module rear temperatures by 1–2 and 1–5 °C, respectively, while the temperature behind the PV modules was the lowest among the three temperatures, showing that the installation of PV modules as a roofing system does not affect the temperature of the roofing system. The system temperatures affected the power conversion efficiency; a maximum of 11.42% was achieved when the system temperatures were the lowest, and a minimum of 5.24% was achieved when the system temperatures were the highest. Hence, half of the anticipated generated power was lost due to the temperature fluctuation. Overall, installing PV modules as an entire roofing system is possible with this configuration due to the minimum effect on the roof temperature. However, PV system temperature control is essential for maintaining the power generation performance of the PV modules. Full article
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17 pages, 6816 KiB  
Article
A New Cuk-Based DC-DC Converter with Improved Efficiency and Lower Rated Voltage of Coupling Capacitor
by Khaled A. Mahafzah, Ali Q. Al-Shetwi, M. A. Hannan, Thanikanti Sudhakar Babu and Nnamdi Nwulu
Sustainability 2023, 15(11), 8515; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15118515 - 24 May 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2196
Abstract
DC-DC converters play a crucial role in recent and advanced applications, enabling efficient power conversion and management for renewable energy systems, electric vehicles, portable devices, and advanced communication systems. In line with this, the objective of this paper is to introduce a new [...] Read more.
DC-DC converters play a crucial role in recent and advanced applications, enabling efficient power conversion and management for renewable energy systems, electric vehicles, portable devices, and advanced communication systems. In line with this, the objective of this paper is to introduce a new DC-DC configuration based on the Cuk converter named as Mahafzah converter, which utilizes a coupling capacitor with a lower rated voltage. The paper aims to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed converter in terms of improved efficiency, reduced size, and reduced semiconductor device currents compared to the conventional Cuk converter. The proposed configuration comprises the same components as the Cuk converter, but in a different arrangement, without any additional elements. The main advantage of the proposed converter is using a coupling capacitor with a much lower rated voltage than the Cuk converter, resulting in a smaller capacitor size, reduced printed circuit board (PCB) size, and manufacturing cost. Additionally, the proposed converter reduces the currents of the semiconductor devices compared to those in the Cuk converter. To demonstrate its effectiveness, the converter is operated under continuous current mode (CCM) with a constant duty cycle and switching frequency. The study provides an in-depth discussion of the various operating modes by making use of equations relating to currents, voltages, duty cycles, and voltage gains. It also provides detailed illustrations of the limits between CCM and discontinuous current mode (DCM). The effectiveness of the proposed converter is demonstrated through a design example with operating parameters of 1 kW, 200 V/−300 V, and 20 kHz. Additionally, a low voltage–low power prototype (12/−18 V, 3.24 W, 20 kHz) is established to verify the operation of the proposed converter. Simulation and experimental verification of the proposed configuration achieved the desired results to improve efficiency and reduce the rate. The results clearly indicate that the efficiency of the proposed converter surpasses that of the conventional Cuk converter under identical operating conditions, reaching approximately 88% at rated load conditions. Full article
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19 pages, 1749 KiB  
Article
Bifurcation Analysis of a Photovoltaic Power Source Interfacing a Current-Mode-Controlled Boost Converter with Limited Current Sensor Bandwidth for Maximum Power Point Tracking
by Edwige Raissa Mache Kengne, Alain Soup Tewa Kammogne, Martin Siewe Siewe, Thomas Tatietse Tamo, Ahmad Taher Azar, Ahmed Redha Mahlous, Mohamed Tounsi and Zafar Iqbal Khan
Sustainability 2023, 15(7), 6097; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15076097 - 31 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1278
Abstract
The presence of a high ripple in the inductor current of a DC-DC converter in a photovoltaic converter chain leads to a considerable decrease in the energy efficiency of the converter. To solve this problem, we consider a current-mode control and for economic [...] Read more.
The presence of a high ripple in the inductor current of a DC-DC converter in a photovoltaic converter chain leads to a considerable decrease in the energy efficiency of the converter. To solve this problem, we consider a current-mode control and for economic reasons we used a single inductor current sensor with a low-pass filter. The purpose of the low-pass filter is to minimize the effect of ripple in the inductor current by taking only the DC component of the signal at the output of the sensor for tracking the maximum power point. The objective of this paper is therefore to study the stability of the photovoltaic system as a function of the filter frequency while maintaining a good power level. First, we propose a general modeling of the whole system by linearizing the PV around the maximum power point. Floquet theory is used to determine analytically the stability of the overall system. The fourth-order Runge–Kutta method is used to plot bifurcation diagrams and Lyapunov exponents in MATLAB/SIMULINK when the filter frequency varies in a limited range and the ramp amplitude is taken as a control parameter. Secondly, the PSIM software is used to design the device and validate the results obtained in MATLAB/SIMULINK. The results depicted in MATLAB/SIMULINK are in perfect agreement with those obtained in PSIM. We found that not only is the energy level maintained at the maximum power level of 85.17 W, but also that the stability range of the photovoltaic system increased with the value of the filter cut-off frequency. This research offers a wider range of parameters for stability control of photovoltaic systems contrarily to others found in literature. Full article
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27 pages, 13372 KiB  
Article
An Intensified Marine Predator Algorithm (MPA) for Designing a Solar-Powered BLDC Motor Used in EV Systems
by Rajesh Kanna Govindhan Radhakrishnan, Uthayakumar Marimuthu, Praveen Kumar Balachandran, Abdul Majid Mohd Shukry and Tomonobu Senjyu
Sustainability 2022, 14(21), 14120; https://doi.org/10.3390/su142114120 - 29 Oct 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1417
Abstract
Recently, due to rapid growth in electric vehicle motors, used and power electronics have received a lot of concerns. 3ϕ induction motors and DC motors are two of the best and most researched electric vehicle (EV) motors. Developing countries have refined their solution [...] Read more.
Recently, due to rapid growth in electric vehicle motors, used and power electronics have received a lot of concerns. 3ϕ induction motors and DC motors are two of the best and most researched electric vehicle (EV) motors. Developing countries have refined their solution with brushless DC (BLDC) motors for EVs. It is challenging to regulate the 3ϕ BLDC motor’s steady state, rising time, settling time, transient, overshoot, and other factors. The system may become unsteady, and the lifetime of the components may be shortened due to a break in control. The marine predator algorithm (MPA) is employed to propose an e-vehicle powered by the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) technique for photovoltaic (PV). The shortcomings of conventional MPPT techniques are addressed by the suggested approach of employing the MPA approach. As an outcome, the modeling would take less iteration to attain the initial stage, boosting the suggested system’s total performance. The PID (proportional integral derivative) is used to govern the speed of BLDC motors. The MPPT approach based on the MPA algorithm surpasses the variation in performance. In this research, the modeling of unique MPPT used in PV-based BLDC motor-driven electric vehicles is discussed. Various aspects, which are uneven sunlight, shade, and climate circumstances, play a part in the low performance in practical scenarios, highlighting the nonlinear properties of PV. The MPPT technique discussed in this paper can be used to increase total productivity and reduce the operating costs for e-vehicles based on the PV framework. Full article
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Review

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44 pages, 14993 KiB  
Review
A Review of Multilevel Inverter Topologies for Grid-Connected Sustainable Solar Photovoltaic Systems
by Shaik Nyamathulla and Dhanamjayulu Chittathuru
Sustainability 2023, 15(18), 13376; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151813376 - 06 Sep 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1899
Abstract
Solar energy is one of the most suggested sustainable energy sources due to its availability in nature, developments in power electronics, and global environmental concerns. A solar photovoltaic system is one example of a grid-connected application using multilevel inverters (MLIs). In grid-connected PV [...] Read more.
Solar energy is one of the most suggested sustainable energy sources due to its availability in nature, developments in power electronics, and global environmental concerns. A solar photovoltaic system is one example of a grid-connected application using multilevel inverters (MLIs). In grid-connected PV systems, the inverter’s design must be carefully considered to improve efficiency. The switched capacitor (SC) MLI is an appealing inverter over its alternatives for a variety of applications due to its inductor-less or transformer-less operation, enhanced voltage output, improved voltage regulation inside the capacitor itself, low cost, reduced circuit components, small size, and less electromagnetic interference. The reduced component counts are required to enhance efficiency, to increase power density, and to minimize device stress. This review presents a thorough analysis of MLIs and a classification of the existing MLI topologies, along with their merits and demerits. It also provides a detailed survey of reduced switch count multilevel inverter (RSC-MLI) topologies, including their designs, typical features, limitations, and criteria for selection. This paper also covers the survey of SC-MLI topologies with a qualitative assessment to aid in the direction of future research. Finally, this review will help engineers and researchers by providing a detailed look at the total number of power semiconductor switches, DC sources, passive elements, total standing voltage, reliability analysis, applications, challenges, and recommendations. Full article
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28 pages, 5356 KiB  
Review
A Comprehensive Review of Recent Maximum Power Point Tracking Techniques for Photovoltaic Systems under Partial Shading
by Muhammed Y. Worku, Mohamed A. Hassan, Luqman S. Maraaba, Md Shafiullah, Mohamed R. Elkadeem, Md Ismail Hossain and Mohamed A. Abido
Sustainability 2023, 15(14), 11132; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151411132 - 17 Jul 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1333
Abstract
To operate photovoltaic (PV) systems efficiently, the maximum available power should always be extracted. However, due to rapidly varying environmental conditions such as irradiation, temperature, and shading, determining the maximum available power is a time-varying problem. To extract the maximum available power and [...] Read more.
To operate photovoltaic (PV) systems efficiently, the maximum available power should always be extracted. However, due to rapidly varying environmental conditions such as irradiation, temperature, and shading, determining the maximum available power is a time-varying problem. To extract the maximum available power and track the optimal power point under these varying environmental conditions, maximum power point tracking (MPPT) techniques are proposed. The application of MPPT for extracting maximum power plays a crucial role in developing efficient PV systems. These MPPT techniques face several issues and limitations, particularly during partial shading conditions caused by non-uniform environmental conditions. Researchers have been focusing more on mitigating the partial shading condition in PV systems for the last few years due to the need to improve power output and efficiency. This paper provides an overview of MPPTs proposed in the literature for uniform and non-uniform environmental conditions broadly categorized as MPPT-based and circuit-based methods. The MPPT-based methods are classified as conventional, soft computing, and hybrid techniques. A critical analysis of each approach regarding tracking speed, algorithm complexity, and dynamic tracking under partial shading is discussed. The literature shows hybrid strategies provide fast-tracking speed and are efficient with a tracking efficiency of around 99% compared to conventional methods; however, their design and practical implementation are complex. This comprehensive review of MPPT methods aims to provide power utilities and researchers with a reference and guideline to select the best MPPT method for normal operation and partially shaded PV systems based on their effectiveness and economic feasibility. Full article
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45 pages, 6253 KiB  
Review
Parameter Extraction of Solar Photovoltaic Cell and Module Models with Metaheuristic Algorithms: A Review
by Zaiyu Gu, Guojiang Xiong and Xiaofan Fu
Sustainability 2023, 15(4), 3312; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15043312 - 10 Feb 2023
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1972
Abstract
As the photovoltaic (PV) market share continues to increase, accurate PV modeling will have a massive impact on the future energy landscape. Therefore, it is imperative to convert difficult-to-understand PV systems into understandable mathematical models through equivalent PV models. However, the multi-peaked, non-linear, [...] Read more.
As the photovoltaic (PV) market share continues to increase, accurate PV modeling will have a massive impact on the future energy landscape. Therefore, it is imperative to convert difficult-to-understand PV systems into understandable mathematical models through equivalent PV models. However, the multi-peaked, non-linear, and strongly coupled characteristics of PV models make it challenging to extract accurate parameters of PV models. Metaheuristics can address these challenges effectively regardless of gradients and function forms, and have gained increasing attention in solving this issue. This review surveys different metaheuristics to the PV model parameter extraction and explains multiple algorithms’ behavior. Some frequently used performance indicators to measure the effectiveness, robustness, accuracy, competitiveness, and resources consumed are tabulated and compared, and then the merits and demerits of different algorithms are outlined. The patterns of variation in the results extracted from different external environments were analyzed, and the corresponding literature was summarized. Then, challenges for both metaheuristics and application scenarios are analyzed. Finally, corresponding perspectives on future research are summarized as a valid reference for technological advances in PV model parameter extraction. Full article
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