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Wetlands: Conservation, Management, Restoration and Policy 2nd Edition

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Sustainability and Applications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2024 | Viewed by 3303

Special Issue Editors

College of Life Sciences, Hubei Normal University, Huangshi 435002, China
Interests: biodiversity conservation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-2525, USA
Interests: freshwater ecology; ecological restoration
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
College of Fisheries and Life Science, Dalian Ocean University, Dalian 116023, China
Interests: marine ecology and conservation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Wetland ecosystems support a very high level of biodiversity and provide important services that help sustain and bring together the natural world and human cultures that share it. These values include supporting a unique and extremely productive habitat used by wildlife as well as humans, flood control, water purification, carbon sequestration, sediment and nutrient retention, and a rich natural heritage that flows into our societal and cultural values. Wetland ecosystems are a vital part of our natural heritage. At a worldwide scale they provide services worth trillions of US dollars every year, entirely free of charge. Thus, wetlands make a clear and vital contribution to human health and well-being.  Due to the ever-increasing impacts of climate change, wetlands have become one of the most threatened ecosystems in the world. The effective protection and management of wetlands is urgent and critically important for human sustainable development.

This invited topical feature solicits original and novel papers on the conservation, ecological restoration, and management of wetlands. By combining field investigations, experiments, multidisciplinary management, and ecological models, the invited papers may include an anthology of these. Topics that can be addressed include biodiversity conservation, habitat loss and ecological restoration, biological invasions, greenhouse gas emissions, carbon sequestration, and the policy and management considerations surrounding the ongoing sustenance of wetlands within the evolving milieu and context of climate change.

Submissions should be focused on any of a diversity of wetlands ecosystems, including freshwater marsh, salt marsh, swamp, peatland, mire, mangrove, carr, pocosin, floodplain, vernal pool, estuary, coastal and littoral habitats, and other related settings. We are particularly interested in manuscripts within the following fields:

(1) Status, management and policies relevant to biodiversity conservation in wetlands;

(2) Introduction, distribution, and ecological impacts of non-native species in wetlands;

(3) Physiological activity of organisms (fishes, aquatic plants, crayfish, benthos organism, insects, and so forth) as influenced by global climate change or environmental pollutants;

(4) Educational, management, and policy approaches to wetland preservation;

(5) Mitigation, habitat creation and ecological restoration of wetlands;

(6) Biological control of microbial, fish, and insect in aquaculture, agriculture, wetland, and natural resource;

(7) Policy and management of tourism management in wetlands.

References

Hu SJ, Niu ZG, Chen YF, Li LF (2017) Global wetlands: potential distribution, wetland loss, and status. Science of the Total Environment 586: 319-327.

Tickner D, Opperman JJ, Abell R et al. (2020) Bending the curve of global freshwater biodiversity loss: an emergency recovery plan. Bioscience 70: 330-342.

Albert JS, Destouni G, Duke-Sylvester Sm et al. (2020) Scientists’ warning to humanity on the freshwater biodiversity crisis. Ambio 50: 85-94.

Dr. Wen Xiong
Dr. Peter A. Bowler
Dr. Zhongxin Wu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • wetlands
  • climate change
  • protection
  • policy
  • management

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 8956 KiB  
Article
Interspecific Differences in the Effects of Calcium and Phosphorus Coprecipitation Induced by Submerged Plants on the Water-to-Phosphorus Cycle
by Heyun Wang, Runlong Zhang, Qi Chen, Kuang Chen and Rui Hu
Sustainability 2024, 16(10), 4200; https://doi.org/10.3390/su16104200 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 289
Abstract
The effects of submerged plant-induced calcium and phosphorus coprecipitation on the phosphorus cycle in aquatic environments and interspecific differences are still unclear. Herein, we selected Ceratophyllum demersum L. and Potamogeton crispus L. to construct a sediment–water-submerged plant system. We examined how phosphorus concentrations [...] Read more.
The effects of submerged plant-induced calcium and phosphorus coprecipitation on the phosphorus cycle in aquatic environments and interspecific differences are still unclear. Herein, we selected Ceratophyllum demersum L. and Potamogeton crispus L. to construct a sediment–water-submerged plant system. We examined how phosphorus concentrations in the water, sediment, and plant ash changed over time with different phosphorus and calcium treatments and explored the effects of photosynthesis-induced calcium and phosphorus coprecipitation on water’s phosphorus cycle and variations between different submerged plant species. The main results were as follows: (1) The phosphorus reduction in the P. crispus system was less than that in the C. demersum system. (2) P. crispus had higher total ash phosphorus (TAP) values than C. demersum. (3) The sediment total phosphorus (STP) and its fractions with P. crispus were most affected by phosphorus concentration while those with C. demersum were most affected by time. Overall, the two submerged species exhibited different calcium and phosphorus coprecipitation levels and had distinct effects on the water-to-phosphorus cycle. When submerged plants are introduced to reduce and stabilize the phosphorus levels, plant interspecific differences in their induced calcium and phosphorus coprecipitation on water and phosphorus cycling must be fully assessed. Full article
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19 pages, 3067 KiB  
Article
Characterization and Risk Assessment of Nutrient and Heavy Metal Pollution in Surface Sediments of Representative Lakes in Yangxin County, China
by Xiaoqing Yang, Mingkai Leng, Xuguang Ge, Xiaodong Wu, Haoran Liu, Guiying Lin, Zhi Huang and Yuhan Chen
Sustainability 2024, 16(6), 2252; https://doi.org/10.3390/su16062252 - 7 Mar 2024
Viewed by 752
Abstract
Increased urbanization and industrialization globally have led to the widespread pollution of water bodies (e.g., lakes) by heavy metals (HMs) and nutrients. These pollutants accumulate in water and surface sediments, posing risks to both aquatic organisms and human health. In November 2022, surface [...] Read more.
Increased urbanization and industrialization globally have led to the widespread pollution of water bodies (e.g., lakes) by heavy metals (HMs) and nutrients. These pollutants accumulate in water and surface sediments, posing risks to both aquatic organisms and human health. In November 2022, surface sediment samples from three lakes—Lianhua Lake, Mati Lake, and North Lake—were collected to assess nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorous) and HM content. Total N (TN), total P (TP), and HM concentrations were analyzed. The pollution status was evaluated using comprehensive pollution index (FF) methods and the potential ecological risk index (RI) (Eri). The results were as follows: (1) Variations in nutrient and HM contents were observed among the three lakes. Lianhua Lake exhibited the highest average TN content (1600 mg/kg), while North Lake had the highest average TP content (2230 mg/kg). The average concentrations of Cd, Hg, and As in the surface sediment surpassed the soil background values of Hubei Province, reaching 1.41, 2.74, and 1.76 times the background values, respectively. Notably, Hg exceeded the standard in Lianhua Lake by 3.39 times, followed by North Lake (2.52 times) and Mati Lake (2.24 times). (2) The FF and potential Eri revealed that the average RI values for Mati Lake, North Lake, and Lianhua Lake were 106.88, 126.63, and 162.18, respectively. These indices categorized the ecological risk levels as moderate, while nutrient salts in the surface water reached a severe pollution level. (3) Correlation and PCA indicated that Cu, Pb, Cd, and Ni were linked to mineral smelting, aquaculture feed, and agricultural fertilizers. Hg and nutrient salts originated from atmospheric deposition of surrounding domestic waste water and traffic exhaust gases. Agricultural activities seemed to contribute to As concentration in the lakes, while Cr has its main origin in the weathering of the rock matrix. Full article
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16 pages, 5944 KiB  
Article
Distribution and Pollution Evaluation of Nutrients, Organic Matter and Heavy Metals in Surface Sediments of Wanghu Lake in the Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River, China
by Zhenni Gao, Xiaowen Lin, Xiaodong Wu, Xuguang Ge, Xinmeng Li, Zhi Huang, Jiali Zhu and Jianjun Hou
Sustainability 2024, 16(1), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/su16010086 - 21 Dec 2023
Viewed by 809
Abstract
Nutrients, organic matter (OM), and heavy metals (HMs) in lake sediments are critical elements contributing to water pollution. In April 2019, surface sediments from Wanghu Lake were collected, and the nutrient, organic matter, and heavy metal content of the sediments were determined. We [...] Read more.
Nutrients, organic matter (OM), and heavy metals (HMs) in lake sediments are critical elements contributing to water pollution. In April 2019, surface sediments from Wanghu Lake were collected, and the nutrient, organic matter, and heavy metal content of the sediments were determined. We mainly evaluated the sediment pollutants through four evaluation methods to assess pollution and provide a reference for pollution control in Wanghu Lake. The results indicated that the averages of total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) were (1045.74 ± 190.17) mg/kg, (945.27 ± 203.56) mg/kg; most of them showed serious pollution and moderate pollution, respectively. OM was (32.31 ± 5.11) g/kg. Among them, TP and OM in the northwestern Wanghu Lake were significantly higher than those in the eastern lake (p < 0.05). It shows that nutrients are greatly affected by historical aquaculture and urban human activities. TP was the most serious in the center of the lake, and the source of pollution was mainly the historical deposition. The average of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Hg, and As in the sediments were 2.15, 1.09, 1.93, 1.37, 1.28, 1.49, 2.60, 1.77 times that of the soil background values of Hubei Province, respectively. Hg and Cd were the main factors contributing to the surface sediments, with levels at considerable and moderate risks, respectively. Full article
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22 pages, 3385 KiB  
Article
Dissolved Inorganic Nutrient Biogeochemistry in an Urbanized Coastal Region: A Study of Dapeng Cove, Shenzhen
by Fei Tong, Pimao Chen and Xiumei Zhang
Sustainability 2023, 15(24), 16591; https://doi.org/10.3390/su152416591 - 6 Dec 2023
Viewed by 720
Abstract
Dissolved inorganic nutrients are pivotal in maintaining the material and energy balance of marine ecosystems, impacting the survival and dynamic succession of marine organisms. To gain a deeper understanding of the source and sink characteristics of dissolved inorganic nutrients in bays affected by [...] Read more.
Dissolved inorganic nutrients are pivotal in maintaining the material and energy balance of marine ecosystems, impacting the survival and dynamic succession of marine organisms. To gain a deeper understanding of the source and sink characteristics of dissolved inorganic nutrients in bays affected by human activities and to elucidate the processes involving filter-feeding shellfish in relation to these nutrients, this study investigated the source and sink dynamics of dissolved inorganic nutrients in the Dapeng Cove sea area of Shenzhen. Over the past decade, a significant change in the N/P ratio within the survey area has been observed, suggesting a shift in nutrient limitation from nitrogen to phosphorus or phosphorus–silicon limitation. This induced change in the N/P ratio, along with Si/N and Si/P ratios, may facilitate the growth of cyanobacteria and, subsequently, alter the proportions of diatoms, dinoflagellates, and cyanobacteria. Seasonal fluctuations in human disturbance intensity and precipitation determine the seasonal and spatial distribution of nutrients in the bay, thereby influencing the bay ecosystem metabolism. The Land–Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone (LOICZ) model analysis revealed that the bay represents a major source of inorganic nitrogen and a source of phosphate in spring, summer, and autumn, while acting as a sink for phosphate in winter. Furthermore, rivers and groundwater represent the primary sources of phosphate and inorganic nitrogen in the bay. The bay exhibits an annual net ecosystem metabolic rate of 7.06 mmol C/m2/d, with denitrification dominating the nitrogen cycle at 12.65 mmol C/m2/d. Overall, the Dapeng Cove ecosystem displays net production exceeding respiration, classifying it as an autotrophic system. Additionally, the nitrogen cycle in the sea area is predominantly driven by denitrification. The analysis also revealed that the impact of oyster proliferation on the physical and chemical factors in the surveyed area is relatively weaker than that of surface runoff and groundwater inputs. Full article
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