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Sustainable Aquatic Food Systems: Harmful Algal Bloom Consequences in a Changing Climate

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Sustainability and Applications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 May 2024) | Viewed by 1980

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
The Marine Science Institute, University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City 1101, Philippines
Interests: algal biology, ecology, and culture; harmful algal bloom dynamics and management; coastal sustainability and blue economy studies

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The increasing utilization of multiple coastal and marine areas has coincided with a pronounced impact of climate change. Where food sustainability from natural harvest and culture has been given priority, it has been found that harmful algal blooms (HABs) can negatively affect human health and/or the local/national economy and, to some extent, the aquatic ecosystem.

How do HAB events impact the sustainability of natural and culture food systems in coastal and marine areas, particularly in the midst of a climate change crisis? What type of transdisciplinary, interdisciplinary, and multidisciplinary research has been carried out, and management measures have been taken to address these food sustainability concerns and issues, notably those relating to HABs and climate change? What research could be carried out in the future, and what measures could be taken?

This Special Issue of Sustainability will consider contributions from HAB and climate change experts/scientists and managers to have an updated and focused discussion and sharing of knowledge and experience relating to aquatic food system sustainability.

Prof. Dr. Rhodora V. Azanza
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • aquatic food sustainability
  • harmful algal blooms
  • coastal and marine areas
  • climate change
  • natural harvest areas
  • aquaculture areas

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Review

17 pages, 933 KiB  
Review
Expansion of Toxic Algal Blooms in Coastal and Marine Areas in the Philippines and Malaysia: Is It Climate Change Related?
by Rhodora V. Azanza, Aletta T. Yñiguez, Deo Florence Onda, Garry A. Benico, Po Teen Lim, Chui Pin Leaw and Mitsunori Iwataki
Sustainability 2024, 16(8), 3304; https://doi.org/10.3390/su16083304 - 15 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1181
Abstract
This paper provides a review of toxic algal blooms in the Philippine and Malaysian coastal and marine systems, considering relevant available knowledge, including climate change dimension/s in the assessment of their recorded recent expansion. The first record of human toxicity in the Philippines [...] Read more.
This paper provides a review of toxic algal blooms in the Philippine and Malaysian coastal and marine systems, considering relevant available knowledge, including climate change dimension/s in the assessment of their recorded recent expansion. The first record of human toxicity in the Philippines associated with HABs/toxic algal blooms specifically was during the bloom of Pyrodinium bahamense in the Sorsogon, Samar, and Leyte waters in 1983. Since then, the species has been identified to occur and cause blooms in about 44 sites/areas in the country. Recent government reports, i.e., 2021, 2022, and 2023, have also identified other paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) causative organisms (Gymnodinium catenatum, Alexandrium spp.) in the country. New records indicate that the presence of PSP causative species has been reported almost year-round in the Philippines. In Malaysia, PSP caused by P. bahamense was initially confined in 1981 to the state of Sabah, Malaysia Borneo, but since then, blooms of this species have been reported almost annually at different scales across the coastal waters of Sabah. P. bahamense and other cyst-forming dinoflagellates could be transported naturally or through human activities. Other eco-physiological and environment factors from the field and the laboratory have been used to study the bloom dynamics and transport of PSP causative species in several areas in the Philippines and Malaysia. More recently, plastics and other marine litter have been considered potential vectors of invasion/transport or expansion of dinoflagellates with other microorganisms. ENSO events have been observed to be stronger since 1950 compared with those recorded from 1850 to 1950. The extreme phases of the ENSO phenomenon have a strong modulating effect based on seasonal rainfall in the Philippines, with extreme ENSO warm events (El Niño) often associated with drought and stresses on water resources and agriculture/aquaculture. In contrast, cold events (La Niña) often result in excessive rainfall. The La Nina Advisories from 2021 to 2023 (18 advisories) showed the persistence of this part of ENSO, particularly in regions with recurrent and new records of HABs/toxic algal blooms. More studies and monitoring of another type of toxic algal bloom, Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP), are recommended in tropical countries such as the Philippines and Malaysia, which have extensive reef areas that harvest and culture marine fish for local and export purposes, as accelerating reports of this type of poisoning have apparently increased and causative organisms have been identified in several areas. There is an urgent need to enhance HAB/toxic algal bloom research and monitoring, particularly those related to climate change, which has apparently impacted these blooms/occurrences directly or indirectly. Local researchers and managers should be made aware of the knowledge and tools already available for their utilization and enhancement to meet local conditions and challenges for potential recurrence and expansion of HABs/toxic algal blooms. Regional and international HAB research and collaboration should be further advanced for the protection of public health and marine resources. Full article
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