SARS-CoV-2 and Stresses

A special issue of Stresses (ISSN 2673-7140). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal and Human Stresses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2023) | Viewed by 10254

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Biology, Università di Pisa, Pisa, Italy
Interests: mycobacteria; pathogenomic evolution; host-related stress survival mechanisms; gene editing
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,  

Due to the rapid increase in infections and the potentially serious course of COVID-19, health systems and economies of countries around the world, as well as the scientific community, face a difficult challenge. A timely causal treatment option is urgently needed. However, such a treatment option requires prior study of the virus and the pathophysiological processes involved. Moreover, it is essential to discriminate factors associated with adverse outcomes, to facilitate risk stratification and, thus, timely escalation of therapy in affected patients. This Special Issue of Stresses will explore the molecular footprint of SARS-CoV-2 infection from the lens of cellular stresses. Cells can respond to stress in various ways ranging from the activation of survival pathways to the initiation of cell death that eventually eliminates damaged cells. Potential topics include different aspects of SARS-CoV-2–host interactions: i) the molecular mechanisms underlining the oxidative cellular and DNA damage induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection as well as the oxidative stress response in infected cells; ii) the impact of antioxidants in the prevention of COVID-19 disease and the use of antioxidants as therapy for COVID19; iii) the immune response or tissue damage after SARS-CoV-2 infection; iv) the potential cellular stress biomarkers associated to SARS-CoV-2 infection and replication. Cellular survival mechanisms against coronavirus infection such as interferon-stimulated genes and stress are another important area. Authors are invited and welcome to submit original research papers, reviews, and short communications.   

 

Dr. Pinar Uysal Onganer
Dr. Daria Bottai
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Stresses is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • SARS-CoV2
  • cell stress biomarkers
  • SARS-CoV2 immune response, antioxidants and SARS-CoV-2 

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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32 pages, 3644 KiB  
Article
Multiple-Molecule Drug Repositioning for Disrupting Progression of SARS-CoV-2 Infection by Utilizing the Systems Biology Method through Host-Pathogen-Interactive Time Profile Data and DNN-Based DTI Model with Drug Design Specifications
by Cheng-Gang Wang and Bor-Sen Chen
Stresses 2022, 2(4), 405-436; https://doi.org/10.3390/stresses2040029 - 3 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1551
Abstract
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has claimed many lives since it was first reported in late December 2019. However, there is still no drug proven to be effective against the virus. In this study, a candidate host–pathogen–interactive (HPI) genome-wide genetic and epigenetic [...] Read more.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has claimed many lives since it was first reported in late December 2019. However, there is still no drug proven to be effective against the virus. In this study, a candidate host–pathogen–interactive (HPI) genome-wide genetic and epigenetic network (HPI-GWGEN) was constructed via big data mining. The reverse engineering method was applied to investigate the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection by pruning the false positives in candidate HPI-GWGEN through the HPI RNA-seq time profile data. Subsequently, using the principal network projection (PNP) method and the annotations of the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway, we identified the significant biomarkers usable as drug targets for destroying favorable environments for the replication of SARS-CoV-2 or enhancing the defense of host cells against it. To discover multiple-molecule drugs that target the significant biomarkers (as drug targets), a deep neural network (DNN)-based drug–target interaction (DTI) model was trained by DTI databases to predict candidate molecular drugs for these drug targets. Using the DNN-based DTI model, we predicted the candidate drugs targeting the significant biomarkers (drug targets). After screening candidate drugs with drug design specifications, we finally proposed the combination of bosutinib, erlotinib, and 17-beta-estradiol as a multiple-molecule drug for the treatment of the amplification stage of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the combination of erlotinib, 17-beta-estradiol, and sertraline as a multiple-molecule drug for the treatment of saturation stage of mild-to-moderate SARS-CoV-2 infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 and Stresses)
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Review

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15 pages, 3860 KiB  
Review
Algae Polysaccharides (Carrageenan and Alginate)—A Treasure-Trove of Antiviral Compounds: An In Silico Approach to Identify Potential Candidates for Inhibition of S1-RBD Spike Protein of SARS-CoV2
by Dikshansha Rohilla, Akhileshwar Kumar Srivastava, Rahul Prasad Singh, Priya Yadav, Sandeep Kumar Singh, Dharmendra Kumar, Nikunj Bhardwaj, Mahipal Singh Kesawat, Kapil Deo Pandey and Ajay Kumar
Stresses 2023, 3(3), 555-569; https://doi.org/10.3390/stresses3030039 - 31 Jul 2023
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Abstract
For the last three years, the world has faced the unexpected spread of the pandemic of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The high mortality rate and ever-changing shape of the virus are the challenging factors in the effective management of SARS-CoV-2. [...] Read more.
For the last three years, the world has faced the unexpected spread of the pandemic of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The high mortality rate and ever-changing shape of the virus are the challenging factors in the effective management of SARS-CoV-2. However, in last three years, research communities have made significant progress in developing vaccines and controlling the spread of the pandemic to a certain extent. These vaccines contain the attenuated pathogens, which after application did not kill the virus but protected the human by enhancing the immune system response during pandemic exposure. However, the negative side effects and the high cost of the synthetic vaccines are always of concern for researchers, consumers, and the government. Therefore, as an alternative to synthetic drugs, natural medicines or natural plant products have piqued researchers’ interest. Algae are considered as a treasure house of bioactive compounds such as carotenoids, vitamins, polysaccharides, proteins, etc. These bioactive compounds have been well documented for the treatments of various human ailments such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Furthermore, sulfated polysaccharides such as alginate and carrageenan have been reported as having antiviral and immunomodulating properties. Therefore, this review addresses algal polysaccharides, especially alginate and carrageenan, and their application in the treatment of COVID-19. In addition, in silico approaches are discussed for the inhibition of the S1-RBD (receptor-binding domain) of SARS-CoV-2, which attaches to the host receptor ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2), and the interaction with the network of relative proteins is also explored, which will help in drug discovery and drug design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 and Stresses)
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14 pages, 1646 KiB  
Review
Modification of Sympathetic and Hypothalamic Responses to Prevent Complications of COVID-19: “Dam and Wall Concept”
by Sanjiv K. Hyoju
Stresses 2023, 3(1), 153-166; https://doi.org/10.3390/stresses3010012 - 9 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1904
Abstract
We are in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic. Since December 2019, severe acute respiratory coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has infected more than half a billion people, killing nearly 7 million people worldwide. Now various variants of SARS-CoV-2 are causing mayhem and driving the global [...] Read more.
We are in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic. Since December 2019, severe acute respiratory coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has infected more than half a billion people, killing nearly 7 million people worldwide. Now various variants of SARS-CoV-2 are causing mayhem and driving the global surge. Epidemiologists are aware of the fact that this virus is capable of escaping immunity and likely to infect the same person multiple times despite adequate vaccination status. Elderly people and those with underlying health conditions who are considered high-risk are likely to suffer complications. While it is tempting to frame complications and mortality from COVID-19 as a simple matter of too much of a virulent virus in too weak of a host, much more is at play here. Framing the pathophysiology of COVID-19 in the context of the Chrousos and Gold model of the stress response system can shed insight into its complex pathogenesis. Understanding the mechanisms of pharmacologic modification of the sympathetic and hypothalamic response system via administration of clonidine and/or dexamethasone may offer an explanation as to why a viral pathogen can be well tolerated and cleared by one host while inflaming and killing another. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 and Stresses)
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Other

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11 pages, 1800 KiB  
Case Report
Treating Preeclampsia in the COVID-19 Era: Is Allopurinol Useful as an Adjuvant Therapy? A Case Report and Review of the Literature
by Melinda-Ildiko Mitranovici, Diana Maria Chiorean, Maria Cezara Mureșan, Corneliu-Florin Buicu, Raluca Moraru, Liviu Moraru, Titiana Cornelia Cotoi, Ovidiu Simion Cotoi, Havva Serap Toru, Adrian Apostol, Sabin Gligore Turdean, Ion Petre, Claudiu Mărginean, Ioan Emilian Oală, Viviana Ivan and Lucian Pușcașiu
Stresses 2023, 3(1), 125-135; https://doi.org/10.3390/stresses3010010 - 6 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1581
Abstract
Acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2, or SARS-CoV-2, mainly affects the vulnerable population, especially those with comorbidities, such as pregnant women. SARS-CoV-2 has been found to cause multiple manifestations, one of which is preeclampsia. In preeclampsia, uric acid is excessively produced in the ischemic [...] Read more.
Acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2, or SARS-CoV-2, mainly affects the vulnerable population, especially those with comorbidities, such as pregnant women. SARS-CoV-2 has been found to cause multiple manifestations, one of which is preeclampsia. In preeclampsia, uric acid is excessively produced in the ischemic placenta and is released into circulation by placental reperfusion. Another effect of uric acid is oxidative stress with the production of oxygen free radicals associated with severe preeclampsia and fetal hypoxia. In our case report, we present the situation of a 38-year-old pregnant woman who developed preeclampsia after infection with SARS-CoV-2 with rapid evolution and an increased level of uric acid. We discuss the option of Allopurinol treatment in the third trimester of pregnancy instead of premature birth, with excellent benefits for both the mother and newborn. Additional clinical correlations between antioxidant treatment with Allopurinol and placental findings are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 and Stresses)
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8 pages, 349 KiB  
Brief Report
COVID-19 Mortality in Patients with a Ward-Based Ceiling of Care
by Matthew Ingram, Ellen Tullo, Laura Mackay, Avinash Aujayeb and Northumbria COVID-19 Audit Collaborative
Stresses 2021, 1(4), 277-284; https://doi.org/10.3390/stresses1040020 - 17 Nov 2021
Viewed by 2301
Abstract
Objectives: COVID-19 patients thought unlikely to benefit from organ support, thereby having a ward-based ceiling of care (WBCoC), represent a distinct subgroup. There are no associated studies in mortality. We sought to identify clinical risk factors for inpatient COVID-19 mortality. Design and setting: [...] Read more.
Objectives: COVID-19 patients thought unlikely to benefit from organ support, thereby having a ward-based ceiling of care (WBCoC), represent a distinct subgroup. There are no associated studies in mortality. We sought to identify clinical risk factors for inpatient COVID-19 mortality. Design and setting: this was a retrospective observational study of patients admitted to Northumbria Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust. Clinical variables were associated with inpatient mortality via logistic regression. Participants: all patients admitted with COVID-19 infection and who had a WBCoC at point of admission were included (n = 114). Main outcome measures: the outcome measure was inpatient death. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 and Stresses)
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