Effects of Exercise Training on Blood Pressure and Blood Pressure Variability

A special issue of Sports (ISSN 2075-4663).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 August 2024 | Viewed by 5518

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
1. Department of Human Science and Promotion of Quality of Life, San Raffaele Open University, 00163 Rome, Italy
2. Cardiovascular Unit, San Raffaele IRCCS, 00163 Rome, Italy
Interests: hypertension; chronic heart failure; atrial fibrillation; exercise training; sport medicine
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Exercise training is a well-established non-pharmacological treatment for reducing blood pressure. However, there is still a need for further research in order to establish the right "dose" of exercise for reducing blood pressure (training intensity and volume); moreover, more data are required for assessing the comparative impact on blood pressure of different exercise modalities. In the last several decades, high blood pressure variability has been related to an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Until now, very few studies evaluating the effects of exercise training on blood pressure variability have been published, and there is no general agreement on the best exercise training program for subjects with high blood pressure variability.

Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Neuro-hormonal and metabolic changes associated with post-exercise hypotension;
  • Effects of exercise training on the blood pressure of hypertensive athletes;
  • Hemodynamic changes occurring during post-exercise hypotension;
  • Impact on blood pressure of water-based versus land-based exercise;
  • Effects of different volumes of resistance training on blood pressure variability;
  • Gender-related differences on the effects of exercise training on blood pressure variability;
  • Impact of different exercise protocols on resistance hypertension.

Dr. Giuseppe Caminiti
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • exercise training
  • hypertension
  • blood pressure variability
  • post-exercise hypotension
  • circadian rhythm of blood pressure
  • 24 h blood pressure monitoring
  • resistance exercise
  • high-intensity interval exercise

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 799 KiB  
Article
Effect of Mat Pilates Training on Blood Pressure, Inflammatory, and Oxidative Profiles in Hypertensive Elderly
by Chutima Woramontri, Rungchai Chaunchaiyakul, Ai-Lun Yang, Yi-Yuan Lin and Kunanya Masodsai
Sports 2024, 12(5), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports12050120 - 28 Apr 2024
Viewed by 931
Abstract
To determine the effects of mat Pilates training on blood pressure, inflammatory, and antioxidative markers in hypertensive elderly people, 34 hypertensive subjects aged 60–75 years were randomly divided into a control group (CON; n = 17) and a mat Pilates training group (MP; [...] Read more.
To determine the effects of mat Pilates training on blood pressure, inflammatory, and antioxidative markers in hypertensive elderly people, 34 hypertensive subjects aged 60–75 years were randomly divided into a control group (CON; n = 17) and a mat Pilates training group (MP; n = 17). The CON participants conducted normal daily activities and participated in neither organized exercises nor sports training, while those in the MP group received mat Pilates training for 60 min three times/week for 12 weeks. Parameters including blood pressure, cardiovascular function, nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrotic factor-alpha (TNF-α), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malonaldehyde (MDA) were collected at baseline and the end of 12 weeks. The MP group had significantly decreased blood pressure, improved cardiovascular variables, decreased MDA and TNF-α, and increased NO and SOD compared with the CON group and the pre-training period (p < 0.05). In conclusion, these findings demonstrate the positive effects of 12 weeks of mat Pilates training in terms of reducing blood pressure and increasing blood flow related to improvements in anti-inflammatory and antioxidative markers in hypertensive elderly people. Mat Pilates training might be integrated as an alternative therapeutic exercise modality in clinical practice for hypertensive elderly individuals. Full article
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10 pages, 2019 KiB  
Article
Low Energy Availability (LEA) and Hypertension in Black Division I Collegiate Athletes: A Novel Pilot Study
by Troy Purdom, Marc Cook, Heather Colleran, Paul Stewart and Lauren San Diego
Sports 2023, 11(4), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports11040081 - 7 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2007
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between low energy availability (LEA) and nutritional content with high blood pressure (HBP) in African American Division I athletes. Twenty-three D1 African American pre-season athletes were recruited to participate. HBP was defined as [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between low energy availability (LEA) and nutritional content with high blood pressure (HBP) in African American Division I athletes. Twenty-three D1 African American pre-season athletes were recruited to participate. HBP was defined as >120 systolic blood pressure (BP) and <80 diastolic BP. Athletes self-reported nutritional intake using a non-consecutive 3-day food recall which was then reviewed by a sports dietitian. LEA was evaluated as total energy intake—total daily energy expenditure (TDEE), which was predicted. Additionally, micronutrients were evaluated. A statistical analysis relied on Spearman correlation (R), standardized mean difference with 95% confidence interval, mean ± SD, and odds ratios (OR). Correlation values were categorized: 0.20–0.39 = low; 0.40–0.69 = moderate; 0.70–1.0 = strong. A moderate relationship was observed between HBP and LEA (R = 0.56) with 14/23 having HBP. Of the 14 athletes observed with HBP, 78.5% (11/14) were calorically deficient (−529 ± 695 kcal) with an OR of 7.2. Micronutrient intake deficiencies were ubiquitous among the 23 HBP athletes: poly-unsaturated fatty acid −29.6%; omega-3 −26.0%; iron −46.0%; calcium −25.1%; and sodium −14.2%, amongst others. LEA and micronutrient deficiencies may contribute to HBP in Black D1 athletes, which has been shown to be the most common modifiable risk factor to decrease the risk of sudden cardiac death. Full article
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12 pages, 625 KiB  
Article
Rate of Responders for Post-Exercise Hypotension after Beach Tennis, Aerobic, Resistance and Combined Exercise Sessions in Adults with Hypertension
by Leandro de Oliveira Carpes, Lucas Betti Domingues, Sandra Costa Fuchs and Rodrigo Ferrari
Sports 2023, 11(3), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports11030058 - 6 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1935
Abstract
Post-exercise hypotension (PEH) is typically reported as mean values, but a great inter-individual variation in blood pressure (BP) response after a single exercise session is expected, especially when comparing different modalities of exercise. The purpose was to evaluate the inter-individual BP responses after [...] Read more.
Post-exercise hypotension (PEH) is typically reported as mean values, but a great inter-individual variation in blood pressure (BP) response after a single exercise session is expected, especially when comparing different modalities of exercise. The purpose was to evaluate the inter-individual BP responses after beach tennis, aerobic, resistance and combined exercise sessions in adults with hypertension. We conducted a post hoc analysis of pooled crossover randomized clinical trials from six previously published studies of our research group, and analyzed data from 154 participants with hypertension (≥35 years). BP was assessed using office BP, and the mean changes throughout the 60 min after recreational beach tennis (BT, n = 23), aerobic (AE, n = 18), combined (COMB, n = 18), and resistance (RES, n = 95) exercise sessions were compared to a non-exercising control session (C). To categorize the participants as responders and non-responders for PEH, the typical error (TE) was calculated as follows: TE = SDdifference/√2, where SDdifference is the standard deviation of the differences in BP measured before the interventions in the exercise and control sessions. Participants who presented PEH greater than TE were classified as responders. The TE was 7 and 6 mmHg for baseline systolic and diastolic BP, respectively. The rate of responders for systolic BP was as follows: BT: 87%; AE: 61%; COMB: 56%; and RES: 43%. For diastolic BP, the rate of responders was as follows: BT: 61%; AE: 28%; COMB: 44%; and RES: 40%. Results evidenced that there was a high inter-individual variation of BP after a single bout of different physical activity modalities in adults with hypertension, suggesting that exercise protocols with aerobic characteristics (i.e., BT, AE, and COMB sessions) presented PEH in most of its practitioners. Full article
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