Sport Physiology and Physical Performance

A special issue of Sports (ISSN 2075-4663).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 May 2024) | Viewed by 18583

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail
Guest Editor
Institute of Coaching and Performance, Football Performance Hub, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK
Interests: training load; injury risk; conditioning; performance; performance monitoring; training load monitoring and performance analysis football; soccer; strength and conditioning
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail
Guest Editor
Institute of Coaching and Performance, Football Performance Hub, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK
Interests: injury risk; conditioning; performance; leadership; performance monitoring; football
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

One of the most often mentioned research areas in recent decades in the scientific community has been sport physiology and physical performance. Indeed, research into how the body functions during physical activity, exercise and sports still sparks much curiosity, innovation and doubt. This knowledge area is applicable to biochemistry, biomechanics, physiology and biology, all of which have been confronting the growing influence of big data, computational, and automated modelling, in order to give practical significance to the data that influence sport and health. Sport Physiology and Physical Performance is intended to extend to the fields of sports science and health science, including health and well-being, sports medicine and rehabilitation, training load monitoring, performance analysis, and strength and conditioning.

Furthermore, in several elite sports, load quantification (e.g. external load by micro electromechanical devices and internal load by physiological measures, such as perceived exertion and heart rate), wellness monitoring (e.g., muscle soreness, stress, fatigue, mood and sleep quality) and physical/physiological testing (agility, sprint, balance, VO2max, strength, body composition, etc.) have been assessed over the years. Such research and practical applications aid coaches and their staff in their attempts to avoid high injury rates and the risk of illness, improve levels of recovery, and, consequently, provide an appropriate training load. This Special Issue also intends to develop such studies in order to collect relevant information for coaches in order to provide advanced approaches to load management, exercise testing and, consequently, the prevention of injury risk and performance.

Therefore, the present special issue will accept original research and systematic reviews from all sports.

You may choose our Joint Special Issue in Life.

Dr. Ryland Morgans
Dr. Dave Rhodes
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sports is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • exercise physiology
  • sports medicine
  • rehabilitation
  • performance analysis
  • fitness
  • injury
  • match
  • sports training
  • sports performance
  • training load
  • wellness
  • well-being
  • physical demands
  • testing

Published Papers (10 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Other

10 pages, 807 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Static Apnea Diving Training on the Physiological Parameters of People with a Sports Orientation and Sedentary Participants: A Pilot Study
by Dmitriy Bezruk, Petr Bahenský, David Marko, Miroslav Krajcigr, Petr Bahenský, Jr., Eva Novák-Nowická and Tomáš Mrkvička
Sports 2024, 12(6), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports12060140 - 22 May 2024
Viewed by 268
Abstract
Diver training improves physical and mental fitness, which can also benefit other sports. This study investigates the effect of eight weeks of static apnea training on maximum apnea time, and on the physiological parameters of runners, swimmers, and sedentary participants, such as forced [...] Read more.
Diver training improves physical and mental fitness, which can also benefit other sports. This study investigates the effect of eight weeks of static apnea training on maximum apnea time, and on the physiological parameters of runners, swimmers, and sedentary participants, such as forced vital capacity (FVC), minimum heart rate (HR), and oxygen saturation (SpO2). The study followed 19 participants, including five runners, swimmers, sedentary participants, and four competitive divers for reference values. The minimum value of SpO2, HR, maximum duration of apnea, and FVC were measured. Apnea training occurred four times weekly, consisting of six apneas with 60 s breathing pauses. Apnea duration was gradually increased by 30 s. The measurement started with a 30 s apnea and ended with maximal apnea. There was a change in SpO2 decreased by 6.8%, maximum apnea length increased by 15.8%, HR decreased by 9.1%, and FVC increased by 12.4% for the groups (p < 0.05). There were intra-groups changes, but no significant inter-groups difference was observed. Eight weeks of apnea training improved the maximum duration of apnea, FVC values and reduced the minimum values of SpO2 and HR in all groups. No differences were noted between groups after training. This training may benefit cardiorespiratory parameters in the population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport Physiology and Physical Performance)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 254 KiB  
Article
Lower-Body Power, Body Composition, Speed, and Agility Performance among Youth Soccer Players
by Cíntia França, Élvio Rúbio Gouveia, Francisco Martins, Andreas Ihle, Ricardo Henriques, Adilson Marques, Hugo Sarmento, Krzysztof Przednowek and Helder Lopes
Sports 2024, 12(5), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports12050135 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 377
Abstract
Speed and agility have been described as crucial abilities for soccer players. The purpose of this study was to analyze, in detail, the variance in speed and agility tasks explained by lower-body power after controlling for age and body composition. The participants were [...] Read more.
Speed and agility have been described as crucial abilities for soccer players. The purpose of this study was to analyze, in detail, the variance in speed and agility tasks explained by lower-body power after controlling for age and body composition. The participants were 96 male soccer players aged 16.1 ± 1.6 years. Body composition (stature, body fat percentage—BF%, body mass, and fat-free mass—FFM), lower-body power (countermovement jump—CMJ, and squat jump—SJ), speed (5-, 10-, and 35 m sprints), and agility (t-test) were assessed. Among body composition parameters, BF% presented the highest number of significant relationships with speed and agility, with the strength of correlations ranging from small (5 m sprint, r = 0.25) to large (35 m sprint, r = 0.52). The strongest correlation coefficient emerged between FFM and the 35 m sprint (r = −0.65). Significant correlations were found between vertical jump performance and the 35 m sprint (CMJ: r = −0.68; SJ: r = −0.69), followed by the t-test (CMJ: r = −0.35; SJ: r = −0.47). The hierarchical multiple regression model could explain 22% to 67% of the variance observed in agility scores and speed. BF% remained the most statistically significant negative predictor of all regression models. The CMJ remained a statistically significant positive predictor of the 35 m sprint (β = −0.581, p ≤ 0.01) after controlling for age and body composition. Integrating programs targeting lower-body power might be important to enhance speed and agility performance in youth soccer. On the other hand, future research based on multidisciplinary approaches to investigate the effects of nutritional strategies in reducing or preventing gains in BF% is still needed, which remained a significant predictor of sprint and agility performance in the final models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport Physiology and Physical Performance)
15 pages, 2423 KiB  
Article
Training Characteristics, Performance, and Body Composition of Three U23 Elite Female Triathletes throughout a Season
by Sergio Sellés-Pérez, Hector Arévalo-Chico, José Fernández-Sáez and Roberto Cejuela
Sports 2024, 12(2), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports12020053 - 7 Feb 2024
Viewed by 3432
Abstract
(1) Background: There is a lack of data on the long-term training characteristics and performance markers of elite young female endurance athletes. The aim of this study was to present the training load (ECOs), as well as the evolution of the anthropometric values [...] Read more.
(1) Background: There is a lack of data on the long-term training characteristics and performance markers of elite young female endurance athletes. The aim of this study was to present the training load (ECOs), as well as the evolution of the anthropometric values and performance of three elite U23 female triathletes over a season. (2) Methods: General training data and performance data relating to the swimming, cycling, and running legs of the 2021 season were described. The training intensity distribution (TID) was presented using the triphasic model, while the training load was based on the ECO model. An anthropometric analysis was also conducted in accordance with the ISAK standards. (3) Results: Triathletes increased their VO2max in cycling (6.9–10%) and running (7.1–9.1%), as well as their power and speed associated with the VO2max (7.7–8.6% in cycling and 5.1–5.3% in running) and their swimming speed associated with the lactate thresholds (2.6–4.0% in LT2 and 1.2–2.5% in LT1). The triathletes completed more than 10 h of weekly average training time, with peak weeks exceeding 15 h. The average TID of the three triathletes was 82% in phase 1, 6% in phase 2, and 12% in phase 3. A decrease in the sum of skinfolds and fat mass percentage was observed during the season in the three triathletes, although the last measurement revealed a stagnation or slight rise in these parameters. (4) Conclusions: The triathletes performed a combination of two training periodization models (traditional and block periodization) with a polarized TID in most of the weeks of the season. Improvements in performance and physiological parameters were observed after the general preparatory period as well as a positive body composition evolution throughout the season, except at the end, where the last measurement revealed stagnation or a slight decline. This study can be useful as a general guide for endurance coaches to organize a training season with female U23 triathletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport Physiology and Physical Performance)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 633 KiB  
Article
Intensity Distribution of Collegiate Cross-Country Competitions
by Noah Perez, Payton Miller and John W. Farrell III
Sports 2024, 12(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports12010018 - 5 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1455
Abstract
The primary purpose of the current investigation was to perform an intensity distribution analysis of a collegiate cross-country (CC) competition, with a secondary purpose to compare race times (RT) with modeled performance times (MPT). Participants completed an incremental treadmill test to determine gas [...] Read more.
The primary purpose of the current investigation was to perform an intensity distribution analysis of a collegiate cross-country (CC) competition, with a secondary purpose to compare race times (RT) with modeled performance times (MPT). Participants completed an incremental treadmill test to determine gas exchange threshold (GET), while the three-minute all-out test was conducted on a 400 m outdoor track to determine critical velocity (CV) and D prime (D′). GET and CV were used as physiological markers for the intensity zones based on heart rate (HR) and running velocity (RV), while CV and D′ were used to determine modeled performance times. Participants wore a Global Positioning System (GPS) watch and heart rate (HR) monitor during competition races. Statistically, less time was spent in HR Zone 1 (12.1% ± 13.7%) compared to Zones 2 (37.6% ± 30.2%) and 3 (50.3% ± 33.7%), while a statically greater amount of time was spent in RV Zone 2 (75.0% ± 20.7%) compared to Zones 1 (8.4% ± 14.0%) and 3 (16.7% ± 19.1%). RTs (1499.5 ± 248.5 seconds (s)) were statistically slower compared to MPTs (1359.6 ± 192.7 s). The observed differences in time spent in each zone are speculated to be related to the influence of environmental conditions on internal metrics and difference in the kinetics of HR and running velocity. Differences in RTs and MPTs are likely due to the MPT equation modeling all-out performance and not considering race strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport Physiology and Physical Performance)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1811 KiB  
Article
Training, Pharmacological Ergogenic Aids, Dehydration, and Nutrition Strategies during a Peak Week in Competitive Brazilian Bodybuilders: An Observational Cross-Sectional Study in a Non-World Anti-Doping Agency Competitive Environment
by Fernando Noronha de Almeida, Dahan da Cunha Nascimento, Ronaldo Ferreira Moura, Douglas Leão Peixoto, Wilson Max Almeida Monteiro de Moraes, Brad J. Schoenfeld, Ivo Vieira de Sousa Neto and Jonato Prestes
Sports 2024, 12(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports12010011 - 29 Dec 2023
Viewed by 3326
Abstract
Background: this observational and cross-sectional study aimed to describe training, pharmacological ergogenic aids, dehydration, and nutrition strategies during a peak week in competitive bodybuilders and monitor changes that occurred across this period. Methods: Ten amateur bodybuilders were followed during a peak week phase [...] Read more.
Background: this observational and cross-sectional study aimed to describe training, pharmacological ergogenic aids, dehydration, and nutrition strategies during a peak week in competitive bodybuilders and monitor changes that occurred across this period. Methods: Ten amateur bodybuilders were followed during a peak week phase and one day post-contest. Training, diet, dehydration protocol, anabolic steroid use, and nonsteroidal agents were recorded, prescribed, and supervised by the same coach in charge. Body composition, resting metabolic rate, and circumferences were assessed by the research team. Results: Overall, during the peak week phase, the use of anabolic steroids, diuretics, and other pharmacological aids was high among athletes, and the dose and frequency were similar between competitors. Despite the use of supraphysiological doses of drugs, bodybuilders displayed a statistical reduction of lean mass markers, resting metabolic rate, and fat mass markers, possibly influenced by the performance of high volumes of aerobic exercise combined with dietary energy restriction. Conclusions: The main findings of this study display that the coach in charge of Brazilian bodybuilders applied the same anabolic steroid, diuretic, and other pharmacological protocols for all competitors. Moreover, the protocols employed by bodybuilders did not fully attenuate the loss of lean mass during the peak week period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport Physiology and Physical Performance)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 890 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Intercostal Muscle Near-Infrared Spectroscopy for Estimating Respiratory Compensation Point in Trained Endurance Athletes
by Salvador Romero-Arenas, Carmen Daniela Quero-Calero, Oriol Abellan-Aynes, Luis Andreu-Caravaca, Marta Fernandez-Calero, Pedro Manonelles and Daniel Lopez-Plaza
Sports 2023, 11(11), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports11110212 - 1 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1624
Abstract
This study aimed to assess the reliability and validity of estimating the respiratory compensation point (RCP) in trained endurance athletes by analyzing intercostal muscles’ NIRS-derived tissue oxygenation dynamics. Seventeen experienced trail runners underwent an incremental treadmill protocol on two separate occasions, with a [...] Read more.
This study aimed to assess the reliability and validity of estimating the respiratory compensation point (RCP) in trained endurance athletes by analyzing intercostal muscles’ NIRS-derived tissue oxygenation dynamics. Seventeen experienced trail runners underwent an incremental treadmill protocol on two separate occasions, with a 7-day gap between assessments. Gas exchange and muscle oxygenation data were collected, and the oxygen saturation breakpoint (SmO2BP) measured in the intercostal muscles was compared to the RCP, which was identified by the increase in the VE/V.CO2 slope and the point at which the PetCO2 started to decrease. No statistically significant differences were observed between the two methods for any of the variables analyzed. Bland–Altman analysis showed significant agreement between the NIRS and gas analyzer methods for speed (r = 0.96, p < 0.05), HR (r = 0.98, p < 0.05), V.O2 relative to body mass (r = 0.99, p < 0.05), and %SmO2 (r = 0.98, p < 0.05). The interclass correlation coefficient values showed moderate to good reliability (0.60 to 0.86), and test–retest analysis revealed mean differences within the confidence intervals for all variables. These findings suggest that the SmO2BP measured using a portable NIRS device in the intercostal muscles is a reliable and valid tool for estimating the RCP for experienced trail runners and might be useful for coaches and athletes to monitor endurance training. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport Physiology and Physical Performance)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1246 KiB  
Article
Beneficial Effects of Asparagus officinalis Extract Supplementation on Muscle Mass and Strength following Resistance Training and Detraining in Healthy Males
by Barakat Denben, Siriporn Sripinyowanich, Ratree Ruangthai and Jatuporn Phoemsapthawee
Sports 2023, 11(9), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports11090175 - 5 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1536
Abstract
The phytoecdysteroid 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) is widely used for resistance training (RT). Little is known about its potential ergogenic value and detraining effects post-RT. This study aimed to examine the effects of 20E extracted from Asparagus officinalis (A. officinalis) on muscle strength [...] Read more.
The phytoecdysteroid 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) is widely used for resistance training (RT). Little is known about its potential ergogenic value and detraining effects post-RT. This study aimed to examine the effects of 20E extracted from Asparagus officinalis (A. officinalis) on muscle strength and mass, as well as anabolic and catabolic hormones following RT and detraining. Twenty males, aged 20.1 ± 1.1 years, were matched and randomly assigned to consume double-blind supplements containing either a placebo (PLA) or 30 mg/day of 20E for 12 weeks of RT and detraining. Before and after RT and detraining, muscle strength and mass and anabolic and catabolic hormones were measured. This study found that 20E reduced cortisol levels significantly (p < 0.05) compared to the PLA, yet no effect was observed on muscle mass, strength, or anabolic hormones after RT. Subsequent to 6 weeks of detraining, the 20E demonstrated a lower percentage change in 1RM bench press/FFM than the PLA (p < 0.05). Compared to the PLA, detraining throughout the 12 weeks resulted in a lower percentage change in thigh (p < 0.05) and chest (p < 0.01) circumferences, as well as reduced cortisol levels (p < 0.01), with 20E. Our findings demonstrate that 20E supplementation is a promising way to maintain muscle mass and strength during detraining. Accordingly, 20E may prevent muscle mass and strength loss due to detraining by lowering catabolic hormone levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport Physiology and Physical Performance)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1416 KiB  
Article
Acute Effect of Four Stretching Protocols on Change of Direction in U-17 Male Soccer Players
by Mohamed Amine Ltifi, Mohamed Chedly Jlid, Jérémy Coquart, Nicola Maffulli, Roland van den Tillaar and Ridha Aouadi
Sports 2023, 11(9), 165; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports11090165 - 1 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1949
Abstract
Background: The ability to rapidly change direction while sprinting is a desirable athletic skill in soccer. Enhancing change of direction (COD) performance depends almost exclusively on specific training, with stretching traditionally considered one such intervention. However, the comparative impact of diverse stretching methods [...] Read more.
Background: The ability to rapidly change direction while sprinting is a desirable athletic skill in soccer. Enhancing change of direction (COD) performance depends almost exclusively on specific training, with stretching traditionally considered one such intervention. However, the comparative impact of diverse stretching methods on COD in soccer players remains an area of interest. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the effects of different stretching methods on COD ability in soccer players. Methods: Twelve male soccer players playing in the national championship football division II (age: 16.3 ± 0.3 years, height: 1.81 ± 0.10 m, body mass: 67.7 ± 7.2 kg) were tested for COD performance (i.e., Illinois agility test) after (1) control condition (20 min general warm-up without stretching), (2) static stretching, (3) dynamic stretching, (4) combined static-dynamic stretching, and (5) combined dynamic-static stretching. The duration of stretching intervention was approximately 6 min for static and dynamic stretching and 12 min for both the combined stretching conditions. The experimental sessions were separated by 72 h. Results: COD improved after dynamic stretching when compared to any other condition (p: 0.03–0.002; ηp2: 0.56–0.73), except for the control condition (p = 0.146; ηp2 = 0.18). In contrast, static stretching induced a detrimental effect on COD when compared only to the dynamic stretching condition (p < 0.01; ES = 1.35). Conclusion: Dynamic stretching exercises used by male soccer players in the warm-up improved COD. Other forms of stretching exercises, particularly static stretching, negatively impacted the COD performance. Therefore, coaches can consider integrating dynamic stretching protocols tailored to the athletes’ specific needs. Moreover, extending the investigation to encompass a wider range of athletes, including different age groups and genders, would enhance the applicability and generalization of the findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport Physiology and Physical Performance)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 972 KiB  
Article
In-Season Longitudinal Hydration/Body Cell Mass Ratio Changes in Elite Rugby Players
by Álex Cebrián-Ponce, Cristian Petri, Pascal Izzicupo, Matteo Levi Micheli, Cristina Cortis, Andrea Fusco, Marta Carrasco-Marginet and Gabriele Mascherini
Sports 2023, 11(8), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports11080142 - 28 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1196
Abstract
Background: Hydration status has a direct role in sports performance. Bioelectrical Impedance Vector Analysis (BIVA) and Urine Specific Gravity (USG) are commonly used to assess hydration. The study aims to identify the sensitivity and relationship between BIVA and USG in a field sports [...] Read more.
Background: Hydration status has a direct role in sports performance. Bioelectrical Impedance Vector Analysis (BIVA) and Urine Specific Gravity (USG) are commonly used to assess hydration. The study aims to identify the sensitivity and relationship between BIVA and USG in a field sports setting. Methods: BIVA and USG measurements were conducted five times throughout one rugby season. 34 elite male rugby players (25.1 ± 4.4 years; 184.0 ± 7.8 cm; 99.9 ± 13.4 kg) were enrolled. Differences over time were tested using one-way repeated measures ANOVA, and Bonferroni’s post-hoc test was applied in pairwise comparisons. Resistance-reactance graphs and Hotelling’s T2 test were used to characterize the sample and to identify bioelectrical changes. A repeated measures correlation test was conducted for BIVA-USG associations. Results: Two clear trends were seen: (1) from July to September, there was a vector shortening and an increase of the phase angle (p < 0.001); and (2) from December to April, there was a vector lengthening and a decrease of the phase angle (p < 0.001). USG reported neither changes nor correlation with BIVA longitudinally (p > 0.05). Vector variations indicated a body fluid gain (especially in the intracellular compartment) and a body cell mass increase during the preseason, suggesting a physical condition and performance improvement. During the last months of the season, the kinetic was the opposite (fluid loss and decreased body cell mass). Conclusions: Results suggested that BIVA is sensitive to physiological changes and a better option than USG for assessing hydration changes during a rugby sports season. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport Physiology and Physical Performance)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Other

Jump to: Research

11 pages, 901 KiB  
Systematic Review
The Effect of Vitamin D Consumption on Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines in Athletes: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials
by Saber Saedmocheshi, Ehsan Amiri, Aref Mehdipour and Giuseppe Potrick Stefani
Sports 2024, 12(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports12010032 - 13 Jan 2024
Viewed by 2147
Abstract
Vitamin D is essential for the optimal health of the skeletal system. However, this vitamin also plays a role in other functions of the human body, such as muscle, immune, and inflammatory functions. Some studies have reported that adequate levels of vitamin D [...] Read more.
Vitamin D is essential for the optimal health of the skeletal system. However, this vitamin also plays a role in other functions of the human body, such as muscle, immune, and inflammatory functions. Some studies have reported that adequate levels of vitamin D improve immune system function by reducing the levels of certain pro-inflammatory cytokines, which can protect against the risk of post-exercise illness. This systematic review aims to investigate the effects of vitamin D supplementation on pro-inflammatory cytokines in athletes. This study was conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A literature search was conducted in SPORTDiscus, PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar up to 1 October 2023. The quality of the articles was evaluated using the Risk of Bias 2 Tool. After searching the databases, a total of 7417 studies were identified, 6 of which met the eligibility criteria, and their outcomes were presented. The six studies included 176 participants. All six studies are randomized control trials, including a total of 176 subjects, primarily men (81%). Regarding the types of athletes, most participants were endurance athletes. Our investigation in this systematic review demonstrated that out of the six studies, only two of them reported significant changes in IL-6 and TNF-α levels after taking high-dose vitamin D. Other studies did not present any significant changes after vitamin D supplementation in athletes with respect to IL-6 and TNF-α levels. Further studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation for athletes as a disease-prone community. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport Physiology and Physical Performance)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop