Family, Bullying and Cyberbullying

A special issue of Social Sciences (ISSN 2076-0760).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2018) | Viewed by 101316

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Department of Psychology, Faculty of Education and Humanities, University of Castilla-La Mancha, 16071 Cuenca, Spain
Interests: interpersonal violence; bullying; cyberbullying; gender-based violence; LGTBI+ studies
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Despite the significant decrease in bullying that has been reported in many countries during the last two decades, bullying continues to be a significant problem among young people. Given the increase of Internet use among youth, researchers started to pay attention to cyberspace, understanding that it may be a fertile ground for bullying behaviors, specifically what is known as cyberbullying. The connection between these two types of bullying is not surprising if we bear in mind that cyberspace may function as an extension of the school context, and it is also consistent with the idea that, although online interaction differs to face-to-face interaction, they both shape an overlapping social space to communicate with friends or schoolmates.

Research around the world has shown that traditional bullying is linked to family characteristics, such as poor parent-children relationships, lack of parental emotional support, infrequent and poor parental monitoring, sibling warmth and family cohesion. Research on family and cyberbullying is still limited, but available studies have shown similar results to those reported in traditional bullying. However, inquiry is still warrants to know how multiples variables related to the family context influence on bullying and cyberbullying behaviors. This Special Issue will bring together current papers that advance knowledge about the association of family variables and bullying and cyberbullying. These variables may include family cohesion, communication, and mediation, parenting behaviors, sibling relationships, and personal characteristics of parents that can contribute as protective or risk factors in bullying and cyberbullying among children, adolescents or young adults. We would like encourage submissions describing research involving a wide range of family and youth variables. All kinds of papers are invited: Conceptual, methodological, narrative reviews, systematic reviews, experimental research, findings based on survey data and qualitative studies. Cross-cultural comparative papers are particularly welcomed, and studies with youth from a variety of backgrounds in terms of socio-economic status, gender, ethnicity, and other family conditions.

Dr. Raul Navarro Olivas
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Bullying
  • Cyberbullying
  • Family
  • Siblings
  • Parental mediation
  • Parental communication
  • Family socialization
  • Family cohesion
  • Gender
  • Cross-cultural studies

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 933 KiB  
Article
Family Functioning, Self-Concept and Cybervictimization: An Analysis Based on Gender
by Ana Romero-Abrio, Celeste León-Moreno, Daniel Musitu-Ferrer and María Elena Villarreal-González
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020069 - 21 Feb 2019
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 5786
Abstract
The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships between cybervictimization, family functioning, and self-concept in adolescents, while taking the gender perspective into account. A study was conducted with a sample of 8115 adolescents, aged between 11 and 16 years (M [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships between cybervictimization, family functioning, and self-concept in adolescents, while taking the gender perspective into account. A study was conducted with a sample of 8115 adolescents, aged between 11 and 16 years (M = 13.34; SD = 1.04) from the State of Nuevo Leon, Mexico. A MANOVA 3 × 2 was performed to analyze the data. The results showed that family functioning, family self-concept, and academic self-concept were higher when cybervictimization was low. It was also observed that, in situations of cybervictimization, the girls had lower family self-concept, lower academic self-concept, and lower family functioning than the boys. The results that were obtained and their implications are discussed in the final section. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Family, Bullying and Cyberbullying)
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15 pages, 337 KiB  
Article
The Role of Family in Bullying and Cyberbullying Involvement: Examining a New Typology of Parental Education Management Based on Adolescents’ View of Their Parents
by Olga Gómez-Ortiz, Carmen Apolinario, Eva M. Romera and Rosario Ortega-Ruiz
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8010025 - 15 Jan 2019
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 8921
Abstract
The influence of the family in children’s involvement in bullying and cyberbullying has been well documented. However, previous research into this relationship seems to have overlooked recent social changes, which have affected the family context. The aim of this study is to put [...] Read more.
The influence of the family in children’s involvement in bullying and cyberbullying has been well documented. However, previous research into this relationship seems to have overlooked recent social changes, which have affected the family context. The aim of this study is to put forward a categorization of the current educational management of Spanish parents and examine how this is linked to their children’s involvement in bullying and cyberbullying. To achieve this, 2060 schoolchildren from the South of Spain (47.9% girls with mean age = 14.34) answered four questionnaires including the Scale for the Assessment of the Parenting Styles of Adolescents’ Mothers and Fathers, the Discipline Dimensions Inventory, the European Bullying Intervention Project Questionnaire, and the European Cyberbullying Intervention Project Questionnaire. The Cluster Analysis results revealed a typology containing six styles: permissive, authoritarian, strict, normative democratic, indulgent democratic, and punitive democratic. Lower levels of victimization and aggression in bullying and cyberbullying were found to be linked to the indulgent democratic or normative democratic styles and higher levels to the authoritarian and strict styles. The value of parents’ educational practices and how they are combined in general styles, since these are elements that can predispose or prevent adolescent’s involvement in bullying and cyberbullying, is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Family, Bullying and Cyberbullying)
18 pages, 345 KiB  
Article
Trainee Teachers’ Perceptions on Cyberbullying in Educational Contexts
by Carmen Yot-Domínguez, María Dolores Guzmán Franco and Ana Duarte Hueros
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8010021 - 11 Jan 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 6725
Abstract
This paper analyzes the perceptions of teachers in training regarding cyberbullying in schools. The objectives of the study were: to ascertain their perceptions regarding their concern and their commitment to cyberbullying, their agreement with the measures to address it in educational contexts, as [...] Read more.
This paper analyzes the perceptions of teachers in training regarding cyberbullying in schools. The objectives of the study were: to ascertain their perceptions regarding their concern and their commitment to cyberbullying, their agreement with the measures to address it in educational contexts, as well as the assessment of their capabilities to act and the training they have received and they would like to receive; to determine if the perceptions differ according to gender, age and degree pursued and if there are relationships between the perceptions; and, to define pre-service teachers’ profiles based on perceptions. With a survey research design, 408 students from different undergraduate and graduate education-related degree programs at Spanish public universities participated. Findings highlight the coexistence of three different teacher in training profiles. All profiles exhibit a high level of concern and recognize cyberbullying as a problem. They strongly agree with all the proposed prevention and management measures. Two of the three profiles perceive themselves as highly confident and willing to respond. On the contrary, participants in the third profile do not feel confident enough to act and consider their training insufficient, coinciding with the second profile. The need to approach this issue in the initial training of future education professionals is a main conclusion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Family, Bullying and Cyberbullying)
13 pages, 285 KiB  
Article
Psychometric Properties of the CYBVICS Cyber-Victimization Scale and Its Relationship with Psychosocial Variables
by Sofía Buelga, Belén Martínez-Ferrer, María-Jesús Cava and Jessica Ortega-Barón
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8010013 - 9 Jan 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 11263
Abstract
The main goal of the present study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the revised version of the Adolescent Cyber-Victimization Scale (CYBVICS). This scale is composed of 18 items that assess direct and indirect cyber-victimization. Two subsamples participated in the present study. [...] Read more.
The main goal of the present study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the revised version of the Adolescent Cyber-Victimization Scale (CYBVICS). This scale is composed of 18 items that assess direct and indirect cyber-victimization. Two subsamples participated in the present study. Sample 1 included 1318 adolescents (47.4% boys) from 12 to 16 years old (M = 13.89, SD = 1.32). Sample 2 was composed of 1188 adolescents (51.5% girls) from 12 to 16 years old (M = 14.19, SD = 1.80). First, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted on sample 1. Results yielded a bifactor structure: direct cyber-victimization and indirect cyber-victimization. To confirm the structure of the CYBVICS, we selected sample 2 to perform confirmatory factor analysis and test its convergent validity with theoretically related measures. The results supported the reliability and validity of the two-factor model. In addition, measurement invariance was established. Related to convergent validity, positive correlations between cyber-victimization and peer victimization, depressive symptoms, and offensive communication with the mother and the father were found. Moreover, negative correlations were found between cyber-victimization and open communication with the mother and the father and family self-esteem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Family, Bullying and Cyberbullying)
18 pages, 422 KiB  
Article
Mothers’ Perceptions of the Phenomenon of Bullying among Young Children in South Korea
by Hyun-jung Ju and Seung-ha Lee
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8010012 - 8 Jan 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 6015
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate mothers’ different perspectives on bullying in early childhood. Twelve mothers having children under eight years old were interviewed in South Korea. All the interviews were transcribed in Korean and analyzed using Nvivo. The constant comparison method was used [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate mothers’ different perspectives on bullying in early childhood. Twelve mothers having children under eight years old were interviewed in South Korea. All the interviews were transcribed in Korean and analyzed using Nvivo. The constant comparison method was used to analyze the data. The results showed six themes consisting of categories: (1) concept of bullying (2) difficulty in defining bullying in early childhood, (3) difficulty in telling other mothers about bullying, (4) children who do not reveal their experiences, (5) ways to be aware of bullying, and (6) mothers’ concern. Categories were sometimes divided into subcategories. Findings showed that mothers seemed to view bullying differently, and that relationships among them contributed to differences in their perspectives on bullying. Mothers’ relationships also interacted with children’s relationships. Children were unlikely to tell their victimization experiences, due to certain reasons. These findings can contribute to understanding the nature of bullying in early childhood, increasing the social awareness of bullying among young children, and emphasizing the need for intervention/prevention programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Family, Bullying and Cyberbullying)
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12 pages, 285 KiB  
Article
Parental Communication and Feelings of Affiliation in Adolescent Aggressors and Victims of Cyberbullying
by Jessica Ortega Barón, Javier Postigo, Begoña Iranzo, Sofía Buelga and Laura Carrascosa
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8010003 - 25 Dec 2018
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 7180
Abstract
Cyberbullying is an increasingly frequent problem among adolescents, and it produces considerable social concern. Using a cross-sectional and quantitative methodology, the main objective of this study was to analyze the differences among students involved in the perpetration and victimization of cyberbullying (non-involved, occasional, [...] Read more.
Cyberbullying is an increasingly frequent problem among adolescents, and it produces considerable social concern. Using a cross-sectional and quantitative methodology, the main objective of this study was to analyze the differences among students involved in the perpetration and victimization of cyberbullying (non-involved, occasional, and severe), in their parental communication, and feelings of affiliation with classmates. The sample consisted of 849 adolescents (51.7% boys and 48.3% girls) from 12 to 18 years old (M = 14.5; SD = 1.62). Three comparison groups of aggressors and victims of cyberbullying were formed, depending on the intensity of the intimidation: non-involved, occasional, and severe. The results of the analysis of variance indicated that adolescents involved in cyberbullying as perpetrators or victims have less open and more avoidant communication with their parents than adolescents who are not involved in cyberbullying. Additionally, victims of cyberbullying perceive lower feelings of affiliation with their classmates, whereas cyberbullies show no differences between the groups on this variable. These new results provide insight into the important role of family and peers in the prevention and eradication of the growing problem of cyberbullying. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Family, Bullying and Cyberbullying)
13 pages, 464 KiB  
Article
Cyberbullying Victimization and Perpetration, Connectedness, and Monitoring of Online Activities: Protection from Parental Figures
by Jennifer L. Doty, Amy L. Gower, Renee E. Sieving, Shari L. Plowman and Barbara J. McMorris
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(12), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7120265 (registering DOI) - 12 Dec 2018
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 5917
Abstract
Cyberbullying victimization and perpetration are associated with poor mental health outcomes for adolescents, including depressive symptoms, anxiety, and suicide ideation. Although most cyberbullying occurs at home, few interventions have been developed for parents of adolescents. We examined parental connectedness and parental online monitoring [...] Read more.
Cyberbullying victimization and perpetration are associated with poor mental health outcomes for adolescents, including depressive symptoms, anxiety, and suicide ideation. Although most cyberbullying occurs at home, few interventions have been developed for parents of adolescents. We examined parental connectedness and parental online monitoring in relation to cyberbullying victimization and perpetration, with the goal of understanding how parents buffer young teens from involvement in cyberbullying. We leveraged data from an existing study involving three racially and ethnically diverse middle schools in a metropolitan area in the Midwest of the U.S. (n = 570). In the spring of sixth grade, students reported on cyberbullying involvement, parental connectedness, and parental monitoring. Greater parental connectedness was related to a lower likelihood of cyberbullying victimization and perpetration in logistic regression models. Parental monitoring of online activities was not related to cyberbullying victimization but was marginally related to a lower likelihood of cyberbullying perpetration. Results suggest that cyberbullying prevention programs should consider ways to foster parent/youth connectedness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Family, Bullying and Cyberbullying)
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12 pages, 254 KiB  
Article
What Parents Can Do to Prevent Cyberbullying: Students’ and Educators’ Perspectives
by Wanda Cassidy, Chantal Faucher and Margaret Jackson
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(12), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7120251 (registering DOI) - 28 Nov 2018
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 11860
Abstract
This article presents findings related to the role parents can play in the prevention of cyberbullying and the promotion of cyber-kindness. The findings are drawn from a study conducted at a private school in Western Canada, involving 177 student survey participants in Grades [...] Read more.
This article presents findings related to the role parents can play in the prevention of cyberbullying and the promotion of cyber-kindness. The findings are drawn from a study conducted at a private school in Western Canada, involving 177 student survey participants in Grades 8 through 10 (including both day students and boarding students) and interviews with 15 educators employed at the same school. Findings relate to parental supervision of computer usage, students’ willingness to inform parents about cyberbullying, and how students and educators view the role of parents in relation to the prevention of cyberbullying and the promotion of cyber-kindness. Education, dialogue, relationship strengthening, computer usage monitoring, and partnerships between schools and parents are emphasized as solutions, which are highly consistent with the existing research literature on this topic. Additionally, the study reveals the particular vulnerability of boarding students to cyberbullying victimization and perpetration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Family, Bullying and Cyberbullying)
10 pages, 638 KiB  
Article
Does Parental Mediation Moderate the Longitudinal Association among Bystanders and Perpetrators and Victims of Cyberbullying?
by Michelle F. Wright and Sebastian Wachs
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(11), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7110231 - 11 Nov 2018
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 4742
Abstract
The purpose of the present study was to examine the moderation of parental mediation in the longitudinal association between being a bystander of cyberbullying and cyberbullying perpetration and cyberbullying victimization. Participants were 1067 7th and 8th graders between 12 and 15 years old [...] Read more.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the moderation of parental mediation in the longitudinal association between being a bystander of cyberbullying and cyberbullying perpetration and cyberbullying victimization. Participants were 1067 7th and 8th graders between 12 and 15 years old (51% female) from six middle schools in predominantly middle-class neighborhoods in the Midwestern United States. Increases in being bystanders of cyberbullying was related positively to restrictive and instructive parental mediation. Restrictive parental mediation was related positively to Time 2 (T2) cyberbullying victimization, while instructive parental mediation was negatively related to T2 cyberbullying perpetration and victimization. Restrictive parental mediation was a moderator in the association between bystanders of cyberbullying and T2 cyberbullying victimization. Increases in restrictive parental mediation strengthened the positive relationship between these variables. In addition, instructive mediation moderated the association between bystanders of cyberbullying and T2 cyberbullying victimization such that increases in this form of parental mediation strategy weakened the association between bystanders of cyberbullying and T2 cyberbullying victimization. The current findings indicate a need for parents to be aware of how they can impact adolescents’ involvement in cyberbullying as bullies and victims. In addition, greater attention should be given to developing parental intervention programs that focus on the role of parents in helping to mitigate adolescents’ likelihood of cyberbullying involvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Family, Bullying and Cyberbullying)
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11 pages, 259 KiB  
Article
Parents’ Responses to Coping with Bullying: Variations by Adolescents’ Self-Reported Victimization and Parents’ Awareness of Bullying Involvement
by Elisa Larrañaga, Santiago Yubero and Raúl Navarro
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(8), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7080121 - 25 Jul 2018
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 9088
Abstract
Bullying has been recognized as an important risk factor for mental health. A growing number of researchers have encouraged parents to work collaboratively with schools to prevent and intervene in bullying situations. This study explores the relationship between parents’ awareness of bullying involvement, [...] Read more.
Bullying has been recognized as an important risk factor for mental health. A growing number of researchers have encouraged parents to work collaboratively with schools to prevent and intervene in bullying situations. This study explores the relationship between parents’ awareness of bullying involvement, adolescents’ self-reported victimization, and six possible parents’ responses to their child’s victimization. The participants were 1044 seventh–tenth grade students and their parents. Logistic regressions analyses were applied to determine if parents’ awareness of victimization and adolescents’ self-reporting of victimization were associated with parents’ responses to bullying victimization. The results showed that parents’ awareness of bullying and adolescents’ self-reported victimization were only associated with the “defends herself/himself” and “talks to bully” response. In other words, the parents who believe their child has been bullied are less likely to encourage their children to talk with the bully, and when children are victimized, it is less likely that their parents will encourage them to defend themselves or talk with the bully. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Family, Bullying and Cyberbullying)
7 pages, 390 KiB  
Article
The Relationship between Parental Control and High-Risk Internet Behaviours in Adolescence
by David Álvarez-García, Trinidad García and Zara Suárez-García
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(6), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7060087 - 1 Jun 2018
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4948
Abstract
One of the main predictors of being a victim of cyber-aggression is engaging in high-risk behaviours on the internet. The main objective of this research is to analyse the relationship between two types of parental control (restriction and supervision) and engagement in high-risk [...] Read more.
One of the main predictors of being a victim of cyber-aggression is engaging in high-risk behaviours on the internet. The main objective of this research is to analyse the relationship between two types of parental control (restriction and supervision) and engagement in high-risk internet behaviours during adolescence. To that end, and as a secondary objective, we designed and validated the High-risk Internet Behaviours Questionnaire for adolescents, used in this study. We analysed the responses of 946 adolescents aged between 12 and 18 to the High-risk Internet Behaviours Questionnaire and the Questionnaire on Parental Control of Internet Use in Adolescence. The results show that the questionnaire has appropriate metrics of reliability and validity, and show the existence of a statistically significant negative relationship, albeit small, between supervision and engaging in high-risk internet behaviours. We discuss the practical implications of these results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Family, Bullying and Cyberbullying)
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Review

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25 pages, 559 KiB  
Review
Influence of Family Variables on Cyberbullying Perpetration and Victimization: A Systematic Literature Review
by Leticia López-Castro and Diana Priegue
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(3), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8030098 - 15 Mar 2019
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 14281
Abstract
In recent years, the number of studies conducted on the influence of family variables on cyberbullying perpetration and victimization has increased, especially in terms of relational family processes. The present review investigates the role played by family variables on cyberbullying perpetration and victimization. [...] Read more.
In recent years, the number of studies conducted on the influence of family variables on cyberbullying perpetration and victimization has increased, especially in terms of relational family processes. The present review investigates the role played by family variables on cyberbullying perpetration and victimization. A systematic literature review was conducted in five databases (ScienceDirect, Scopus, PubMed, ERIC, and Web of Science) from October 2016 to October 2018. During this brief period of time, the number of publications on family variables and cyberbullying, both perpetration and victimization, has significantly increased. We eventually reviewed 34 studies which rigorously met the selection criteria of our research. For the analysis of the results, we distinguish between two types of variables according to the following possibilities of pedagogical intervention: Structural (contextual family variables and individual parental processes), and dynamic (relational family processes). Our review found evidence that there is more controversy around structural variables than around dynamic variables. The most consistent variables are family communication and the quality of the family relationship. However, there is a perceived need for clarifying the influence that different structural variables, parental educational styles, and parental mediation exert on the prevention and consolidation of cyberbullying perpetration and cybervictimization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Family, Bullying and Cyberbullying)
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