(Re)defining Entrepreneurship in a Post-pandemic Context

A special issue of Social Sciences (ISSN 2076-0760). This special issue belongs to the section "Social Economics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 October 2022) | Viewed by 29096

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Guest Editor
University Institute of Lisbon (ISCTE), 1649-026 Lisbon, Portugal
Interests: creative tourism; strategy; marketing; local value creation
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Guest Editor
Department of TRIE, Lusófona University, 1749-024 Lisboa, Portugal
Interests: tourism; entrepreneurship; destination development

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The current context has been marked, in the short term, by the current pandemic that is taking an exceedingly long time to come under control. In the long term, it is marked by climate change. These are two phenomena that have led consumers, companies, and governments to rethink their behavior. Several studies have focused on the behavior of these stakeholders in the post-pandemic context; however, studies focused on the development of entrepreneurial skills in a post-pandemic context have been scarce.

At the same time, there is a growing number of voices calling for the need to adopt business models based on a circular economy. Again, at this level, research exploring the link between entrepreneurship and the development of business models for a circular economy is limited.

The study of these areas is particularly relevant since the market patterns are shifting, namely the consumers and tourists are acting and deciding based on different assumptions, a trend demanding adequate and timely response both from firm decision-makers and government policymakers.

Within this context, this Special Issue intends to address this challenge, promoting the research and academic cross-sectorial discussion of the key factors related to entrepreneurial resilience, post pandemic recovery responses and the transition to more sustainable business models. Accordingly, this Special Issue aims to: (i) Study the development of more resilient and sustainable entrepreneurial business models; (ii) Identify the strategies to revitalize entrepreneurship and SMEs in a post-pandemic, including firm strategy, local development strategy, policymaking, among others.

Prof. Dr. Álvaro Lopes Dias
Prof. Dr. Mafalda Luísa de Almeida Serra Patuleia
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • entrepreneurship
  • circular economy
  • resilience
  • competitiveness
  • COVID-19
  • pandemic
  • business models
  • recovery strategies

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 214 KiB  
Editorial
(Re)defining Entrepreneurship in a Post-Pandemic Context
by Álvaro Dias and Mafalda Patuleia
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(3), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12030193 - 22 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1062
Abstract
More than three years have passed since the first lockdown, and the world is not the same [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue (Re)defining Entrepreneurship in a Post-pandemic Context)

Research

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15 pages, 957 KiB  
Article
Resilience of Colombian Entrepreneurships during COVID-19 Pandemic Crisis
by Oscar Leonardo Acevedo, Manuel Méndez-Pinzón and Adela Margarita Vélez-Rolón
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(3), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12030130 - 27 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1622
Abstract
MSMEs were facing major challenges driven by uncontrollable macro-environmental factors caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper shows the strategies that a sample of Colombian start-ups developed for their survival in the first months of the COVID-19 crisis and the close relationship between [...] Read more.
MSMEs were facing major challenges driven by uncontrollable macro-environmental factors caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper shows the strategies that a sample of Colombian start-ups developed for their survival in the first months of the COVID-19 crisis and the close relationship between these strategies and the aid policies deployed by the Colombian government. This study involved 220 Colombian enterprises from different sectors of the economy (agriculture, commerce, services, and industry) and different stages of the life cycle. Our statistical analysis was based on a deep survey of highly significant rank correlation, the qualitative association between variables, a structural equation model, and mediation analysis. Among our results, we highlight a high dependence on ICT technologies, varied access to economic aid, and strong dependence on negative crisis impacts with the need for aid and deep business changes. Concerning the last conclusion, we found a significant mediating effect of the adaptability of the start-ups in order to explain why older, bigger, and more necessary enterprises were the ones that obtained aid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue (Re)defining Entrepreneurship in a Post-pandemic Context)
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14 pages, 628 KiB  
Article
Estimating the Impact of Digital Nomads’ Sustainable Responsibility on Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy
by Inês Mourato, Álvaro Dias and Leandro Pereira
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(2), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12020097 - 13 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3076
Abstract
Digital nomads live outside of the classical organizational borders and can be seen as ‘contemporary entrepreneurs’ who bring disruptive business models into different industries, giving value to different working cultures and different types of capital. Because they are operating out of their home [...] Read more.
Digital nomads live outside of the classical organizational borders and can be seen as ‘contemporary entrepreneurs’ who bring disruptive business models into different industries, giving value to different working cultures and different types of capital. Because they are operating out of their home country, their social responsibility as entrepreneurs may have different implications. This study aims to explore the outcomes of digital nomads’ social responsibility in terms of self-efficacy and innovation. To test the hypothesis model, structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to analyze survey data. The results show that tourism firms should always have in mind their social responsibility levels to attract this target niche and should pay attention to the fact that they are mostly solo travelers, so they value the sense of community of a place and its legal, bureaucratic, and flexible terms of living. Findings also show that social and environmental concerns are more associated to social self-efficacy than to self-efficacy. The results complement existing research by helping tourism businesses and destination managers to understand the implications of the digital nomads’ social responsibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue (Re)defining Entrepreneurship in a Post-pandemic Context)
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21 pages, 1047 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Empowerment towards Agricultural Business Actors’ Ability in Surakarta, Indonesia
by Suminah Suminah, Sapja Anantanyu, Suwarto Suwarto, Sugihardjo Sugihardjo and Dwiningtyas Padmaningrum
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(2), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12020076 - 31 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1680
Abstract
The situation of micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSMEs) in agriculture in Surakarta after the pandemic are still worrying; thus, effective empowerment efforts are needed to revive and develop MSMEs in agriculture. Empowerment will be maximally successful if various resources are available for [...] Read more.
The situation of micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSMEs) in agriculture in Surakarta after the pandemic are still worrying; thus, effective empowerment efforts are needed to revive and develop MSMEs in agriculture. Empowerment will be maximally successful if various resources are available for its implementation. This study aimed to directly and indirectly analyze the effect of empowerment, human capital, economic capital, actors’ perceptions of their business, and financial capital on the ability of agricultural business actors. This research study used quantitative methods with survey techniques. The sample population of this research study included all agricultural business actors in Surakarta covering five districts, and the sample was taken randomly. The data collection techniques included direct interviews, observations, and focus group discussions. The results showed that empowerment has a significant direct effect on economic capital, increasing it by 21.6 percent, and a very significant positive direct effect on the ability of agricultural business actors, increasing it by 20.9 percent. Empowerment has no significant direct effect on human capital, perception, and financial capital. Economy capital and perceptions of business actors have very significant direct effects on the ability of business actors, at 23.1 percent and 37.2 percent, while human capital and financial capital have no direct effects on the ability of business actors. Indirect empowerment via human capital, economic capital, perception, and financial capital factors has no significant effect on the ability of agricultural business actors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue (Re)defining Entrepreneurship in a Post-pandemic Context)
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14 pages, 342 KiB  
Article
How Do Hospitality Workers Perceive Their Work Skills before and after the Lockdown Imposed by the COVID-19 Pandemic?
by Carla Magalhães, Arthur Araújo and Maria Isabel Andrés-Marques
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(12), 588; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11120588 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2479
Abstract
The present research aims to compare hospitality workers’ confidence about the perceived need to improve their soft and hard skills during and after the lockdown period. With this purpose, a questionnaire was applied to a sample of workers from four- and five-star hotels [...] Read more.
The present research aims to compare hospitality workers’ confidence about the perceived need to improve their soft and hard skills during and after the lockdown period. With this purpose, a questionnaire was applied to a sample of workers from four- and five-star hotels located in the historic centre of Porto (Portugal). Data collection took place in two different time periods: April 2020 and April 2022. The findings evidence that workers are more confident of their skills but are also more aware of the need to develop them, particularly their soft skills. This is likely related to the context of remote work, which intensified the need to learn, and evidenced the necessity of skills such as teamwork and adaptation or flexibility, which showed the greatest increase in perceived need to improve. Despite such an increase, the competencies workers feel like they need to improve the most are still hard, i.e., linguistic and digital. Accordingly, those in which workers are the most confident are soft, i.e., teamwork, interpersonal relationships, and adaptation or flexibility, which is likely because those were the most developed during the pandemic. The findings provide useful insights for human resources management in the hospitality sector. The study points to good practices aiming to address the real development needs of hospitality workers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue (Re)defining Entrepreneurship in a Post-pandemic Context)
11 pages, 293 KiB  
Article
The Resilience of Tourism Recreation Companies in a Pandemic Context: The Case of Canyoning in the Azores
by Francisco Silva, Tiago Lopes and Mário Silva
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(12), 558; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11120558 - 29 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1500
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic had an enormous impact on the tourism sector. Economies with a large weight of external tourism were especially affected, as was the case with the Azores region. This paper aims to analyse the level of this crisis and the resilience [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic had an enormous impact on the tourism sector. Economies with a large weight of external tourism were especially affected, as was the case with the Azores region. This paper aims to analyse the level of this crisis and the resilience of tourism recreation companies specializing in canyoning in the Azores region, and whether these reactions led to more sustainable business models. The adopted methodology considered the analysis of recent statistical data on tourism and the available information on COVID-19 pandemic-related impacts. In parallel, questionnaires were applied to all tourism recreation companies in Portugal, and semi-structured interviews were conducted with all the canyoning providers in the Azores region. Results show that all companies survived the crisis, and some have made significant changes to their business models. Furthermore, some degree of success was observed in how services adapted to new demand characteristics, given the small size of most of these businesses and the specialization of their products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue (Re)defining Entrepreneurship in a Post-pandemic Context)
15 pages, 1091 KiB  
Article
Financial Objectives and Satisfaction with Life: A Mixed-Method Study in Surf Lifestyle Entrepreneurs
by André O’Neill, Alvaro Dias, Mafalda Patuleia and Leandro Pereira
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(12), 555; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11120555 - 28 Nov 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1830
Abstract
Tourism lifestyle entrepreneurs (TLEs) have introduced an innovation in business management based on the region, community, environmental sustainability, and extra financial factors. This type of entrepreneur allows the development of regions by attracting investment and presenting innovative products/services and is an important aid [...] Read more.
Tourism lifestyle entrepreneurs (TLEs) have introduced an innovation in business management based on the region, community, environmental sustainability, and extra financial factors. This type of entrepreneur allows the development of regions by attracting investment and presenting innovative products/services and is an important aid to the local economy. Based on the importance of TLEs, this study aims to explore factors influencing satisfaction with life as a key ingredient to attracting surf TLE. For this purpose, priority was given to obtaining primary data through a sequential approach of mixed methods, first with a quantitative study using survey data of 109 surf TLEs, followed by in-depth interviews. The results show that a good contact network and a strong link to a place influence satisfaction with life in a positive way. As a result, the moderating effect of financial objectives on these relationships alerts destination decision-makers about different entrepreneurial approaches regarding surf businessman attraction. This study makes an important contribution by providing empirical evidence regarding the ongoing discussion about financial vs. non-financial objectives for this type of entrepreneur, showing that both are important for their decision-making process. These results provide valuable insights for several industry stakeholders, namely funders (for grant approval), policymakers (alerting that these entrepreneurs should be addressed considering non-financial objectives), and entrepreneurs (alerting to goal definition patterns). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue (Re)defining Entrepreneurship in a Post-pandemic Context)
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26 pages, 1163 KiB  
Article
Sustainable Entrepreneurship: Comparing the Determinants of Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy and Social Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy
by Sarah Broccia, Álvaro Dias and Leandro Pereira
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(12), 537; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11120537 - 22 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1910
Abstract
Sustainable entrepreneurship creates value beyond profit. Its role is increasingly important in addressing issues related to environmental challenges. Sustainable entrepreneurs represent a tool to attain the Sustainable Development Goals established by the United Nations that address climate change, social inequality, human rights, and [...] Read more.
Sustainable entrepreneurship creates value beyond profit. Its role is increasingly important in addressing issues related to environmental challenges. Sustainable entrepreneurs represent a tool to attain the Sustainable Development Goals established by the United Nations that address climate change, social inequality, human rights, and economic development. To solve these challenges, there is a need for high-performing sustainable entrepreneurs. The roles of innovativeness, organizational capabilities, and philanthropic corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the performance of sustainable entrepreneurs are still underexplored. Hence, this study proposes an analysis of the indirect and direct effects of innovativeness on entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE) and social entrepreneurial self-efficacy (SESE) and of the mediating role of organizational capabilities and philanthropic CSR. Based on structural equation modeling and importance-performance matrix analysis, the findings from a survey of 116 sustainable entrepreneurs identified a positive relationship between innovativeness and ESE, organizational capabilities, and philanthropic CSR. The indirect relationship mediated by organizational capabilities was found to be positive, while for philanthropic CSR, it was positive for SESE but negative for ESE. Interestingly, it was found that SESE is only positively influenced in indirect relations. This study contributes to the literature on how innovativeness can promote ESE and SESE and the role of organizational capabilities and philanthropic CSR in enhancing performance among sustainable entrepreneurs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue (Re)defining Entrepreneurship in a Post-pandemic Context)
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13 pages, 305 KiB  
Article
Tourism Vulnerability Amid the Pandemic Crisis: Impacts and Implications for Rebuilding Resilience of a Local Tourism System in Vietnam
by Da Van Huynh, Long Hai Duong, Nhan Trong Nguyen and Thuy Thi Kim Truong
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(10), 441; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11100441 - 26 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2871
Abstract
Despite the devastating impact of the COVID-19 crisis on the global tourism industry, a few countries have attempted to foster their local tourism economies’ recovery by offering distinctive mechanisms which facilitate their safe tourism destinations to restart domestic tourism operations during the pandemic [...] Read more.
Despite the devastating impact of the COVID-19 crisis on the global tourism industry, a few countries have attempted to foster their local tourism economies’ recovery by offering distinctive mechanisms which facilitate their safe tourism destinations to restart domestic tourism operations during the pandemic waves. However, there has been little research investigating how different sectors of a local tourism system, particularly in a developing country, seriously suffer from the pandemic crisis but gain encouraging revitalization from the pandemic shocks. Therefore, this study employed Can Tho city as a case study to examine the holistic impact of COVID-19 on different sectors of the local tourism industry and explore the key factors/players contributing to the resilience empowerment and adaptive recovery of the local tourism system. As such, a semi-structured interview approach was employed in this study to collect both quantitative and qualitative data. The study recruited 40 representatives of tourism-related authorities at different levels and 280 managers of different tourism sectors in the local tourism industry. The findings generally reveal the disastrous impacts of the pandemic on the local tourism industry across all tourism sectors but show an unexpected recovery of tourism businesses during the pandemic crisis. The integrated findings also highlight the pivotal role of local governments in crisis governance and destination recovery support during and after the pandemic waves. Similarly, the proactive engagement of local enterprises was found critical toward rebuilding their organizational resilience, and such adaptive transformations were essential for tourism business recovery in new normal conditions. The economic policy response and effective financial schemes were common expected measures toward the tourism industry’s recovery in the post-pandemic crisis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue (Re)defining Entrepreneurship in a Post-pandemic Context)
24 pages, 699 KiB  
Article
Self-Confidence of Venezuelan Migrant Entrepreneurs in Colombia
by Neida Albornoz-Arias and Akever-Karina Santafé-Rojas
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(7), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11070290 - 08 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2879
Abstract
This study determines the personality and behavioural factors related to pull motivation that explains the self-confidence of Venezuelan migrant entrepreneurs. Using a quantitative approach, this study conducted a survey with 88 migrants who own productive units in the urban area of Gramalote, North [...] Read more.
This study determines the personality and behavioural factors related to pull motivation that explains the self-confidence of Venezuelan migrant entrepreneurs. Using a quantitative approach, this study conducted a survey with 88 migrants who own productive units in the urban area of Gramalote, North of Santander, in Colombia. This study examines the association between the variable ‘perception of having self-confidence’ with demographic and motivational contextual factors. Fisher’s exact test was used to determine the evidence of a statistically significant association between the variables. The findings of the multivariate multinomial logistic regression model suggest that the factors related to a high level of self-confidence are gender, perception of ability to take advantage of opportunities, perception of demanding efficiency and quality and perception of taking risks. These factors are to be considered in the policies of the Colombian state regarding education programmes and the formalisation of the labour market with a gender approach in a post-pandemic context. Given that the COVID-19 pandemic caused a crisis in countless aspects, one of which was in the labour market, this study is relevant because it analyses self-confidence as a driver of entrepreneurial development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue (Re)defining Entrepreneurship in a Post-pandemic Context)
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17 pages, 511 KiB  
Article
Barriers to Innovations and Innovative Performance of Companies: A Study from Ecuador
by Orly Carvache-Franco, Mauricio Carvache-Franco and Wilmer Carvache-Franco
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(2), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11020063 - 08 Feb 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4222
Abstract
This research aimed to examine the relationship between the barriers to the development of innovation and innovative performance. This is a quantitative, not experimental, cross-sectional research, and the National Survey of Innovation Activities of Ecuador is used. Bivariate Probit regression was used to [...] Read more.
This research aimed to examine the relationship between the barriers to the development of innovation and innovative performance. This is a quantitative, not experimental, cross-sectional research, and the National Survey of Innovation Activities of Ecuador is used. Bivariate Probit regression was used to process the data. The results show empirical evidence that Ecuadorian companies have a great number of barriers to innovation. The main barriers to product innovation and process innovation are as follows: lack of company funds, high costs of innovation, and lack of qualified personnel in the company and the country. In addition product innovation is affected by the lack of market information, and process innovation is affected by the lack of financing from external sources, lack of information on technology, and a market dominated by established companies. The research has theoretical implications because it contributes empirical evidence on the relationship between innovation barriers and innovative performance in developing countries where evidence is scarce. The research has practical implications because it serves as a basis for forming public policies. Business managers and administrators can improve innovative performance by minimizing the impact of the main barriers to innovation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue (Re)defining Entrepreneurship in a Post-pandemic Context)
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Review

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18 pages, 2935 KiB  
Review
Sustainable Drive Tourism Routes: A Systematic Literature Review
by Sandra P. Cruz, Cláudia Ribeiro de Almeida, Pedro Pintassilgo and Ricardo Raimundo
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(11), 510; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11110510 - 07 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2364
Abstract
Drive tourism (DT) has become an attractive way to visit tourism destinations for an increasing number of visitors along driving routes. This flow of visitors has made sustainability a major issue, that is, the way by which tourism development ensure economic benefits for [...] Read more.
Drive tourism (DT) has become an attractive way to visit tourism destinations for an increasing number of visitors along driving routes. This flow of visitors has made sustainability a major issue, that is, the way by which tourism development ensure economic benefits for local communities and preserves local identity, along the route, without compromising the environmental resources. Many studies focused the topic of DT, mainly the analysis of a particular angle, either be economic sustainability, e.g., advantages of the ones related to economic and environment sustainability, such as the impact of tourists along the route environment. Nevertheless, little attention has been paid to the social consequences of DT in the local entrepreneurial environment and the resulting exaggeration of their cultural representativeness in the sense of authenticity. Our aim is to summon these points of view and achieve, through a systematic literature review, a clear and integrative picture of the driving tourism impacts in terms of sustainability along the routes throughout local communities. A systematic literature review was performed using the PRISMA guidelines (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) methodology. This systematic literature review sought to consolidate knowledge on the subject. In order to illustrate the link between major categories and their corresponding trends, authors used VOSviewer scientific software. The gathering of existing knowledge around the three components of sustainability highlighted the importance of community involvement and collaboration among DT stakeholders to address the trade-off between the protection and promotion of DT routes. Opportunities for future studies are suggested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue (Re)defining Entrepreneurship in a Post-pandemic Context)
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