Current Trends and Future Prospects on Smart and Sustainable Cities

A special issue of Smart Cities (ISSN 2624-6511).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2023) | Viewed by 30719

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Management, Economics and Sciences, Université Catholique de Lille, 59000 Lille, France
Interests: housing and urban economics; energy; applied econometrics; public policies; smart cities; environmental economics
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Guest Editor
Faculty of Management, Economics and Sciences, Université Catholique de Lille, 59000 Lille, France
Interests: ecology; biodiversity; protozoa; soil microorganisms; urban agriculture; molecular biology

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Guest Editor
Faculty of Management, Economics and Sciences, Université Catholique de Lille, 59000 Lille, France
Interests: artificial intelligence; decision-making under uncertainties; adaptive systems; Markov decision processes; human-robot interaction

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Some planetary boundaries have been crossed, making it urgent to act on climate change and biodiversity, among others. We are at a crossroads where imagining a desirable and possible future is necessary. Acting on sustainable cities and communities falls under the 11th UN SDG and responds to the growing challenge of urbanization worldwide.

In this Special Issue, we invite multidisciplinary contributions on current trends and perspectives in ecosystems, innovations, models and (possibly replicable) good practices in smart cities and territories that improve the environment, the economy, and social wellbeing. Advances in simulation methods and data analysis, forecasting techniques, scenario planning, future design, and complex system models are also particularly welcome as long as they can participate to improve critical thinking and decision making on cities’ and territories’ resilience and sustainable development.

Prof. Dr. Véronique Flambard
Dr. Sadia Benamrouz-Vanneste
Dr. Abir Karami
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Smart Cities is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • smart city
  • prospective
  • environment
  • economy
  • wellbeing
  • innovation
  • opportunities
  • forecasting
  • simulation techniques
  • data analysis

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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22 pages, 11917 KiB  
Article
Generating Natural Cities Using 3D Road Network to Explore Living Structure: A Case Study in Hong Kong
by Zhiyang Xiao, Zhenhan Peng, Zidong Yu and Xintao Liu
Smart Cities 2023, 6(3), 1485-1506; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities6030070 - 24 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1664
Abstract
Compared with administrative cities, natural cities can be generally referred to as the areas generated based on the density of different urban facilities (e.g., point of interest, road network, etc.). To some extent, natural cities are outperformed in some related urban studies, such [...] Read more.
Compared with administrative cities, natural cities can be generally referred to as the areas generated based on the density of different urban facilities (e.g., point of interest, road network, etc.). To some extent, natural cities are outperformed in some related urban studies, such as urban living structure analysis. Nevertheless, traditional ways of generating natural cities are mostly limited to the planar space. Modern cities such as Hong Kong are vertical cities with high buildings, 3D road networks and land uses. Therefore, traditional nature cities could be biased when applied to 3D cities. In this work, a 3D road network in Hong Kong is adopted to extract true road intersections and generate modified natural cities to explore urban living structures. Numerous living structure units are classified into two parts: tiny and serried ones representing natural cities and vast ones representing rural areas. The classification method applies head/tail breaks, and a clustering algorithm was fitted for heavy-tailed distribution. According to the living structure theory, the living structures of the proposed natural cities and traditional natural cities based on the same road network in Hong Kong are compared. The findings show that the distribution of modified natural city regions is more reasonable compared with typical ones. The improved model will more clearly show the inherent living structure of the city and will allow an analysis of the relationship between the part and wholeness of the city. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends and Future Prospects on Smart and Sustainable Cities)
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17 pages, 376 KiB  
Article
Factors Affecting Car-Sharing Services
by Katarzyna Turoń
Smart Cities 2023, 6(2), 1185-1201; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities6020057 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2035
Abstract
Car-sharing systems, i.e., short-term car rental services, are solutions indicated as an alternative to individual motorization; they can be used in an increasing number of cities around the world. These services, along with their intensive development, are becoming more and more complex. Due [...] Read more.
Car-sharing systems, i.e., short-term car rental services, are solutions indicated as an alternative to individual motorization; they can be used in an increasing number of cities around the world. These services, along with their intensive development, are becoming more and more complex. Due to their complexity, they involve not only an increasing number of stakeholders or infrastructure elements, but also indicate numerous links with the functioning of cities, especially smart cities. To properly implement or improve the car-sharing system, both in terms of operational issues regarding the system’s functioning or changes in the vehicle fleet, it is important to be familiar with the elements that make up car-sharing, as well as the factors that affect it. This work aims to present the factors affecting car-sharing, as well as the transport model of car-sharing services. This work fills the research gap stemming from the lack of comprehensive studies and knowledge on car-sharing. A detailed analysis of the literature shows that there are six main groups of factors affecting car-sharing: economic and technical, transport, social, environmental, organizational, and other issues; among these factors, more than 150 quantitative and qualitative criteria can be distinguished. Furthermore, the work also showed factors that are a niche in the literature and can be the basis for further research on car-sharing. Detailed familiarity with these factors could translate into increased profitability and, above all, success in the functioning of on-the-market services. This article supports the implementation and improvement of car-sharing services. In addition, it supports scientists in the preparation of scientific papers and mathematical models in the field of car-sharing and the factors that affect it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends and Future Prospects on Smart and Sustainable Cities)
16 pages, 516 KiB  
Article
Guidelines for Renewal and Securitization of a Critical Infrastructure Based on IoT Networks
by Cristina Villar Miguelez, Victor Monzon Baeza, Raúl Parada and Carlos Monzo
Smart Cities 2023, 6(2), 728-743; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities6020035 - 26 Feb 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2909
Abstract
Global warming has increased uncertainty regarding managing traditional water supply systems. Unfortunately, there is a need for the smart management of water supply systems. This work aims to design a solution for renewing and securing critical infrastructure that supplies water and provides water [...] Read more.
Global warming has increased uncertainty regarding managing traditional water supply systems. Unfortunately, there is a need for the smart management of water supply systems. This work aims to design a solution for renewing and securing critical infrastructure that supplies water and provides water purification inside the range of applications of Industry 4.0 for Smart Cities. Therefore, we analyze the renewal requirements and the applicable use cases and propose a solution based on IoT networks for critical infrastructure in the urban environment. We describe the architecture of the IoT network and the specific hardware for securing a water supply and wastewater treatment chain. In addition, the water level control process for the supply chain and the system that ensures the optimal level of chemicals for wastewater treatment are detailed. Finally, we present the guidelines for infrastructure operators to carry out this operation within Industry 4.0, constituting a development framework for future research on the design of Smart Cities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends and Future Prospects on Smart and Sustainable Cities)
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47 pages, 8355 KiB  
Article
Sociotechnical Characteristics of Conceptually Related Smart Cities’ Services from an International Perspective
by Nammi Kim and Seungwoo Yang
Smart Cities 2023, 6(1), 196-242; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities6010011 - 07 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2627
Abstract
Sustainable smart cities (SSCs) have developed various services and technologies with multi-stakeholderism under multiple names. The characteristics of SSCs are specified by implementing conceptually related smart cities (CRSCs), which are ICT-based transformative cities. Many scholars point out that in-depth empirical studies of CRSCs [...] Read more.
Sustainable smart cities (SSCs) have developed various services and technologies with multi-stakeholderism under multiple names. The characteristics of SSCs are specified by implementing conceptually related smart cities (CRSCs), which are ICT-based transformative cities. Many scholars point out that in-depth empirical studies of CRSCs are necessary to clarify the nature of the sociotechnical transition of SSCs while avoiding the oversimplified narratives of techno-utopia. Utilizing a periodic matrix taxonomy, this study aims to examine empirical characteristics of CRSCs services’ socio-technical transformation from international perspectives. The target cities were sampled using cluster sampling through three screening steps based on four representative documents reflecting the critical aspects of the operational definition of SSCs. The city-level data were collected using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocol and preprocessed with coding and weighting to create a periodic matrix taxonomy. The outcomes are the commonalities and different services’ sociotechnical transitions of sampled European cities from perspectives of multi-stakeholderism. The outcomes have managerial implications demonstrating empirically the sequences of service transformation of European megacities. Theoretical implications for the existing theories also arise through empirical analysis of historical real-city data and specification of stakeholders’ partnerships in conceptually related smart cities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends and Future Prospects on Smart and Sustainable Cities)
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21 pages, 4570 KiB  
Article
Exploring Key Aspects of an Integrated Sustainable Urban Development Strategy in Greece: The Case of Thessaloniki City
by Fotios Chatzitheodoridis, Katerina Melfou, Achilleas Kontogeorgos and Stavros Kalogiannidis
Smart Cities 2023, 6(1), 19-39; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities6010002 - 21 Dec 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2842
Abstract
Even though efforts have been made in recent decades to revive urban areas in the European Union (EU), the contemporary challenges that mostly large cities face require continuous support and adjustments in urban policies. Under the EU Cohesion Policy for the 2014–2020 programming [...] Read more.
Even though efforts have been made in recent decades to revive urban areas in the European Union (EU), the contemporary challenges that mostly large cities face require continuous support and adjustments in urban policies. Under the EU Cohesion Policy for the 2014–2020 programming period, the integrated territorial development of various specific areas is pursued by the Integrated Territorial Investments (ITI). In Greece, many of these programs concern Integrated Sustainable Urban Development Strategies (ISUDSs). One of these is the ISUDS of Thessaloniki, which is perhaps the most complex in terms of management and implementation in Greece, mainly due to the chosen managerial approach and the size of Thessaloniki, the second largest city in the country. Thessaloniki’s ISUDS is managed by the Urban Authority (UA), which has already evolved into a separate model of metropolitan governance administration. The aim of this paper is to identify the determinants in its design and implementation, as well as the effects of the strategy on urban development through the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses, as well as the opportunities and prospects of strategy through the Delphi approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends and Future Prospects on Smart and Sustainable Cities)
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18 pages, 1079 KiB  
Article
Getting Smarter: Blockchain and IOT Mixture in China Smart Public Services
by Nada Mallah Boustani, Qing Xu and Yan Xu
Smart Cities 2022, 5(4), 1811-1828; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities5040090 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2111
Abstract
Due to tremendous technological breakthroughs, an increasing number of cities are transforming into “smart cities” utilizing the Internet of Things (IOT), artificial intelligence, or other information technologies. The Chinese government announced that the development of “digital cities smart cities” was a national priority. [...] Read more.
Due to tremendous technological breakthroughs, an increasing number of cities are transforming into “smart cities” utilizing the Internet of Things (IOT), artificial intelligence, or other information technologies. The Chinese government announced that the development of “digital cities smart cities” was a national priority. The goal of this study is to examine the success variables that can influence IOT service adoption aspirations while also serving as a mediator for enhanced security via blockchain technologies. A conceptual model is created with a strong theoretical underpinning and body of literature. The final sample consisted of 1008 participants. This study uses the partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM model) to test and analyze the impact of identified variables on the continuous usage intention (CUI) of IOT-based public services. Our findings show that blockchain adoption in smart cities fully mediates the effect of the IOT on CUI and shed the light on the importance of the trust, empowerment, and social influence since the continuous usage intention of the IOT in smart cities is mainly influenced by these factors and enhanced by the application of blockchain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends and Future Prospects on Smart and Sustainable Cities)
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16 pages, 9486 KiB  
Article
A Fuzzy Rule-Based System to Infer Subjective Noise Annoyance Using an Experimental Wireless Acoustic Sensor Network
by Jose-Angel Fernandez-Prieto, Joaquin Canada-Bago and Ulrich Birkel
Smart Cities 2022, 5(4), 1574-1589; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities5040080 - 09 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1523
Abstract
Over the last few years, several works have been conducted on the design and development of wireless acoustic sensor networks (WASNs) to monitor acoustic noise levels and create noise maps. The information provided by these WASNs is based on the equivalent noise pressure [...] Read more.
Over the last few years, several works have been conducted on the design and development of wireless acoustic sensor networks (WASNs) to monitor acoustic noise levels and create noise maps. The information provided by these WASNs is based on the equivalent noise pressure level over time T (Leq,T), which is used to assess the objective noise level. According to some authors, noise annoyance is an inherently vague and uncertain concept, and Leq,T does not provide any information about subjective annoyance to humans. Some fuzzy models have been proposed to model subjective annoyance. However, the use of fuzzy rule-based systems (FRBS) that have been adapted to acoustic sensor node resource limitations in real WASN to provide the degree of subjective noise annoyance in real-time remains a largely unexplored region. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of an FRBS that enables the sensor nodes of a real WASN deployed in the city of Linares (Jaen), Spain to infer the degree of subjective noise annoyance in real-time. The hardware used for the sensor nodes is a commercial model, Arduino Due. The results demonstrate that the sensor nodes have sufficient processing capacity and memory to infer the subjective annoyance in real-time, and the system can correctly detect situations that can be considered more annoying by humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends and Future Prospects on Smart and Sustainable Cities)
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31 pages, 11648 KiB  
Article
Smart Sustainable Cities: The Essentials for Managers’ and Leaders’ Initiatives within the Complex Context of Differing Definitions and Assessments
by Fabienne T. Schiavo and Cláudio F. de Magalhães
Smart Cities 2022, 5(3), 994-1024; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities5030050 - 17 Aug 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 5280
Abstract
This study starts by questioning what smart cities are and how they are being planned for the future of the population. Faced with a wide range of information, the coexistence of multiple definitions, and differences between the theoretical concept and what is being [...] Read more.
This study starts by questioning what smart cities are and how they are being planned for the future of the population. Faced with a wide range of information, the coexistence of multiple definitions, and differences between the theoretical concept and what is being carried out in the real world, it is recognized that entrepreneurs and public managers require more clarity regarding the essential attributes that need to be considered in the initiatives of a city that aims to be classified as smart. This study strives to identify and synthesize essential information, helping managers to define and develop projects and initiatives within the context of smart cities. Through a literature review, six widely cited and commonly used groups of indicators are selected, and the most frequent themes, indicators, and keywords are identified. The results are the essential elements founded and synthesized in a single visual scheme. Although this study has a practical purpose, it is also necessary to promote new policies focused on incentives for local initiatives to support and complement them due to the new decentralized and anthropocentric approach to smart sustainable cities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends and Future Prospects on Smart and Sustainable Cities)
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Review

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22 pages, 4738 KiB  
Review
Smart City Transformation: An Analysis of Dhaka and Its Challenges and Opportunities
by Ashish Kumar Karmaker, S M Rezwanul Islam, Md Kamruzzaman, Md Mamun Ur Rashid, Md Omer Faruque and Md Alamgir Hossain
Smart Cities 2023, 6(2), 1087-1108; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities6020052 - 07 Apr 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 7661
Abstract
Cities worldwide are experiencing rapid urbanization and an increasing population, creating a pressing need for smart infrastructure to enhance citizen services. Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh, faces similar technological and socio-economic challenges, making it crucial to transform it into a sustainable smart city. [...] Read more.
Cities worldwide are experiencing rapid urbanization and an increasing population, creating a pressing need for smart infrastructure to enhance citizen services. Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh, faces similar technological and socio-economic challenges, making it crucial to transform it into a sustainable smart city. This research analyzes the opportunities and challenges of smart cities and Dhaka through SWOT and PESTEL analyses. The study employs a fuzzy rule-based inference system in a MATLAB simulation to calculate the smart city index based on parameters such as governance, transportation, waste management, utility management, healthcare, and industrial automation. The findings reveal that good governance has the highest impact on the smart city index, followed by transportation. The paper proposes a sustainable smart city transportation framework and management technique, outlining future research directions. The proposed framework is expected to impact socio-economic, technological, and environmental aspects positively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends and Future Prospects on Smart and Sustainable Cities)
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