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Advances in Metamaterials or Plasmonics-Based Sensors

A topical collection in Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This collection belongs to the section "Sensor Materials".

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Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Hyogo 661-0972, Japan
Interests: graphene; 2D materials; plasmonics; metamaterials
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
College of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Noji-higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577, Japan
Interests: uncooled (thermal) infrared detectors; Type-II superlattice infrared detectors; infrared detectors; MEMS technology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

The fields of metamaterials and plasmonics have seen significant advances for both fundamental scientific understanding and applications. Metamaterials are artificially engineered structures and can realize new functions that cannot be obtained in nature, while plasmonics can manipulate electromagnetic waves beyond the diffraction limit. These technologies are combined primarily at optical wavelengths to produce unique properties that cannot be achieved by conventional technologies. In particular, various types of high-performance or new functional sensors such as optical, biological, medical, gas, and chemical sensors based on metamaterials and plasmonics have been proposed. This collection aims to introduce a wide range of recent advances in the metamaterials- and/or plasmonics-based sensor applications as well as related fundamental studies such as those on 2D material-based metamaterials or plasmonics for sensor applications.

We hope that this collection will inspire both academic and industrial communities to take advantage of these technologies and will stimulate the development of next-generation sensor products.

Dr. Shinpei Ogawa

Dr. Masafumi Kimata
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Metamaterials
  • Metasurfaces
  • Plasmonics
  • Sensors
  • Graphene
  • 2D materials

Published Papers (8 papers)

2021

Jump to: 2020

12 pages, 1163 KiB  
Communication
Aluminium-Based Plasmonic Sensors in Ultraviolet
by Karol Karpiński, Sylwia Zielińska-Raczyńska and David Ziemkiewicz
Sensors 2021, 21(12), 4096; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21124096 - 14 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1762
Abstract
We theoretically investigate the surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) generated on an Al film covered by an Al2O3 layer in the context of their application as refractive index sensors. The calculated reflection spectra indicate SPP resonance excited by ultraviolet light, which [...] Read more.
We theoretically investigate the surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) generated on an Al film covered by an Al2O3 layer in the context of their application as refractive index sensors. The calculated reflection spectra indicate SPP resonance excited by ultraviolet light, which was affected by the thickness of both the metal and the oxide layers on the surface. With optimized geometry, the system can work as a tunable sensor with a wide UV wavelength range λ 150–300 nm. We report a quality factor of up to 10 and a figure of merit on the order of 9, and these are comparable to the performance of more complicated UV plasmonic nanostructures and allow for the detection of a 1% change of the refraction index. The sensor can operate on the basis of either the incidence angle or wavelength changes. The effect of oxide surface roughness is also investigated with an emphasis on amplitude-based refraction index sensing. Full article
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12 pages, 2265 KiB  
Article
Molecular Monolayer Sensing Using Surface Plasmon Resonance and Angular Goos-Hänchen Shift
by Cherrie May Olaya, Norihiko Hayazawa, Maria Vanessa Balois-Oguchi, Nathaniel Hermosa and Takuo Tanaka
Sensors 2021, 21(13), 4593; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21134593 - 05 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2530
Abstract
We demonstrate potential molecular monolayer detection using measurements of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and angular Goos-Hänchen (GH) shift. Here, the molecular monolayer of interest is a benzenethiol self-assembled monolayer (BT-SAM) adsorbed on a gold (Au) substrate. Excitation of surface plasmons enhanced the GH [...] Read more.
We demonstrate potential molecular monolayer detection using measurements of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and angular Goos-Hänchen (GH) shift. Here, the molecular monolayer of interest is a benzenethiol self-assembled monolayer (BT-SAM) adsorbed on a gold (Au) substrate. Excitation of surface plasmons enhanced the GH shift which was dominated by angular GH shift because we focused the incident beam to a small beam waist making spatial GH shift negligible. For measurements in ambient, the presence of BT-SAM on a Au substrate induces hydrophobicity which decreases the likelihood of contamination on the surface allowing for molecular monolayer sensing. This is in contrast to the hydrophilic nature of a clean Au surface that is highly susceptible to contamination. Since our measurements were made in ambient, larger SPR angle than the expected value was measured due to the contamination in the Au substrate. In contrast, the SPR angle was smaller when BT-SAM coated the Au substrate due to the minimization of contaminants brought about by Au surface modification. Detection of the molecular monolayer acounts for the small change in the SPR angle from the expected value. Full article
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11 pages, 6091 KiB  
Communication
Frequency-Tunable Terahertz Plasmonic Structure Based on the Solid Immersed Method for Sensing
by Toshio Sugaya and Yukio Kawano
Sensors 2021, 21(4), 1419; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21041419 - 18 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2182
Abstract
Terahertz waves are located in the frequency band between radio waves and light, and they are being considered for various applications as a light source. Generally, the use of light requires focusing; however, when a terahertz wave is irradiated onto a small detector [...] Read more.
Terahertz waves are located in the frequency band between radio waves and light, and they are being considered for various applications as a light source. Generally, the use of light requires focusing; however, when a terahertz wave is irradiated onto a small detector or a small measurement sample, its wavelength, which is much longer than that of visible light, causes problems. The diffraction limit may make it impossible to focus the terahertz light down to the desired range by using common lenses. The Bull’s Eye structure, which is a plasmonic structure, is a promising tool for focusing the terahertz light beyond the diffraction limit and into the sub-wavelength region. By utilizing the surface plasmon propagation, the electric field intensity and transmission coefficient can be enhanced. In this study, we improved the electric field intensity and light focusing in a small region by adapting the solid immersion method (SIM) from our previous study, which had a frequency-tunable nonconcentric Bull’s Eye structure. Through electromagnetic field analysis, the electric field intensity was confirmed to be approximately 20 times higher than that of the case without the SIM, and the transmission measurements confirmed that the transmission through an aperture had a gap of 1/20 that of the wavelength. This fabricated device can be used in imaging and sensing applications because of the close contact between the transmission aperture and the measurement sample. Full article
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13 pages, 2996 KiB  
Article
Theoretical and Numerical Analysis of Active Switching for Narrow-Band Thermal Emission with Graphene Ribbon Metasurface
by Kyohei Yada, Takashi Shimojo, Hideyuki Okada and Atsushi Sakurai
Sensors 2021, 21(20), 6738; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21206738 - 11 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1806
Abstract
Components smaller than the wavelength of electromagnetic waves are called meta-atoms. Thermal emission can be controlled by an artificial structure in which these meta-atoms are arranged on the surface. This artificial structure is called a metasurface, and its optical properties are determined by [...] Read more.
Components smaller than the wavelength of electromagnetic waves are called meta-atoms. Thermal emission can be controlled by an artificial structure in which these meta-atoms are arranged on the surface. This artificial structure is called a metasurface, and its optical properties are determined by the materials and shapes of the meta-atoms. However, optical devices may require active control of thermal emission. In the present study, we theoretically and numerically analyze a wavelength-selective emitter using a graphene ribbon metasurface. The graphene ribbon metasurface consists of a graphene ribbon array, potassium bromide thin film, and silver substrate. The geometric parameters of the graphene metasurface are determined based on an equivalent circuit model that agrees well with the results of the electromagnetic field analysis (rigorous coupled-wave analysis). The proposed emitter causes impedance matching depending on the conductivity of the graphene ribbon in a very narrow wavelength range. The conductivity of graphene can be actively controlled by the gate voltage. Therefore, the proposed emitters may realize near-perfect emission with a high quality factor and active controllable switching for various wavelengths. In addition, the quality factor can be changed by adjusting the electron mobility of graphene. The proposed emitter can be used for optical devices such as thermophotovoltaic systems and biosensing. Full article
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13 pages, 2107 KiB  
Article
A Study of Terahertz-Wave Cylindrical Super-Oscillatory Lens for Industrial Applications
by Ayato Iba, Makoto Ikeda, Verdad C. Agulto, Valynn Katrine Mag-usara and Makoto Nakajima
Sensors 2021, 21(20), 6732; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21206732 - 11 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1468
Abstract
This paper describes the design and development of a cylindrical super-oscillatory lens (CSOL) for applications in the sub-terahertz frequency range, which are especially ideal for industrial inspection of films using terahertz (THz) and millimeter waves. Product inspections require high resolution (same as inspection [...] Read more.
This paper describes the design and development of a cylindrical super-oscillatory lens (CSOL) for applications in the sub-terahertz frequency range, which are especially ideal for industrial inspection of films using terahertz (THz) and millimeter waves. Product inspections require high resolution (same as inspection with visible light), long working distance, and long depth of focus (DOF). However, these are difficult to achieve using conventional THz components due to diffraction limits. Here, we present a numerical approach in designing a 100 mm × 100 mm CSOL with optimum properties and performance for 0.1 THz (wavelength λ = 3 mm). Simulations show that, at a focal length of 70 mm (23.3λ), the focused beam by the optimized CSOL is a thin line with a width of 2.5 mm (0.84λ), which is 0.79 times the diffraction limit. The DOF of 10 mm (3.3λ) is longer than that of conventional lenses. The results also indicate that the generation of thin line-shaped focal beam is dominantly influenced by the outer part of the lens. Full article
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2020

Jump to: 2021

21 pages, 4606 KiB  
Review
Graphene Plasmonics in Sensor Applications: A Review
by Shinpei Ogawa, Shoichiro Fukushima and Masaaki Shimatani
Sensors 2020, 20(12), 3563; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20123563 - 23 Jun 2020
Cited by 38 | Viewed by 6585
Abstract
Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) can be generated in graphene at frequencies in the mid-infrared to terahertz range, which is not possible using conventional plasmonic materials such as noble metals. Moreover, the lifetime and confinement volume of such SPPs are much longer and smaller, [...] Read more.
Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) can be generated in graphene at frequencies in the mid-infrared to terahertz range, which is not possible using conventional plasmonic materials such as noble metals. Moreover, the lifetime and confinement volume of such SPPs are much longer and smaller, respectively, than those in metals. For these reasons, graphene plasmonics has potential applications in novel plasmonic sensors and various concepts have been proposed. This review paper examines the potential of such graphene plasmonics with regard to the development of novel high-performance sensors. The theoretical background is summarized and the intrinsic nature of graphene plasmons, interactions between graphene and SPPs induced by metallic nanostructures and the electrical control of SPPs by adjusting the Fermi level of graphene are discussed. Subsequently, the development of optical sensors, biological sensors and important components such as absorbers/emitters and reconfigurable optical mirrors for use in new sensor systems are reviewed. Finally, future challenges related to the fabrication of graphene-based devices as well as various advanced optical devices incorporating other two-dimensional materials are examined. This review is intended to assist researchers in both industry and academia in the design and development of novel sensors based on graphene plasmonics. Full article
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13 pages, 1886 KiB  
Article
Microscopic Study on Excitation and Emission Enhancement by the Plasmon Mode on a Plasmonic Chip
by Hinako Chida and Keiko Tawa
Sensors 2020, 20(22), 6415; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20226415 - 10 Nov 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1769
Abstract
Excitation and emission enhancement by using the plasmon mode formed on a plasmonic chip was studied with a microscope and micro-spectroscope. Surface plasmon resonance wavelengths were observed on one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) plasmonic chips by measuring reflection and transmission spectra, and they [...] Read more.
Excitation and emission enhancement by using the plasmon mode formed on a plasmonic chip was studied with a microscope and micro-spectroscope. Surface plasmon resonance wavelengths were observed on one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) plasmonic chips by measuring reflection and transmission spectra, and they were assigned to the plasmon modes predicted by the theoretical resonance wavelengths. The excitation and emission enhancements were evaluated using the fluorescence intensity of yellow–green fluorescence particles. The 2D grating had plasmon modes of kgx45(2) (diagonal direction with m = 2) in addition to the fundamental mode of kgx(1) (direction of a square one side) in the visible range. In epifluorescence detection, the excitation enhancement factors of kgx(2) on the 1D and 2D chips were found to be 1.3–1.4, and the emission enhancement factor of kgx45(2) on the 2D chip was 1.5–1.8, although the emission enhancement was not found on the 1D chip. Moreover, enhancement factors for the other fluorophores were also studied. The emission enhancement factor of kgx(1) was shown to depend on the fluorescence quantum yield. The emission enhancement of 2D was 1.3-fold larger than that of 1D considering all azimuth components, and the 2D pattern was shown to be advantageous for bright fluorescence microscopic observation. Full article
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33 pages, 3916 KiB  
Review
Scalable and High-Throughput Top-Down Manufacturing of Optical Metasurfaces
by Taejun Lee, Chihun Lee, Dong Kyo Oh, Trevon Badloe, Jong G. Ok and Junsuk Rho
Sensors 2020, 20(15), 4108; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20154108 - 23 Jul 2020
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 7169
Abstract
Metasurfaces have shown promising potential to miniaturize existing bulk optical components thanks to their extraordinary optical properties and ultra-thin, small, and lightweight footprints. However, the absence of proper manufacturing methods has been one of the main obstacles preventing the practical application of metasurfaces [...] Read more.
Metasurfaces have shown promising potential to miniaturize existing bulk optical components thanks to their extraordinary optical properties and ultra-thin, small, and lightweight footprints. However, the absence of proper manufacturing methods has been one of the main obstacles preventing the practical application of metasurfaces and commercialization. Although a variety of fabrication techniques have been used to produce optical metasurfaces, there are still no universal scalable and high-throughput manufacturing methods that meet the criteria for large-scale metasurfaces for device/product-level applications. The fundamentals and recent progress of the large area and high-throughput manufacturing methods are discussed with practical device applications. We systematically classify various top-down scalable patterning techniques for optical metasurfaces: firstly, optical and printing methods are categorized and then their conventional and unconventional (emerging/new) techniques are discussed in detail, respectively. In the end of each section, we also introduce the recent developments of metasurfaces realized by the corresponding fabrication methods. Full article
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