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Surface Plasmon Sensors

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Optical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2022) | Viewed by 34141

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Division of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Mie University, Mie, Japan
Interests: surface plasmon resonance; metasurface; metamaterial; surface plasmon sensors; polarization devices; filtering devices; light-emitting devices; detectors; periodical structure; diffractive optics; electron-beam lithography; 3D printing
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
1. Department of Nursing and Physiotherapy, University of León, 24071 León, Spain
2. Institute of Food Science and Technology (ICTAL), La Serna 58, 24007 León, Spain
Interests: biosensors; plasmonic sensors; surface plasmon resonance; localized surface plasmon resonance; biofunctionalization strategies; biomedical applications; clinical diagnostics; point of care
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, basic and applied research on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) has been actively conducted. In particular, the SPR sensor is one of the devices that has been actively investigated in applied research of an optical platform using the propagation of surface plasmon polaritons. The utilization of nanostructures has enabled the development of more sensitive detection formats adapted to multiplexed configurations. Specifically, the unique optical and electronic properties of nanomaterials have permitted the advancement of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and surface-enhanced raman scattering (SERS) applications. Likewise, the fabrication of nanopatterned structures through lithographic patterning has provided high spatial resolution surface structures while improving the sensitivity of the systems. In this Special Issue, we would like to compile the latest research results on the theory and experiments regarding the measurement principle, detection formats, performances, and applications for surface plasmon sensors, and to discuss the current status and future prospects of surface plasmon sensor performance.

Dr. Atsushi Motogaito
Prof. Dr. Elba Mauriz
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • surface plasmon sensor
  • propagating surface plasmon
  • localized surface plasmon
  • ATR method
  • metal grating
  • substrate of the localized surface plasmon
  • refractive index
  • sensitivity
  • figure of merit
  • nanostructures
  • nanomaterials
  • surface-enhanced Raman scattering

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 3899 KiB  
Article
Off-Resonance Gold Nanobone Films at Liquid Interface for SERS Applications
by Rebeca Moldovan, Valentin Toma, Bogdan-Cezar Iacob, Rareș Ionuț Știufiuc and Ede Bodoki
Sensors 2022, 22(1), 236; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22010236 - 29 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1686
Abstract
Extensive effort and research are currently channeled towards the implementation of SERS (Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy) as a standard analytical tool as it has undisputedly demonstrated a great potential for trace detection of various analytes. Novel and improved substrates are continuously reported in [...] Read more.
Extensive effort and research are currently channeled towards the implementation of SERS (Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy) as a standard analytical tool as it has undisputedly demonstrated a great potential for trace detection of various analytes. Novel and improved substrates are continuously reported in this regard. It is generally believed that plasmonic nanostructures with plasmon resonances close to the excitation wavelength (on-resonance) generate stronger SERS enhancements, but this finding is still under debate. In the current paper, we compared off-resonance gold nanobones (GNBs) with on-resonance GNBs and gold nanorods (GNRs) in both colloidal dispersion and as close-packed films self-assembled at liquid-liquid interface. Rhodamine 6G (R6G) was used as a Raman reporter in order to evaluate SERS performances. A 17-, 18-, and 55-fold increase in the Raman signal was observed for nanostructures (off-resonance GNBs, on-resonance GNBs, and on-resonance GNRs, respectively) assembled at liquid-liquid interface compared to the same nanostructures in colloidal dispersion. SERS performances of off-resonance GNBs were superior to on-resonance nanostructures in both cases. Furthermore, when off-resonance GNBs were assembled at the liquid interface, a relative standard deviation of 4.56% of the recorded signal intensity and a limit of detection (LOD) of 5 × 10−9 M could be obtained for R6G, rendering this substrate suitable for analytical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Plasmon Sensors)
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12 pages, 1465 KiB  
Article
Ultra-Narrow SPP Generation from Ag Grating
by Gerald Stocker, Jasmin Spettel, Thang Duy Dao, Andreas Tortschanoff, Reyhaneh Jannesari, Gerald Pühringer, Parviz Saeidi, Florian Dubois, Clement Fleury, Cristina Consani, Thomas Grille, Elmar Aschauer and Bernhard Jakoby
Sensors 2021, 21(21), 6993; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21216993 - 21 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2320
Abstract
In this study, we investigate the potential of one-dimensional plasmonic grating structures to serve as a platform for, e.g., sensitive refractive index sensing. This is achieved by comparing numerical simulations to experimental results with respect to the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) [...] Read more.
In this study, we investigate the potential of one-dimensional plasmonic grating structures to serve as a platform for, e.g., sensitive refractive index sensing. This is achieved by comparing numerical simulations to experimental results with respect to the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in the mid-infrared region. The samples, silver-coated poly-silicon gratings, cover different grating depths in the range of 50 nm–375 nm. This variation of the depth, at a fixed grating geometry, allows the active tuning of the bandwidth of the SPP resonance according to the requirements of particular applications. The experimental setup employs a tunable quantum cascade laser (QCL) and allows the retrieval of angle-resolved experimental wavelength spectra to characterize the wavelength and angle dependence of the SPP resonance of the specular reflectance. The experimental results are in good agreement with the simulations. As a tendency, shallower gratings reveal narrower SPP resonances in reflection. In particular, we report on 2.9 nm full width at half maximum (FWHM) at a wavelength of 4.12 µm and a signal attenuation of 21%. According to a numerical investigation with respect to a change of the refractive index of the dielectric above the grating structure, a spectral shift of 4122nmRIU can be expected, which translates to a figure of merit (FOM) of about 1421 RIU1. The fabrication of the suggested structures is performed on eight-inch silicon substrates, entirely accomplished within an industrial fabrication environment using standard microfabrication processes. This in turn represents a decisive step towards plasmonic sensor technologies suitable for semiconductor mass-production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Plasmon Sensors)
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11 pages, 3149 KiB  
Article
221 K Local Photothermal Heating in a Si Plasmonic Waveguide Loaded with a Co Thin Film
by Nana Ota, Tomohiro Miyauchi and Hiromasa Shimizu
Sensors 2021, 21(19), 6634; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21196634 - 06 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3527
Abstract
Photothermal heaters are important devices for optical switches and memories based on the thermo-optic/magneto-optic effect and phase change materials. We demonstrated photothermal heating in Si plasmonic waveguides loaded with Co thin films by measuring the resistance change upon inputting transverse-magnetic (TM) mode light. [...] Read more.
Photothermal heaters are important devices for optical switches and memories based on the thermo-optic/magneto-optic effect and phase change materials. We demonstrated photothermal heating in Si plasmonic waveguides loaded with Co thin films by measuring the resistance change upon inputting transverse-magnetic (TM) mode light. Temperature rise is proportional to the light intensity with clear polarization dependence. The photothermal conversion efficiency was estimated at 36 K/mW and maximum temperature rise was estimated at 221 K at steady state upon the inputting 6.3 mW TM mode light for the 400 nm-wide, 8 µm-long and 189 nm-thick Co film deposited on the Si wire waveguide with 129 nm-thick SiO2 buffer layer. The method to increase the efficiency is discussed based on the experimental and simulation results considering the thickness of the SiO2 buffer layer, Co layer and Si core layer, waveguide width, and wavelength. Local photothermal heaters in this study can be applied to a variety of fields including optical switches/memories without electrical control signals in photonic integrated circuits, on-chip optical sensors, and a lab-on-a-chip in biology, chemistry, and medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Plasmon Sensors)
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13 pages, 3587 KiB  
Article
SERS Gas Sensors Based on Multiple Polymer Films with High Design Flexibility for Gas Recognition
by Lin Chen, Hao Guo, Fumihiro Sassa, Bin Chen and Kenshi Hayashi
Sensors 2021, 21(16), 5546; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21165546 - 18 Aug 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3106
Abstract
The Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) technique is utilized to fabricate sensors for gas detection due to its rapid detection speed and high sensitivity. However, gases with similar molecular structures are difficult to directly discriminate using SERS gas sensors because there are characteristic peak [...] Read more.
The Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) technique is utilized to fabricate sensors for gas detection due to its rapid detection speed and high sensitivity. However, gases with similar molecular structures are difficult to directly discriminate using SERS gas sensors because there are characteristic peak overlaps in the Raman spectra. Here, we proposed a multiple SERS gas sensor matrix via a spin-coating functional polymer to enhance the gas recognition capability. Poly (acrylic acid) (PAA), Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) were employed to fabricate the polymer film. The high design flexibility of the two-layer film was realized by the layer-by-layer method with 2 one-layer films. The SERS gas sensor coated by different polymer films showed a distinct affinity to target gases. The principle component analysis (PCA) algorithm was used for the further clustering of gas molecules. Three target gases, phenethyl alcohol, acetophenone and anethole, were perfectly discriminated, as the characteristic variables in the response matrix constructed by the combination of gas responses obtained 3 one-layer and 3 two-layer film-coated sensors. This research provides a new SERS sensing approach for recognizing gases with similar molecular structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Plasmon Sensors)
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16 pages, 6837 KiB  
Article
SARS-CoV-2 Receptor Binding Domain as a Stable-Potential Target for SARS-CoV-2 Detection by Surface—Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy
by Chawki Awada, Mohammed Mahfoudh BA Abdullah, Hassan Traboulsi, Chahinez Dab and Adil Alshoaibi
Sensors 2021, 21(13), 4617; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21134617 - 05 Jul 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3936
Abstract
In this work, we report a new approach for detecting SARS-CoV-2 RBD protein (RBD) using the surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) technique. The optical enhancement was obtained thanks to the preparation of nanostructured Ag/Au substrates. Fabricated Au/Ag nanostructures were used in the SERS experiment [...] Read more.
In this work, we report a new approach for detecting SARS-CoV-2 RBD protein (RBD) using the surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) technique. The optical enhancement was obtained thanks to the preparation of nanostructured Ag/Au substrates. Fabricated Au/Ag nanostructures were used in the SERS experiment for RBD protein detection. SERS substrates show higher capabilities and sensitivity to detect RBD protein in a short time (3 s) and with very low power. We were able to push the detection limit of proteins to a single protein detection level of 1 pM. The latter is equivalent to 1 fM as a detection limit of viruses. Additionally, we have shown that the SERS technique was useful to figure out the presence of RBD protein on antibody functionalized substrates. In this case, the SERS detection was based on protein-antibody recognition, which led to shifts in the Raman peaks and allowed signal discrimination between RBD and other targets such as Bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein. A perfect agreement between a 3D simulated model based on finite element method and experiment was reported confirming the SERS frequency shift potential for trace proteins detection. Our results could open the way to develop a new prototype based on SERS sensitivity and selectivity for rapid detection at a very low concentration of virus and even at a single protein level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Plasmon Sensors)
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14 pages, 908 KiB  
Article
Label-Free Oligonucleotide-Based SPR Biosensor for the Detection of the Gene Mutation Causing Prothrombin-Related Thrombophilia
by Rodrigo Sierpe, Marcelo J. Kogan and Soledad Bollo
Sensors 2020, 20(21), 6240; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20216240 - 31 Oct 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2558
Abstract
Prothrombin-related thrombophilia is a genetic disorder produced by a substitution of a single DNA base pair, replacing guanine with adenine, and is detected mainly by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A suitable alternative that could detect the single point mutation without requiring sample amplification [...] Read more.
Prothrombin-related thrombophilia is a genetic disorder produced by a substitution of a single DNA base pair, replacing guanine with adenine, and is detected mainly by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A suitable alternative that could detect the single point mutation without requiring sample amplification is the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique. SPR biosensors are of great interest: they offer a platform to monitor biomolecular interactions, are highly selective, and enable rapid analysis in real time. Oligonucleotide-based SPR biosensors can be used to differentiate complementary sequences from partially complementary or noncomplementary strands. In this work, a glass chip covered with an ultrathin (50 nm) gold film was modified with oligonucleotide strands complementary to the mutated or normal (nonmutated) DNA responsible for prothrombin-related thrombophilia, forming two detection platforms called mutated thrombophilia (MT) biosensor and normal thrombophilia (NT) biosensor. The results show that the hybridization response is obtained in 30 min, label free and with high reproducibility. The sensitivity obtained in both systems was approximately 4 ΔμRIU/nM. The dissociation constant and limits of detection calculated were 12.2 nM and 20 pM (3 fmol), respectively, for the MT biosensor, and 8.5 nM and 30 pM (4.5 fmol) for the NT biosensor. The two biosensors selectively recognize their complementary strand (mutated or normal) in buffer solution. In addition, each platform can be reused up to 24 times when the surface is regenerated with HCl. This work contributes to the design of the first SPR biosensor for the detection of prothrombin-related thrombophilia based on oligonucleotides with single point mutations, label-free and without the need to apply an amplification method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Plasmon Sensors)
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15 pages, 3073 KiB  
Article
A Highly Magnetic Field Sensitive Photonic Crystal Fiber Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance
by Huimin Huang, Zhenrong Zhang, Yang Yu, Lingjun Zhou, Yuyu Tao, Guofeng Li and Junbo Yang
Sensors 2020, 20(18), 5193; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20185193 - 11 Sep 2020
Cited by 38 | Viewed by 3310
Abstract
A novel magnetic field sensor comprising a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) is designed and investigated based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR). We use finite element analysis in order to analyze the sensing characteristics of the magnetic field sensor. The simulation results show that [...] Read more.
A novel magnetic field sensor comprising a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) is designed and investigated based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR). We use finite element analysis in order to analyze the sensing characteristics of the magnetic field sensor. The simulation results show that the sensor is very sensitive to the change of refractive index and has good linearity in the refractive index range from 1.43–1.45. The thickness of the metal film and the metal material has great influence on the resonance wavelength and the peak of the loss spectrum, the diameter of the central air hole will affect SPP excitation. When the thickness of gold layer is 50 nm, the refractive index sensitivity is 4125 nm/RIU in the refractive index range from 1.43–1.45. Using the designed sensor for magnetic field sensing, the loss spectrum is red-shifted with the increase of the magnetic field, the highest magnetic field sensitivity can reach 61.25 pm/Oe in the range from 50 Oe to 130 Oe. The sensor not only has high sensitivity of refractive index, but it can also realize accurate measurement of magnetic field. It has huge application potential in complex environment, remote sensing, real-time monitoring, and other fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Plasmon Sensors)
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Review

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30 pages, 2696 KiB  
Review
Surface Plasmonic Sensors: Sensing Mechanism and Recent Applications
by Qilin Duan, Yineng Liu, Shanshan Chang, Huanyang Chen and Jin-hui Chen
Sensors 2021, 21(16), 5262; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21165262 - 04 Aug 2021
Cited by 57 | Viewed by 12296
Abstract
Surface plasmonic sensors have been widely used in biology, chemistry, and environment monitoring. These sensors exhibit extraordinary sensitivity based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) or localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effects, and they have found commercial applications. In this review, we present recent [...] Read more.
Surface plasmonic sensors have been widely used in biology, chemistry, and environment monitoring. These sensors exhibit extraordinary sensitivity based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) or localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effects, and they have found commercial applications. In this review, we present recent progress in the field of surface plasmonic sensors, mainly in the configurations of planar metastructures and optical-fiber waveguides. In the metastructure platform, the optical sensors based on LSPR, hyperbolic dispersion, Fano resonance, and two-dimensional (2D) materials integration are introduced. The optical-fiber sensors integrated with LSPR/SPR structures and 2D materials are summarized. We also introduce the recent advances in quantum plasmonic sensing beyond the classical shot noise limit. The challenges and opportunities in this field are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Plasmon Sensors)
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