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Electrochemical Sensors in the Food Industry

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Chemical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 28 February 2025 | Viewed by 33507

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Science and Technology, Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Piazza Università 5, 39100 Bozen-Bolzano, Italy
Interests: food antioxidants; electrochemical sensors; electronic tongues; electronic noses

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Science and Technology, Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Piazza Università 5, 39100 Bozen-Bolzano, Italy
Interests: food antioxidants; electrochemical sensors; electronic tongues; electronic noses
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The need to develop high-throughput systems for food analysis is driving interest in electrochemical sensors based on voltammetry, amperometry, and coulometry. Their main advantages over conventional techniques are their sensitivity, rapidity, simplicity, and the capacity to directly measure the number of electrons transferred by a substance. In addition, electronic nose and electronic tongue are particularly suitable for carrying out rapid and objective sensory measurements, which are important in food production. They are common electrochemical sensor systems responding to flavor or odor (volatiles) or taste (solubles), using an array of simple and non-specific sensors and a pattern recognition software system. Contrary to traditional analytical methods, the response of electrochemical sensors can be used as a digital fingerprint of the typical food products.

This Special Issue focuses on the current advancement in electrochemical sensors for application in food quality, safety, and authenticity. We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Dr. Ksenia Morozova
Prof. Dr. Matteo Mario Scampicchio
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • electrochemistry
  • electronic tongue
  • electronic nose
  • food sensor
  • food analysis
  • food control
  • food safety
  • sensory analysis
  • food quality
  • food authenticity
  • flow injection analysis
  • amperometry
  • voltammetry
  • potentiometry
  • coulometry
  • biosensors

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 3872 KiB  
Article
New Insights into the Comprehensive System of Thermodynamic Sensors and Electronic Nose and Its Practical Applications in Dough Fermentation Monitoring
by Veronika Sevcikova, Martin Adamek, Romana Sebestikova, Iva Buresova, Martin Buran, Anna Adamkova, Magdalena Zvonkova, Nela Skowronkova, Jiri Matyas and Jiri Mlcek
Sensors 2024, 24(2), 352; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24020352 - 7 Jan 2024
Viewed by 943
Abstract
This study focuses on an applicability of the device designed for monitoring dough fermentation. The device combines a complex system of thermodynamic sensors (TDSs) with an electronic nose (E-nose). The device’s behavior was tested in experiments with dough samples. The configuration of the [...] Read more.
This study focuses on an applicability of the device designed for monitoring dough fermentation. The device combines a complex system of thermodynamic sensors (TDSs) with an electronic nose (E-nose). The device’s behavior was tested in experiments with dough samples. The configuration of the sensors in the thermodynamic system was explored and their response to various positions of the heat source was investigated. When the distance of the heat source and its intensity from two thermodynamic sensors changes, the output signal of the thermodynamic system changes as well. Thus, as the distance of the heat source decreases or the intensity increases, there is a higher change in the output signal of the system. The linear trend of this change reaches an R2 value of 0.936. Characteristics of the doughs prepared from traditional and non-traditional flours were successfully detected using the electronic nose. To validate findings, the results of the measurements were compared with signals from the rheofermentometer Rheo F4, and the correlation between the output signals was closely monitored. The data after statistical evaluation show that the measurements using thermodynamic sensors and electronic nose directly correlate the most with the measured values of the fermenting dough volume. Pearson’s correlation coefficient for TDSs and rheofermentometer reaches up to 0.932. The E-nose signals also correlate well with dough volume development, up to 0.973. The data and their analysis provided by this study declare that the used system configuration and methods are fully usable for this type of food analysis and also could be usable in other types of food based on the controlled fermentation. The system configuration, based on the result, will be also used in future studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Sensors in the Food Industry)
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14 pages, 3446 KiB  
Article
Gold Nanoparticles/Nanographene-Based 3D Sensors Integrated in Mini-Platforms for Thiamine Detection
by Damaris-Cristina Gheorghe, Jacobus (Koos) Frederick van Staden, Raluca-Ioana Stefan-van Staden and Paula Sfirloaga
Sensors 2023, 23(1), 344; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23010344 - 29 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1937
Abstract
Vitamins are essential for sustaining daily activities and perform crucial roles in metabolism, such as preventing vascular events and delaying the development of diabetic nephropathy. The ultrasensitive assessment of thiamine in foods is required for food quality evaluation. A mini-platform utilizing two 3D [...] Read more.
Vitamins are essential for sustaining daily activities and perform crucial roles in metabolism, such as preventing vascular events and delaying the development of diabetic nephropathy. The ultrasensitive assessment of thiamine in foods is required for food quality evaluation. A mini-platform utilizing two 3D sensors based on nanographene and gold nanoparticles paste modified with protoporphyrin IX and protoporphyrin IX cobalt chloride is proposed for the detection of thiamine in blueberry syrup, multivitamin tablets, water, and a biological sample (urine). Differential pulse voltammetry was utilized for the characterization and validation of the suggested sensors. The sensor modified with protoporphyrin IX has a detection limit of 3.0 × 10−13 mol L−1 and a quantification limit of 1.0 × 10−12 mol L−1, whereas the sensor modified with protoporphyrin IX cobalt chloride has detection and quantification limits of 3.0 × 10−12 and 1.0 × 10−11 mol L−1, respectively. High recoveries (values greater than 95.00%) and low RSD (%) values (less than 5.00%) are recorded for both 3D sensors when used for the determination of thiamine in blueberry syrup, multivitamin tablets, water, and urine, demonstrating the 3D sensors’ and suggested method’s high reliability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Sensors in the Food Industry)
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21 pages, 6963 KiB  
Article
Smart Portable Device Based on the Utilization of a 2D Disposable Paper Stochastic Sensor for Fast Ultrasensitive Screening of Food Samples for Bisphenols
by Raluca-Ioana Stefan-van Staden, Irina-Alina Chera-Anghel, Damaris-Cristina Gheorghe, Jacobus (Koos) Frederick van  Staden and Marius Badulescu
Sensors 2023, 23(1), 314; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23010314 - 28 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1281
Abstract
Since the determination of the high toxicity of bisphenol A, alternative structures for bisphenols have been synthesized, resulting in bisphenols C, E, F, S, and Z. These bisphenols have replaced bisphenol A in plastic bottles, toys, and cans used for preserving food. Later, [...] Read more.
Since the determination of the high toxicity of bisphenol A, alternative structures for bisphenols have been synthesized, resulting in bisphenols C, E, F, S, and Z. These bisphenols have replaced bisphenol A in plastic bottles, toys, and cans used for preserving food. Later, the toxicity and negative effects of all of these bisphenols on people’s health were proven. Therefore, there is a need for a fast ultrasensitive screening method that is able to detect the presence of these bisphenols in any condition directly from food samples. This paper presented a disposable device based on the utilization of a 2D disposable paper stochastic sensor for the fast ultrasensitive screening of food samples for bisphenols A, C, E, F, S, and Z. The 2D disposable sensor was obtained by the deposition of graphene and silver nanolayers on paper using cold plasma. Furthermore, the active side of the sensor was modified using 2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octaethyl-21H,23H Mn porphyrin. The limits of quantification of these bisphenols were 1 fmol L−1 for bisphenols C and E, 10 fmol L−1 for bisphenols A and F, 10 pmol L−1 for bisphenol S, and 1 pmol L−1 for bisphenol Z. The recoveries of these bisphenols in milk, canned fruits, vegetables, and fish were higher than 99.00% with RSD (%) values lower than 1.50%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Sensors in the Food Industry)
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14 pages, 2550 KiB  
Article
Molecularly Imprinted Polymer-Modified Microneedle Sensor for the Detection of Imidacloprid Pesticides in Food Samples
by Samuel M. Mugo, Weihao Lu and Scott V. Robertson
Sensors 2022, 22(21), 8492; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22218492 - 4 Nov 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2171
Abstract
A portable, molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP)-based microneedle (MN) sensor for the electrochemical detection of imidacloprid (IDP) has been demonstrated. The MN sensor was fabricated via layer-by-layer (LbL) in-tube coating using a carbon nanotube (CNT)/cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) composite, and an IDP-imprinted polyaniline layer co-polymerized [...] Read more.
A portable, molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP)-based microneedle (MN) sensor for the electrochemical detection of imidacloprid (IDP) has been demonstrated. The MN sensor was fabricated via layer-by-layer (LbL) in-tube coating using a carbon nanotube (CNT)/cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) composite, and an IDP-imprinted polyaniline layer co-polymerized with imidazole-functionalized CNCs (PANI-co-CNC-Im) as the biomimetic receptor film. The sensor, termed MIP@CNT/CNC MN, was analyzed using both cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and showed excellent electrochemical performance for the detection of IDP. The CV detection range for IDP was 2.0–99 µM, with limits of detection (LOD) of 0.35 µM, while the DPV detection range was 0.20–92 µM with an LOD of 0.06 µM. Additionally, the MIP@CNT/CNC MN sensor showed excellent reusability and could be used up to nine times with a 1.4 % relative standard deviation (% RSD) between uses. Lastly, the MIP@CNT/CNC MN sensor successfully demonstrated the quantification of IDP in a honey sample. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Sensors in the Food Industry)
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15 pages, 2267 KiB  
Article
Non-Enzymatic Phenylboronic Acid-Based Optode Membrane for Glucose Monitoring in Serums of Diabetic Patients and in the Culture Medium of Human Embryos
by Mohamed M. Taha, Mahmoud S. Rizk, Mohamed A. Zayed, Fatehy M. Abdel-Haleem and Ahmed Barhoum
Sensors 2022, 22(19), 7135; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22197135 - 21 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1812
Abstract
Monitoring glucose levels is important not only for diabetics, but also for tracking embryonic development in human embryo culture media. In this study, an optochemical sensor (glucose-selective polymer membrane) was fabricated for the determination of glucose in serum from diabetic patients and the [...] Read more.
Monitoring glucose levels is important not only for diabetics, but also for tracking embryonic development in human embryo culture media. In this study, an optochemical sensor (glucose-selective polymer membrane) was fabricated for the determination of glucose in serum from diabetic patients and the culture media of human embryos. The optode membranes were formulated using polyvinyl chloride (PVC) as the polymer matrix and 4′,5′-dibromofluorescein octadecyl ester (ETH 7075) as the chromoionophore. The sensitivity of the optode membranes was optimized using two different plasticizers (tricresyl phosphate-TCP and nitrophenyloctyl ether-NOPE) and three ionophores (nitrophenylboronic acid-NPBA, trifluorophenyboronic acid-TFPBA, 4′-nitrobenzo-15-crown-5) and tested for glucose detection. The best optode membrane was formulated from 49.5% PVC, 49.5% TCP, 1% NPBA, and 1% ETH 7075. It showed a linear dynamic range of 10−3 M to 10−1 M, with a detection limit of 9 × 10−4 M and a response time of 2 min. The detection mechanism involves H-bonding between NPBA and glucose, which was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The reaction also involves the formation of boronate esters in basic media with deprotonation of the chromoionophore (ETH 7075), leading to a decrease in UV–Vis absorbance at λmax = 530 nm. The membrane optode was used for glucose determination in synthetic culture medium, commercial embryo culture medium (GLOBAL® TOTAL® W/HEPES), and serum from normal and diabetic patients, showing good accuracy and precision of the optode. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Sensors in the Food Industry)
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13 pages, 3559 KiB  
Article
Sulfur-Doped Graphene-Based Electrochemical Sensors for Fast and Sensitive Determination of (R)-(+)-Limonene from Beverages
by Andreea-Roxana Niculae, Raluca-Ioana Stefan-van Staden, Jacobus Frederick van Staden and Ramona Georgescu State
Sensors 2022, 22(15), 5851; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22155851 - 5 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2017
Abstract
Two sensors based on sulfur-doped graphene, a gold nanoparticle paste modified with 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphine and 5,10,15,20-tetrakis (pentafluorophenyl chloride)-21H,23H-iron (III) porphyrin, were proposed for the determination of R-limonene in beverages (triple sec liqueur and limoncello). Differential pulse voltammetry was the method used to characterize and [...] Read more.
Two sensors based on sulfur-doped graphene, a gold nanoparticle paste modified with 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphine and 5,10,15,20-tetrakis (pentafluorophenyl chloride)-21H,23H-iron (III) porphyrin, were proposed for the determination of R-limonene in beverages (triple sec liqueur and limoncello). Differential pulse voltammetry was the method used to characterize and validate the proposed sensors. The response characteristics showed that the detection limits for both sensors were 3 × 10−6 mol L−1, while the quantification limits were 1 × 10−5 mol L−1. Both sensors can be used to determine R-limonene in a concentration range between 1 × 10−5–6 × 10−4 mol L−1 for TPP/AuNPs-S-Gr and 1 × 10−5–1 × 10−3 mol L−1 for Fe(TPFPP)Cl/AuNPs-S-Gr. The highest sensitivity (0.7068 µA/mol L−1) was recorded when the TPP/AuNPs-S-Gr sensor was used, proving that the electrocatalytic effect of this electrocatalyst is higher compared to that of Fe(TPFPP)Cl/AuNPs-S-Gr. High recoveries (values greater than 99.00%) and low RSD values (%) (below 5.00%) were recorded for both sensors when used to determine R-limonene in triple sec liqueur and limoncello. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Sensors in the Food Industry)
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19 pages, 3078 KiB  
Article
Electrochemical Sensor Based on Iron(II) Phthalocyanine and Gold Nanoparticles for Nitrite Detection in Meat Products
by Svetlana I. Dorovskikh, Darya D. Klyamer, Anastasiya D. Fedorenko, Natalia B. Morozova and Tamara V. Basova
Sensors 2022, 22(15), 5780; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22155780 - 2 Aug 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2504
Abstract
Nitrites are widely used in the food industry, particularly for the preservation of meat products. Controlling the nitrate content in food is an important task to ensure people’s health is not at risk; therefore, the search for, and research of, new materials that [...] Read more.
Nitrites are widely used in the food industry, particularly for the preservation of meat products. Controlling the nitrate content in food is an important task to ensure people’s health is not at risk; therefore, the search for, and research of, new materials that will modify the electrodes in the electrochemical sensors that detect and control the nitrate content in food products is an urgent task. In this paper, we describe the electrochemical behavior of a glass carbon electrode (GCE), modified with a Fe(II) tetra-tert-butyl phthalocyanine film (FePc(tBu)4/GCE), and decorated with gold nanoparticles (Au/FePc(tBu)4/GCE); this electrode was deposited using gas-phase methods. The composition and morphology of such electrodes were examined using spectroscopy and electron microscopy methods, whereas the main electrochemical characteristics were determined using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometry (CA) methods in the linear ranges of CV 0.25–2.5 mM, CA 2–120 μM in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH = 6.8). The results showed that the modification of bare GCEs, with a Au/FePc(tBu)4 heterostructure, provided a high surface-to-volume ratio, thus ensuring its high sensitivity to nitrite ions of 0.46 μAμM−1. The sensor based on the Au/FePc(tBu)4/GCE has a low limit of nitrite detection at 0.35 μM, good repeatability, and stability. The interference study showed that the proposed Au/FePc(tBu)4/GCE exhibited a selective response in the presence of interfering anions, and the analytical capability of the sensor was demonstrated by determining nitrite ions in real samples of meat products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Sensors in the Food Industry)
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15 pages, 2631 KiB  
Article
An Aptasensor Based on a Flexible Screen-Printed Silver Electrode for the Rapid Detection of Chlorpyrifos
by A. K. M. Sarwar Inam, Martina Aurora Costa Angeli, Ali Douaki, Bajramshahe Shkodra, Paolo Lugli and Luisa Petti
Sensors 2022, 22(7), 2754; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22072754 - 2 Apr 2022
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3954
Abstract
In this work, we propose a novel disposable flexible and screen-printed electrochemical aptamer-based sensor (aptasensor) for the rapid detection of chlorpyrifos (CPF). To optimize the process, various characterization procedures were employed, including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and cyclic [...] Read more.
In this work, we propose a novel disposable flexible and screen-printed electrochemical aptamer-based sensor (aptasensor) for the rapid detection of chlorpyrifos (CPF). To optimize the process, various characterization procedures were employed, including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Initially, the aptasensor was optimized in terms of electrolyte pH, aptamer concentration, and incubation time for chlorpyrifos. Under optimal conditions, the aptasensor showed a wide linear range from 1 to 105 ng/mL with a calculated limit of detection as low as 0.097 ng/mL and sensitivity of 600.9 µA/ng. Additionally, the selectivity of the aptasensor was assessed by identifying any interference from other pesticides, which were found to be negligible (with a maximum standard deviation of 0.31 mA). Further, the stability of the sample was assessed over time, where the reported device showed high stability over a period of two weeks at 4 °C. As the last step, the ability of the aptasensor to detect chlorpyrifos in actual samples was evaluated by testing it on banana and grape extracts. As a result, the device demonstrated sufficient recovery rates, which indicate that it can find application in the food industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Sensors in the Food Industry)
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10 pages, 2634 KiB  
Article
Determination of Peak Purity in HPLC by Coupling Coulometric Array Detection and Two-Dimensional Correlation Analysis
by Julio Enrique Oney-Montalvo, Ksenia Morozova, Manuel Octavio Ramírez-Sucre, Matteo Scampicchio and Ingrid Mayanin Rodríguez-Buenfil
Sensors 2022, 22(5), 1794; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22051794 - 24 Feb 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2377
Abstract
This work aims to evaluate the purity of chromatographic peaks by a two-dimensional correlation (2D-corr) analysis. Such an analysis leads to two contour plots: synchronous and asynchronous. The synchronous contour plot provides information on the number of peaks present in the chromatogram. The [...] Read more.
This work aims to evaluate the purity of chromatographic peaks by a two-dimensional correlation (2D-corr) analysis. Such an analysis leads to two contour plots: synchronous and asynchronous. The synchronous contour plot provides information on the number of peaks present in the chromatogram. The asynchronous contour plot reveals the presence of overlapping species on each peak. The utility of 2D-corr analysis was demonstrated by the chromatographic analysis of Capsicum chili extracts obtained by HPLC coupled with a coulometric array of sixteen detectors. Thanks to 16 electrochemical sensors, each poised at increasing potentials, the resulting 2D-corr analysis revealed the presence of at least three species on the peak located at a retention time of 0.93 min. Mass spectrometry (MS) analysis was used to analyze the coeluting species, which were identified as: quinic acid (3.593 min), ascorbic acid (3.943 min), and phenylalanine (4.229 min). Overall, this work supports the use of 2D-corr analysis to reveal the presence of overlapping compounds and, thus, verify the signal purity of chromatographic peaks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Sensors in the Food Industry)
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12 pages, 18223 KiB  
Article
Electropolymerised pH Insensitive Salicylic Acid Reference Systems: Utilization in a Novel pH Sensor for Food and Environmental Monitoring
by Monica Miranda Mugica, Kay Louise McGuinness and Nathan Scott Lawrence
Sensors 2022, 22(2), 555; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22020555 - 11 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1855
Abstract
This work summarizes the electrochemical response of a salicylic acid-based carbon electrode for use as a novel solid-state reference electrode in a redox-based pH sensor. This novel reference produces a pH insensitive response over a range of pH 3–10 in solutions with low [...] Read more.
This work summarizes the electrochemical response of a salicylic acid-based carbon electrode for use as a novel solid-state reference electrode in a redox-based pH sensor. This novel reference produces a pH insensitive response over a range of pH 3–10 in solutions with low buffer concentrations, different compositions, conductivities, and ionic strengths is produced. The pH of the local environment is shown to be determined by the chemistry and the electrochemical response of the redox active species on the surface of the electrode; the local pH can be controlled by the electropolymerized salicylic acid moieties due to the acid concentration on the surface, avoiding any perturbation in environmental pH and leading to a stable novel reference system. Sensitivities of −7.1 mV/pH unit, −2.4 mV/pH unit, −0.2 mV/pH unit, and 2.5 mV/pH units were obtained for different food medias, hydroponic solution, seawater, and cell-culture media, respectively, confirming its ability to control the local pH of the electrode. This reference system is paired with a new pH sensing element based on electropolymerized flavanone to provide a calibration free, pH sensitive sensor to effectively and accurately measure the pH of various media with high viscosity, low conductivity, low/high buffer concentration or cell-culture environment, presenting a maximum error of +/−0.03 pH units. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Sensors in the Food Industry)
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18 pages, 5686 KiB  
Article
Simultaneous Determination of Ferulic Acid and Vanillin in Vanilla Extracts Using Voltammetric Sensor Based on Electropolymerized Bromocresol Purple
by Guzel Ziyatdinova, Anastasiya Zhupanova and Rustam Davletshin
Sensors 2022, 22(1), 288; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22010288 - 31 Dec 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2178
Abstract
Natural phenolic antioxidants are one of the widely studied compounds in life sciences due to their important role in oxidative stress prevention and repair. The structural similarity of these antioxidants and their simultaneous presence in the plant samples stipulate the development of methods [...] Read more.
Natural phenolic antioxidants are one of the widely studied compounds in life sciences due to their important role in oxidative stress prevention and repair. The structural similarity of these antioxidants and their simultaneous presence in the plant samples stipulate the development of methods for their quantification. The current work deals with the simultaneous determination of vanillin and its bioprecursor ferulic acid using a voltammetric sensor for the first time. A sensor based on the layer-by-layer deposition of the polyaminobenzene sulfonic acid functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (f-SWCNTs) and electropolymerized bromocresol purple has been developed for this purpose. The best response of co-existing target analytes was registered for the polymer obtained from the 25 µM dye by 10-fold potential cycling from 0.0 to 1.2 V with the scan rate of 100 mV s−1 in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (PB), pH 7.0. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) confirmed the effectivity of the sensor developed. The linear dynamic ranges of 0.10–5.0 µM and 5.0–25 µM for both analytes with the detection limits of 72 nM and 64 nM for ferulic acid and vanillin, respectively, were achieved in differential pulse mode. The sensor was applied for the analysis of vanilla extracts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Sensors in the Food Industry)
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11 pages, 3128 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Cheese Aroma Intensity Measured Using an Electronic Nose (E-Nose) Non-Destructively with the Aroma Intensity Scores of a Sensory Evaluation: A Pilot Study
by Kouki Fujioka
Sensors 2021, 21(24), 8368; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21248368 - 15 Dec 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3417
Abstract
Cheese aroma is known to affect consumer preference. One of the methods to measure cheese aroma is the use of an electronic nose (e-nose), which has been used to classify cheese types, production areas, and cheese ages. However, few studies have directly compared [...] Read more.
Cheese aroma is known to affect consumer preference. One of the methods to measure cheese aroma is the use of an electronic nose (e-nose), which has been used to classify cheese types, production areas, and cheese ages. However, few studies have directly compared the aroma intensity scores derived from sensory evaluations with the values of metal oxide semiconductor sensors that can easily measure the aroma intensity. This pilot study aimed to investigate the relationship between sensory evaluation scores and e-nose values with respect to cheese aroma. Five types of processed cheese (two types of normal processed cheese, one type containing aged cheese, and two types containing blue cheese), and one type of natural cheese were used as samples. The sensor values obtained using the electronic nose, which measured sample aroma non-destructively, and five sensory evaluation scores related to aroma (aroma intensity before intake, during mastication, and after swallowing; taste intensity during mastication; and remaining flavor after swallowing (lasting flavor)) determined by six panelists, were compared. The e-nose values of many of the tested cheese types were significantly different, whereas the sensory scores of the one or two types of processed cheese containing blue cheese and those of the natural cheese were significantly different. Significant correlations were observed between the means of e-nose values and the medians of aroma intensity scores derived from the sensory evaluation testing before intake, during mastication, and after swallowing. In particular, the aroma intensity score during mastication was found to have a linear relationship with the e-nose values (Pearson’s R = 0.983). In conclusion, the e-nose values correlated with the sensory scores with respect to cheese aroma intensity and could be helpful in predicting them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Sensors in the Food Industry)
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Review

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31 pages, 3011 KiB  
Review
Nanotechnology and E-Sensing for Food Chain Quality and Safety
by Elisabetta Poeta, Aris Liboà, Simone Mistrali, Estefanía Núñez-Carmona and Veronica Sberveglieri
Sensors 2023, 23(20), 8429; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23208429 - 12 Oct 2023
Viewed by 3024
Abstract
Nowadays, it is well known that sensors have an enormous impact on our life, using streams of data to make life-changing decisions. Every single aspect of our day is monitored via thousands of sensors, and the benefits we can obtain are enormous. With [...] Read more.
Nowadays, it is well known that sensors have an enormous impact on our life, using streams of data to make life-changing decisions. Every single aspect of our day is monitored via thousands of sensors, and the benefits we can obtain are enormous. With the increasing demand for food quality, food safety has become one of the main focuses of our society. However, fresh foods are subject to spoilage due to the action of microorganisms, enzymes, and oxidation during storage. Nanotechnology can be applied in the food industry to support packaged products and extend their shelf life. Chemical composition and sensory attributes are quality markers which require innovative assessment methods, as existing ones are rather difficult to implement, labour-intensive, and expensive. E-sensing devices, such as vision systems, electronic noses, and electronic tongues, overcome many of these drawbacks. Nanotechnology holds great promise to provide benefits not just within food products but also around food products. In fact, nanotechnology introduces new chances for innovation in the food industry at immense speed. This review describes the food application fields of nanotechnologies; in particular, metal oxide sensors (MOS) will be presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Sensors in the Food Industry)
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18 pages, 1190 KiB  
Review
Analysis of Phenolic Compounds in Food by Coulometric Array Detector: A Review
by Mutasem Razem, Yubin Ding, Ksenia Morozova, Fabrizio Mazzetto and Matteo Scampicchio
Sensors 2022, 22(19), 7498; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22197498 - 2 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2504
Abstract
Phenolic compounds are an important group of organic molecules with high radical scavenging, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. The emerging interest in phenolic compounds in food products has led to the development of various analytical techniques for their detection and characterization. Among them, [...] Read more.
Phenolic compounds are an important group of organic molecules with high radical scavenging, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. The emerging interest in phenolic compounds in food products has led to the development of various analytical techniques for their detection and characterization. Among them, the coulometric array detector is a sensitive, selective, and precise method for the analysis of polyphenols. This review discusses the principle of this method and recent advances in its development, as well as trends in its application for the analysis of phenolic compounds in food products, such as fruits, cereals, beverages, herbs, and spices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Sensors in the Food Industry)
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