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State-of-the-Art Optical Sensors Technology in China

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Optical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2023) | Viewed by 61526

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, Institute for Advanced Photonics, College of Optical Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China
Interests: optoelectronic devices; photovoltaic; photoelectric detection; X-ray detection and light emitting devices; spectral technologies and optoelectronic semiconductor materials
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Guest Editor
National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 500 Yu-Tian Road, Shanghai 200083, China
Interests: infrared photodetective materials and device physics; microelectronics and solid-state electronics; metamaterials; photonic artificial structure and application; condensed matter physics and condensed matter spectrum; optoelectronics of low-dimensional quantum materials

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 500 Yu-Tian Road, Shanghai 200083, China
Interests: microelectronics and solid-state electronics; condensed matter physics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The development of information technology relies on the advancement of optical sensors. In this Special Issue, we shall focus on State-of-the-Art Optical Sensor Technology in China. The issue will cover all aspects of optical sensing materials, devices, and systems, including but not limited to photodetectors, optical fiber-based sensors, Lidar, optical sensing and imaging for biomedical applications, advanced microscopy, advanced imaging technology, sensor network, infrared light field control, multimode infrared detection, etc.

Prof. Dr. Yang Yang
Prof. Dr. Xiaoshuang Chen
Dr. Yan Huang
Guest Editors

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Published Papers (26 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 2978 KiB  
Article
Room Temperature Broadband Bi2Te3/PbS Colloidal Quantum Dots Infrared Photodetectors
by Lijing Yu, Pin Tian, Libin Tang, Wenbin Zuo, Hefu Zhong, Qun Hao, Kar Seng Teng, Guiqin Zhao, Runhong Su, Xiaoxia Gong and Jun Yuan
Sensors 2023, 23(9), 4328; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23094328 - 27 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1821
Abstract
Lead sulfide colloidal quantum dots (PbS CQDs) are promising optoelectronic materials due to their unique properties, such as tunable band gap and strong absorption, which are of immense interest for application in photodetectors and solar cells. However, the tunable band gap of PbS [...] Read more.
Lead sulfide colloidal quantum dots (PbS CQDs) are promising optoelectronic materials due to their unique properties, such as tunable band gap and strong absorption, which are of immense interest for application in photodetectors and solar cells. However, the tunable band gap of PbS CQDs would only cover visible short-wave infrared; the ability to detect longer wavelengths, such as mid- and long-wave infrared, is limited because they are restricted by the band gap of the bulk material. In this paper, a novel photodetector based on the synergistic effect of PbS CQDs and bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) was developed for the detection of a mid-wave infrared band at room temperature. The device demonstrated good performance in the visible-near infrared band (i.e., between 660 and 850 nm) with detectivity of 1.6 × 1010 Jones at room temperature. It also exhibited photoelectric response in the mid-wave infrared band (i.e., between 4.6 and 5.1 μm). The facile fabrication process and excellent performance (with a response of up to 5.1 μm) of the hybrid Bi2Te3/PbS CQDS photodetector are highly attractive for many important applications that require high sensitivity and broadband light detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Optical Sensors Technology in China)
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9 pages, 1694 KiB  
Communication
Sensitive Room-Temperature Graphene Photothermoelectric Terahertz Detector Based on Asymmetric Antenna Coupling Structure
by Liang Hong, Lanxia Wang, Miao Cai, Yifan Yao, Xuguang Guo and Yiming Zhu
Sensors 2023, 23(6), 3249; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23063249 - 19 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1530
Abstract
A highly sensitive room-temperature graphene photothermoelectric terahertz detector, with an efficient optical coupling structure of asymmetric logarithmic antenna, was fabricated by planar micro-nano processing technology and two-dimensional material transfer techniques. The designed logarithmic antenna acts as an optical coupling structure to effectively localize [...] Read more.
A highly sensitive room-temperature graphene photothermoelectric terahertz detector, with an efficient optical coupling structure of asymmetric logarithmic antenna, was fabricated by planar micro-nano processing technology and two-dimensional material transfer techniques. The designed logarithmic antenna acts as an optical coupling structure to effectively localize the incident terahertz waves at the source end, thus forming a temperature gradient in the device channel and inducing the thermoelectric terahertz response. At zero bias, the device has a high photoresponsivity of 1.54 A/W, a noise equivalent power of 19.8 pW/Hz1/2, and a response time of 900 ns at 105 GHz. Through qualitative analysis of the response mechanism of graphene PTE devices, we find that the electrode-induced doping of graphene channel near the metal-graphene contacts play a key role in the terahertz PTE response. This work provides an effective way to realize high sensitivity terahertz detectors at room temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Optical Sensors Technology in China)
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7 pages, 8770 KiB  
Communication
High-Performance NiO/TiO2/ZnO Photovoltaic UV Detector
by Guoxin Shang, Libin Tang, Gang Wu, Shouzhang Yuan, Menghan Jia, Xiaopeng Guo, Xin Zheng, Wei Wang, Biao Yue and Kar Seng Teng
Sensors 2023, 23(5), 2741; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23052741 - 02 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1769
Abstract
The ultraviolet (UV) photodetector has found many applications, ranging from optical communication to environmental monitoring. There has been much research interest in the development of metal oxide-based UV photodetectors. In this work, a nano-interlayer was introduced in a metal oxide-based heterojunction UV photodetector [...] Read more.
The ultraviolet (UV) photodetector has found many applications, ranging from optical communication to environmental monitoring. There has been much research interest in the development of metal oxide-based UV photodetectors. In this work, a nano-interlayer was introduced in a metal oxide-based heterojunction UV photodetector to enhance the rectification characteristics and therefore the device performance. The device, which consists of nickel oxide (NiO) and zinc oxide (ZnO) sandwiching an ultrathin dielectric layer of titanium dioxide (TiO2), was prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering (RFMS). After annealing, the NiO/TiO2/ZnO UV photodetector exhibited a rectification ratio of 104 under UV irradiation of 365 nm at zero bias. The device also demonstrated a high responsivity of 291 A/W and a detectivity of 6.9 × 1011 Jones at +2 V bias. Such a device structure provides a promising future for metal oxide-based heterojunction UV photodetectors in a wide range of applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Optical Sensors Technology in China)
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8 pages, 2398 KiB  
Communication
High-Performance Near-Infrared Photodetector Based on PbS Colloidal Quantum Dots/ZnO-Nanowires Hybrid Nanostructures
by Hefu Zhong, Libin Tang, Pin Tian, Lijing Yu, Wenbin Zuo and Kar Seng Teng
Sensors 2023, 23(4), 2254; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23042254 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2194
Abstract
Quantum dots have found significant applications in photoelectric detectors due to their unique electronic and optical properties, such as tunable bandgap. Recently, colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) have attracted much interest because of the ease of controlling the dot size and low production cost. [...] Read more.
Quantum dots have found significant applications in photoelectric detectors due to their unique electronic and optical properties, such as tunable bandgap. Recently, colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) have attracted much interest because of the ease of controlling the dot size and low production cost. In this paper, a high-performance ZnO/PbS heterojunction photodetector was fabricated by spin-coating PbS CQDs onto the surface of a hydrothermally grown vertical array of ZnO nanowires (NWs) on an indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate. Under 940 nm near-infrared light illumination, the device demonstrated a responsivity and detectivity of ~3.9 × 104 A/W and ~9.4 × 1013 Jones, respectively. The excellent performances and low cost of this nanocomposite-based photodetector show that it has the potential for widespread applications ranging from medical diagnosis to environmental monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Optical Sensors Technology in China)
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12 pages, 2721 KiB  
Communication
High-Discrimination Circular Polarization Detection Based on Dielectric-Metal-Hybrid Chiral Metamirror Integrated Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors
by Jinyong Shen, Tianyun Zhu, Jing Zhou, Zeshi Chu, Xiansong Ren, Jie Deng, Xu Dai, Fangzhe Li, Bo Wang, Xiaoshuang Chen and Wei Lu
Sensors 2023, 23(1), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23010168 - 24 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2531
Abstract
Circular polarization detection enables a wide range of applications. With the miniaturization of optoelectronic systems, integrated circular polarization detectors with native sensitivity to the spin state of light have become highly sought after. The key issues with this type of device are its [...] Read more.
Circular polarization detection enables a wide range of applications. With the miniaturization of optoelectronic systems, integrated circular polarization detectors with native sensitivity to the spin state of light have become highly sought after. The key issues with this type of device are its low circular polarization extinction ratios (CPERs) and reduced responsivities. Metallic two-dimensional chiral metamaterials have been integrated with detection materials for filterless circular polarization detection. However, the CPERs of such devices are typically below five, and the light absorption in the detection materials is hardly enhanced and is even sometimes reduced. Here, we propose to sandwich multiple quantum wells between a dielectric two-dimensional chiral metamaterial and a metal grating to obtain both a high CPER and a photoresponse enhancement. The dielectric-metal-hybrid chiral metamirror integrated quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) exhibits a CPER as high as 100 in the long wave infrared range, exceeding all reported CPERs for integrated circular polarization detectors. The absorption efficiency of this device reaches 54%, which is 17 times higher than that of a standard 45° edge facet coupled device. The circular polarization discrimination is attributed to the interference between the principle-polarization radiation and the cross-polarization radiation of the chiral structure during multiple reflections and the structure-material double polarization selection. The enhanced absorption efficiency is due to the excitation of a surface plasmon polariton wave. The dielectric-metal-hybrid chiral mirror structure is compatible with QWIP focal plane arrays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Optical Sensors Technology in China)
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14 pages, 4137 KiB  
Article
The Atmospheric Vertical Detection of Large Area Regions Based on Interference Signal Denoising of Weighted Adaptive Kalman Filter
by Qiying Shen, Yongsheng Liu, Ren Chen, Zhijing Xu, Yuan Zhang, Yaxuan Chen and Jingyu Huang
Sensors 2022, 22(22), 8724; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22228724 - 11 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1118
Abstract
In comparison with traditional space infrared spectroscopy technology, the interference signals of a large focal plane array (FPA) can be used to obtain spectra over a larger area range and rapidly achieve large-scale coverage of hyperspectral remote sensing. However, the low signal-to-noise ratio [...] Read more.
In comparison with traditional space infrared spectroscopy technology, the interference signals of a large focal plane array (FPA) can be used to obtain spectra over a larger area range and rapidly achieve large-scale coverage of hyperspectral remote sensing. However, the low signal-to-noise ratio of the interference signals limits the application of spectral data, especially when atmospheric detection occurs in the long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) band. In this paper, we construct an LWIR hyperspectral system of a Fourier transform spectrometer composed of a HgCdTe photovoltaic IR FPA and a Michelson interferometer. The LWIR interference signals are obtained by a high-frequency oversampling technique. We use the Kalman filter (KF) and its improved weighted adaptive Kalman filter (WAKF) to reduce the noise of multiple measured data of each pixel. The effect of overshoot and ringing artifacts on the objective signals is reduced by the WAKF. The applicability is studied by the interference signals from the different sampling frequencies and different pixels. The effectiveness is also verified by comparing the spectra of denoised interferograms with the reference spectrum. The experimental results show that the WAKF algorithm has excellent noise suppression, and the standard deviation of the interferogram can be reduced by 39.50% compared with that of KF. The WAKF is more advantageous in improving the signal-to-noise ratio of the interferogram and spectra. The results indicate that our system can be applied to atmospheric vertical detection and hyperspectral remote sensing over large area ranges because our denoised technique is suitable for large LWIR FPA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Optical Sensors Technology in China)
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25 pages, 9187 KiB  
Article
Automatic Measurement of External Thread at the End of Sucker Rod Based on Machine Vision
by Xianyou Li, Shun Wang and Ke Xu
Sensors 2022, 22(21), 8276; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22218276 - 28 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2224
Abstract
Aiming at the low efficiency of manual measurement of threads and the lack of practicability in machine vision measurement before, online size measurement of threads at the end of sucker rods based on machine vision was studied. A robotic arm is used to [...] Read more.
Aiming at the low efficiency of manual measurement of threads and the lack of practicability in machine vision measurement before, online size measurement of threads at the end of sucker rods based on machine vision was studied. A robotic arm is used to carry an optical device to achieve high-quality image acquisition of threads. Based on the prior knowledge of the thread profile angle, the directional edge detection operator is customized to achieve the accurate detection of the left and right edges of the thread. Noise filtering, sorting, and left and right edge-matching algorithms based on connected domains are developed to eliminate the interference effects of electrostatic dust and oil pollution in online measurement, and the dimension of thread profile angles, pitches, major diameters, and minor diameters can be precisely calculated. The experimental results show that the screw thread parameter measurement time is about 0.13 s; the maximum and minimum average errors of the thread angles are 0.011° and 0.632°, respectively; and the total average deviation is less than 0.08°. For the screw thread pitch, major diameter, minor diameter, and pitch diameter parameter measurement, the deviation of the measurement results between the proposed method and the universal tool microscope (UTM) method is less than 10 μm. It fully proves the effectiveness and accuracy of the method in this paper and, at the same time, shows that the method has good real-time performance and high application significance, which lays a good foundation for the subsequent online thread measurement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Optical Sensors Technology in China)
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14 pages, 3837 KiB  
Article
Improvement of Temperature Performance of Singlemode-Multimode-Singlemode Fiber Structure
by Rongxiang Zhang, Weiyu Wang, Jianfei Zhang, Yuhong Han and Tao Liu
Sensors 2022, 22(21), 8262; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22218262 - 28 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1087
Abstract
A theoretical model for studying the temperature properties of singlemode-multimode-singlemode (SMS) fiber structure fabricated by absorptive multimode fiber (MMF) cladding is established. Moreover, an SMS-based temperature sensor is fabricated and experimentally demonstrated. Experimental results show that the dip wavelength of the transmission spectrum [...] Read more.
A theoretical model for studying the temperature properties of singlemode-multimode-singlemode (SMS) fiber structure fabricated by absorptive multimode fiber (MMF) cladding is established. Moreover, an SMS-based temperature sensor is fabricated and experimentally demonstrated. Experimental results show that the dip wavelength of the transmission spectrum changes linearly with temperature, which is in good agreement with the simulated results obtained by using the model. Further, a comprehensive study of temperature characteristics affected by the thermo-optic effect, thermal expansion effect, and thermal effect of absorption characteristics is performed for SMS fiber optic structures with different refractive indexes, thermo-optic coefficients, and absorption properties of MMF cladding, MMF core diameters, and thermal expansion coefficients of packaging shell. According to the obtained rules, investigations are carried out into the thermal response of an SMS fiber structure resulting from combined thermal effects for temperature performance optimization. Excellent temperature stability with a temperature sensitivity of 0 pm/°C or good temperature sensitivity of −441.58 pm/°C is achieved accordingly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Optical Sensors Technology in China)
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11 pages, 2525 KiB  
Article
Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy Based Temperature Measurement with a Single Diode Laser Near 1.4 μm
by Xiaonan Liu and Yufei Ma
Sensors 2022, 22(16), 6095; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22166095 - 15 Aug 2022
Cited by 59 | Viewed by 3405
Abstract
The rapidly changing and wide dynamic range of combustion temperature in scramjet engines presents a major challenge to existing test techniques. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) based temperature measurement has the advantages of high sensitivity, fast response, and compact structure. In this [...] Read more.
The rapidly changing and wide dynamic range of combustion temperature in scramjet engines presents a major challenge to existing test techniques. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) based temperature measurement has the advantages of high sensitivity, fast response, and compact structure. In this invited paper, a temperature measurement method based on the TDLAS technique with a single diode laser was demonstrated. A continuous-wave (CW), distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser with an emission wavelength near 1.4 μm was used for temperature measurement, which could cover two water vapor (H2O) absorption lines located at 7153.749 cm−1 and 7154.354 cm−1 simultaneously. The output wavelength of the diode laser was calibrated according to the two absorption peaks in the time domain. Using this strategy, the TDLAS system has the advantageous of immunization to laser wavelength shift, simple system structure, reduced cost, and increased system robustness. The line intensity of the two target absorption lines under room temperature was about one-thousandth of that under high temperature, which avoided the measuring error caused by H2O in the environment. The system was tested on a McKenna flat flame burner and a scramjet model engine, respectively. It was found that, compared to the results measured by CARS technique and theoretical calculation, this TDLAS system had less than 4% temperature error when the McKenna flat flame burner was used. When a scramjet model engine was adopted, the measured results showed that such TDLAS system had an excellent dynamic range and fast response. The TDLAS system reported here could be used in real engine in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Optical Sensors Technology in China)
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12 pages, 10796 KiB  
Article
Demonstration of SWIR Silicon-Based Photodetection by Using Thin ITO/Au/Au Nanoparticles/n-Si Structure
by Xinxin Li, Zhen Deng, Ziguang Ma, Yang Jiang, Chunhua Du, Haiqiang Jia, Wenxin Wang and Hong Chen
Sensors 2022, 22(12), 4536; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22124536 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1889
Abstract
Plasmonic photodetection based on the hot-electron generation in nanostructures is a promising strategy for sub-band detection due to the high conversion efficiencies; however, it is plagued with the high dark current. In this paper, we have demonstrated the plasmonic photodetection with dark current [...] Read more.
Plasmonic photodetection based on the hot-electron generation in nanostructures is a promising strategy for sub-band detection due to the high conversion efficiencies; however, it is plagued with the high dark current. In this paper, we have demonstrated the plasmonic photodetection with dark current suppression to create a Si-based broadband photodetector with enhanced performance in the short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) region. By hybridizing a 3 nm Au layer with the spherical Au nanoparticles (NPs) formed by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on Si substrate, a well-behaved ITO/Au/Au NPs/n-Si Schottky photodetector with suppressed dark current and enhanced absorption in the SWIR region is obtained. This optimized detector shows a broad detection beyond 1200 nm and a high responsivity of 22.82 mA/W at 1310 nm at −1 V, as well as a low dark current density on the order of 10−5 A/cm2. Such a Si-based plasmon-enhanced detector with desirable performance in dark current will be a promising strategy for realization of the high SNR detector while keeping fabrication costs low. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Optical Sensors Technology in China)
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9 pages, 2187 KiB  
Communication
GaN/AlN Multi-Quantum Wells Infrared Detector with Short-Wave Infrared Response at Room Temperature
by Fengqiu Jiang and Yuyu Bu
Sensors 2022, 22(11), 4239; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22114239 - 02 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1889
Abstract
GaN-based quantum well infrared detectors can make up for the weakness of GaAs-based quantum well infrared detectors for short-wave infrared detection. In this work, GaN/AlN (1.8 nm/1.8 nm) multi-quantum wells have been epitaxially grown on sapphire substrate using MBE technology. Meanwhile, based on [...] Read more.
GaN-based quantum well infrared detectors can make up for the weakness of GaAs-based quantum well infrared detectors for short-wave infrared detection. In this work, GaN/AlN (1.8 nm/1.8 nm) multi-quantum wells have been epitaxially grown on sapphire substrate using MBE technology. Meanwhile, based on this device structure, the band positions and carrier distributions of a single quantum well are also calculated. At room temperature, the optical response of the device is 58.6 μA/W with a bias voltage of 0.5 V, and the linearity between the optical response and the laser power is R2 = 0.99931. This excellent detection performance can promote the research progress of GaN-based quantum well infrared detectors in the short-wave infrared field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Optical Sensors Technology in China)
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9 pages, 18314 KiB  
Communication
Ultraviolet Response in Coplanar Silicon Avalanche Photodiodes with CMOS Compatibility
by Qiaoli Liu, Li Xu, Yuxin Jin, Shifeng Zhang, Yitong Wang, Anqi Hu and Xia Guo
Sensors 2022, 22(10), 3873; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22103873 - 20 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1954
Abstract
Highly sensitive ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors are highly desired for industrial and scientific applications. However, the responsivity of silicon photodiodes in the UV wavelength band is relatively low due to high-density Si/SiO2 interface states. In this paper, a coplanar avalanche photodiode (APD) was [...] Read more.
Highly sensitive ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors are highly desired for industrial and scientific applications. However, the responsivity of silicon photodiodes in the UV wavelength band is relatively low due to high-density Si/SiO2 interface states. In this paper, a coplanar avalanche photodiode (APD) was developed with a virtual guard ring design. When working in Geiger mode, it exhibited a strong UV response. The responsivity of 4 × 103 A/W (corresponding to a gain of 8 × 106) at 261 nm is measured under the incident power of 0.6 μW with an excess bias of 1.5 V. To the best of our knowledge, the maximum 3-dB bandwidth of 1.4 GHz is the first report ever for a Si APD when working in the Geiger mode in spite of the absence of an integrated CMOS read-out circuit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Optical Sensors Technology in China)
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9 pages, 1989 KiB  
Communication
Optimization of Pixel Size and Electrode Structure for Ge:Ga Terahertz Photoconductive Detectors
by Yifei Wu, Zuoru Dong, Yulu Chen, Bingbing Wang, Liming Wang, Xiaowan Dai, Junming Zhang and Xiaodong Wang
Sensors 2022, 22(5), 1916; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22051916 - 01 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1400
Abstract
To investigate the effects of the pixel sizes and the electrode structures on the performance of Ge-based terahertz (THz) photoconductive detectors, vertical structure Ge:Ga detectors with different structure parameters were fabricated. The characteristics of the detectors were investigated at 4.2 K, including the [...] Read more.
To investigate the effects of the pixel sizes and the electrode structures on the performance of Ge-based terahertz (THz) photoconductive detectors, vertical structure Ge:Ga detectors with different structure parameters were fabricated. The characteristics of the detectors were investigated at 4.2 K, including the spectral response, blackbody response (Rbb), dark current density-voltage characters, and noise equivalent power (NEP). The detector with the pixel radius of 400 μm and the top electrode of the ring structure showed the best performance. The spectral response band of this detector was about 20–180 μm. The Rbb of this detector reached as high as 0.92 A/W, and the NEP reached 5.4 × 10−13 W/Hz at 0.5 V. Compared with the detector with a pixel radius of 1000 μm and the top electrode of the spot structure, the Rbb increased nearly six times, and the NEP decreased nearly 12 times. This is due to the fact that the optimized parameters increased the equivalent electric field of the detector. This work provides a route for future research into large-scale array Ge-based THz detectors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Optical Sensors Technology in China)
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11 pages, 1314 KiB  
Communication
Part-Per-Billion Level Chemical Sensing with a Gold-Based SERS-Active Substrate
by Tingting Zhang, Liyun Wu, Junchang Pei, Xuefeng Li, Haowen Li and Frank Inscore
Sensors 2022, 22(5), 1778; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22051778 - 24 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1607
Abstract
We used surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for the rapid and sensitive detection and quantification of caffeine in solution. Such a technique incorporated into a portable device is finding wide applications in trace chemical analysis in various fields, including law enforcement, medicine, environmental monitoring, [...] Read more.
We used surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for the rapid and sensitive detection and quantification of caffeine in solution. Such a technique incorporated into a portable device is finding wide applications in trace chemical analysis in various fields, including law enforcement, medicine, environmental monitoring, and food quality control. To realize such applications, we are currently developing portable and handheld trace chemical analyzers based on SERS, which are integrated with a sensor embedded with activated gold nanoparticles in a porous glass matrix. In this study, we used this gold SERS-active substrate to measure aqueous solutions of the drug caffeine as a test chemical to benchmark sensor performance by defining sensitivity (lowest measured concentration (LMC) and estimated limit of detection (LOD)), determining concentration dependence and quantification capabilities by constructing calibration curves; by evaluating the effects of pH values of 3, 7, and 11; and by examining the reproducibility of the SERS measurements. The results demonstrate that the SERS sensor is sensitive, with caffeine detected at an LMC of 50 parts per billion (ppb) with an LOD of 0.63 ppb. The results further show that the sensor is very stable and can be used to make reproducible measurements, even under extremely acidic to basic pH conditions. Vibrational assignments of all observed SERS peaks are made and reported for the first time for caffeine on a gold substrate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Optical Sensors Technology in China)
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13 pages, 4158 KiB  
Article
High-Throughput Continuous-Flow Separation in a Micro Free-Flow Electrophoresis Glass Chip Based on Laser Microfabrication
by Aodong Zhang, Jian Xu, Xiaolong Li, Zijie Lin, Yunpeng Song, Xin Li, Zhenhua Wang and Ya Cheng
Sensors 2022, 22(3), 1124; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22031124 - 01 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2064
Abstract
Micro free-flow electrophoresis (μFFE) provides a rapid and straightforward route for the high-performance online separation and purification of targeted liquid samples in a mild manner. However, the facile fabrication of a μFFE device with high throughput and high stability remains a challenge due [...] Read more.
Micro free-flow electrophoresis (μFFE) provides a rapid and straightforward route for the high-performance online separation and purification of targeted liquid samples in a mild manner. However, the facile fabrication of a μFFE device with high throughput and high stability remains a challenge due to the technical barriers of electrode integration and structural design for the removal of bubbles for conventional methods. To address this, the design and fabrication of a high-throughput μFFE chip are proposed using laser-assisted chemical etching of glass followed by electrode integration and subsequent low-temperature bonding. The careful design of the height ratio of the separation chamber and electrode channels combined with a high flow rate of buffer solution allows the efficient removal of electrolysis-generated bubbles along the deep electrode channels during continuous-flow separation. The introduction of microchannel arrays further enhances the stability of on-chip high-throughput separation. As a proof-of-concept, high-performance purification of fluorescein sodium solution with a separation purity of ~97.9% at a voltage of 250 V from the mixture sample solution of fluorescein sodium and rhodamine 6G solution is demonstrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Optical Sensors Technology in China)
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14 pages, 5312 KiB  
Article
Real-Time Hyperspectral Video Acquisition with Coded Slits
by Guoliang Tang, Zi Wang, Shijie Liu, Chunlai Li and Jianyu Wang
Sensors 2022, 22(3), 822; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22030822 - 21 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1991
Abstract
We propose a real-time hyperspectral video acquisition system that uses coded slits. Conventional imaging spectrometers usually have scanning mechanisms that reduce the temporal resolution or sacrifice the spatial resolution to acquire spectral information instantly. Recently, computational spectral imaging has been applied to realize [...] Read more.
We propose a real-time hyperspectral video acquisition system that uses coded slits. Conventional imaging spectrometers usually have scanning mechanisms that reduce the temporal resolution or sacrifice the spatial resolution to acquire spectral information instantly. Recently, computational spectral imaging has been applied to realize high-speed or high-performance spectral imaging. However, the most current computational spectral imaging systems take a long time to reconstruct spectral data cubes from limited measurements, which limits real-time hyperspectral video acquisition. In this work, we propose a new computational spectral imaging system. We substitute the slit in a conventional scanning-based imaging spectrometer with coded slits, which can achieve the parallel acquisition of spectral data and thus an imaging speed that is several times higher. We also apply an electronically controlled translation stage to use different codes at each exposure level. The larger amount of data allows for fast reconstruction through matrix inversion. To solve the problem of a trade-off between imaging speed and image quality in high-speed spectral imaging, we analyze the noise in the system. The severe readout noise in our system is suppressed with S-matrix coding. Finally, we build a practical prototype that can acquire hyperspectral video with a high spatial resolution and a high signal-to-noise ratio at 5 Hz in real time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Optical Sensors Technology in China)
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14 pages, 4521 KiB  
Article
Dip-Coating Self-Assembly Fabrication and Polarization Sensitive Photoresponse of Aligned Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Film
by Jiazhen Zhang, Luhan Yang, Huang Xu, Jie Zhou, Yuxiang Sang, Zhuangzhuang Cui, Changlong Liu, Jingjing Liu, Tianle Guo, Xingjun Wang, Lin Wang, Gang Chen and Xiaoshuang Chen
Sensors 2022, 22(2), 490; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22020490 - 10 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2361
Abstract
It is challenging to obtain wafer-scaled aligned films for completely exploiting the promising properties of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (s-SWCNTs). Aligned s-SWCNTs with a large area can be obtained by combining water evaporation and slow withdrawal-induced self-assembly in a dip-coating process. Moreover, the [...] Read more.
It is challenging to obtain wafer-scaled aligned films for completely exploiting the promising properties of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (s-SWCNTs). Aligned s-SWCNTs with a large area can be obtained by combining water evaporation and slow withdrawal-induced self-assembly in a dip-coating process. Moreover, the tunability of deposition morphology parameters such as stripe width and spacing is examined. The polarized Raman results show that s-SWCNTs can be aligned in ±8.6°. The derived two terminal photodetector shows both a high negative responsivity of 41 A/W at 520 nm and high polarization sensitivity. Our results indicate that aligned films with a large area may be useful to electronics- and optoelectronics-related applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Optical Sensors Technology in China)
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11 pages, 5215 KiB  
Article
Optical Fiber Bundle-Based High-Speed and Precise Micro-Scanning for Image High-Resolution Reconstruction
by Jiali Jiang, Xin Zhou, Jiaying Liu, Likang Pan, Ziting Pan, Fan Zou, Ziqiang Li, Feng Li, Xiaoyu Ma, Chao Geng, Jing Zuo and Xinyang Li
Sensors 2022, 22(1), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22010127 - 25 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3083
Abstract
We propose an imaging method based on optical fiber bundle combined with micro-scanning technique for improving image quality without complex image reconstruction algorithms. In the proposed method, a piezoelectric-ceramic-chip is used as the micro-displacement driver of the optical fiber bundle, which has the [...] Read more.
We propose an imaging method based on optical fiber bundle combined with micro-scanning technique for improving image quality without complex image reconstruction algorithms. In the proposed method, a piezoelectric-ceramic-chip is used as the micro-displacement driver of the optical fiber bundle, which has the advantages of small volume, fast response speed and high precision. The corresponding displacement of the optical fiber bundle can be generated by precise voltage controlling. An optical fiber bundle with core/cladding diameter 4/80 μm and hexagonal arrangement is used to scan the 1951 USAF target. The scanning step is 1 μm, which is equivalent to the diffraction limit resolution of the optical system. The corresponding information is recorded at high speed through photo-detectors and a high-resolution image is obtained by image stitching processing. The minimum distinguishable stripe width of the proposed imaging technique with piezoelectric-ceramic-chip driven micro-scanning is approximately 2.1 μm, which is 1 time higher than that of direct imaging with a CCD camera whose pixel size is close to the fiber core size. The experimental results indicate that the optical fiber bundle combined with piezoelectric-ceramic-chip driven micro-scanning is a high-speed and high-precision technique for high-resolution imaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Optical Sensors Technology in China)
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13 pages, 2267 KiB  
Article
Application of Excimer Lamp in Quantitative Detection of SF6 Decomposition Component SO2
by Tunan Chen, Kang Li, Fengxiang Ma, Xinjie Qiu, Zongjia Qiu, Zhenghai Liao and Guoqiang Zhang
Sensors 2021, 21(24), 8165; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21248165 - 07 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2110
Abstract
Accurate quantitative detection for trace gas has long been the center of failure diagnosis for gas-insulated equipment. An absorption spectroscopy-based detection system was developed for trace SF6 decomposition SO2 detection in this paper. In order to reduce interference from other decomposition, [...] Read more.
Accurate quantitative detection for trace gas has long been the center of failure diagnosis for gas-insulated equipment. An absorption spectroscopy-based detection system was developed for trace SF6 decomposition SO2 detection in this paper. In order to reduce interference from other decomposition, ultraviolet spectrum of SO2 was selected for detection. Firstly, an excimer lamp was developed in this paper as the excitation of the absorption spectroscopy compared with regular light sources with electrodes, such as electrodeless lamps that are more suitable for long-term monitoring. Then, based on the developed excimer lamp, a detection system for trace SO2 was established. Next, a proper absorption peak was selected by calculating spectral derivative for further analysis. Experimental results indicated that good linearity existed between the absorbance and concentration of SO2 at the chosen absorption peak. Moreover, the detection limit of the proposed detection system could reach the level of 10−7. The results of this paper could serve as a guide for the application of excimer lamp in online monitoring for SF6-insulated equipment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Optical Sensors Technology in China)
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8 pages, 2892 KiB  
Communication
In Situ Femtosecond-Laser-Induced Fluorophores on Surface of Polyvinyl Alcohol for H2O/Co2+ Sensing and Data Security
by Weiliang Chen, Jichao Gao, Jie Tian and Jingyu Zhang
Sensors 2021, 21(22), 7755; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21227755 - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 2054
Abstract
In situ fluorophores were induced on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) bulk materials by direct femtosecond laser writing. The generation of fluorophores was ascribed to localized laser-assisted carbonization. The carbonization of PVA polymers was confirmed through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The distinct fluorescence responses of [...] Read more.
In situ fluorophores were induced on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) bulk materials by direct femtosecond laser writing. The generation of fluorophores was ascribed to localized laser-assisted carbonization. The carbonization of PVA polymers was confirmed through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The distinct fluorescence responses of fluorophores in various solutions were harnessed for implementing in situ reagent sensors, metal ion sensors, data encryption, and data security applications. The demonstrated water detection sensor in acetone exhibited a sensitivity of 3%. Meanwhile, a data encryption scheme and a “burn after reading” technique were demonstrated by taking advantage of the respective reversible and irreversible switching properties of the in situ laser-induced fluorophores. Taking a step further, a quantitative cobalt ion measurement was demonstrated based on the concentration-dependent fluorescence recovery. Combined with a laser-induced hydrophilic modification, our scheme could enable “lab-on-a-chip” microfluidics sensors with arbitrary shape, varied flow delay, designed reaction zones, and targeted functionalities in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Optical Sensors Technology in China)
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14 pages, 4651 KiB  
Article
On-Site Calibration Method for Line-Structured Light Sensor-Based Railway Wheel Size Measurement System
by Yunfeng Ran, Qixin He, Qibo Feng and Jianying Cui
Sensors 2021, 21(20), 6717; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21206717 - 09 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1964
Abstract
Line-structured light has been widely used in the field of railway measurement, owing to its high capability of anti-interference, fast scanning speed and high accuracy. Traditional calibration methods of line-structured light sensors have the disadvantages of long calibration time and complicated calibration process, [...] Read more.
Line-structured light has been widely used in the field of railway measurement, owing to its high capability of anti-interference, fast scanning speed and high accuracy. Traditional calibration methods of line-structured light sensors have the disadvantages of long calibration time and complicated calibration process, which is not suitable for railway field application. In this paper, a fast calibration method based on a self-developed calibration device was proposed. Compared with traditional methods, the calibration process is simplified and the calibration time is greatly shortened. This method does not need to extract light strips; thus, the influence of ambient light on the measurement is reduced. In addition, the calibration error resulting from the misalignment was corrected by epipolar constraint, and the calibration accuracy was improved. Calibration experiments in laboratory and field tests were conducted to verify the effectiveness of this method, and the results showed that the proposed method can achieve a better calibration accuracy compared to a traditional calibration method based on Zhang’s method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Optical Sensors Technology in China)
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12 pages, 4597 KiB  
Article
Investigation and Optimization of a Line-Locked Quartz Enhanced Spectrophone for Rapid Carbon Dioxide Measurement
by Hui Zhang, Wenling Jin, Mengpeng Hu, Mai Hu, Jingqiu Liang and Qiang Wang
Sensors 2021, 21(15), 5225; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21155225 - 02 Aug 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2134
Abstract
We have developed a rapid quartz enhanced spectrophone for carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, in which the laser wavelength was tightly locked to a CO2 absorption line and a custom quartz tuning fork (QTF) operating at 12.5 kHz was employed. The [...] Read more.
We have developed a rapid quartz enhanced spectrophone for carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, in which the laser wavelength was tightly locked to a CO2 absorption line and a custom quartz tuning fork (QTF) operating at 12.5 kHz was employed. The intrinsic QTF oscillation-limited response time, as well as the optimal feedback interval, was experimentally investigated. By tightly locking the laser to the R(16) transition of CO2, we obtained a stable laser operation with its center wavelength variation kept within 0.0002 cm−1, merely three times the laser linewidth. The reported CO2 sensor achieved a detection limit of 7 ppm, corresponding to a normalized noise equivalent absorption coefficient (NNEA) of 4.7 × 10−9 W·cm−1·Hz−1/2, at a response time of 0.5 s. The detection limit can be further improved to 0.45 ppm at an integration time of 270 s, illustrating a good system stability. This spectrophone enables the realization of compact and fast-response gas sensors for many scenarios, where CO2 concentration from sub-ppm to hundreds of thousands of ppm is expected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Optical Sensors Technology in China)
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9 pages, 24324 KiB  
Communication
Ultra-Highly Sensitive Hydrogen Chloride Detection Based on Quartz-Enhanced Photothermal Spectroscopy
by Yufei Ma, Ziting Lang, Ying He, Shunda Qiao and Yu Li
Sensors 2021, 21(10), 3563; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21103563 - 20 May 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2656
Abstract
Combining the merits of non-contact measurement and high sensitivity, the quartz-enhanced photothermal spectroscopy (QEPTS) technique is suitable for measuring acid gases such as hydrogen chloride (HCl). In this invited paper, we report, for the first time, on an ultra-highly sensitive HCl sensor based [...] Read more.
Combining the merits of non-contact measurement and high sensitivity, the quartz-enhanced photothermal spectroscopy (QEPTS) technique is suitable for measuring acid gases such as hydrogen chloride (HCl). In this invited paper, we report, for the first time, on an ultra-highly sensitive HCl sensor based on the QEPTS technique. A continuous wave, distributed feedback (CW-DFB) fiber-coupled diode laser with emission wavelength of 1.74 µm was used as the excitation source. A certified mixture of 500 ppm HCl:N2 was adapted as the analyte. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy was used to simplify the data processing. The wavelength modulation depth was optimized. The relationships between the second harmonic (2f) amplitude of HCl-QEPTS signal and the laser power as well as HCl concentration were investigated. An Allan variance analysis was performed to prove that this sensor had good stability and high sensitivity. The proposed HCl-QEPTS sensor can achieve a minimum detection limit (MDL) of ~17 parts per billion (ppb) with an integration time of 130 s. Further improvement of such an HCl-QEPTS sensor performance was proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Optical Sensors Technology in China)
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Review

Jump to: Research

27 pages, 10065 KiB  
Review
Advances in Multicore Fiber Interferometric Sensors
by Yucheng Yao, Zhiyong Zhao and Ming Tang
Sensors 2023, 23(7), 3436; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23073436 - 24 Mar 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2649
Abstract
In this paper, a review of multicore fiber interferometric sensors is given. Due to the specificity of fiber structure, i.e., multiple cores integrated into only one fiber cladding, multicore fiber (MCF) interferometric sensors exhibit many desirable characteristics compared with traditional fiber interferometric sensors [...] Read more.
In this paper, a review of multicore fiber interferometric sensors is given. Due to the specificity of fiber structure, i.e., multiple cores integrated into only one fiber cladding, multicore fiber (MCF) interferometric sensors exhibit many desirable characteristics compared with traditional fiber interferometric sensors based on single-core fibers, such as structural and functional diversity, high integration, space-division multiplexing capacity, etc. Thanks to the unique advantages, e.g., simple fabrication, compact size, and good robustness, MCF interferometric sensors have been developed to measure various physical and chemical parameters such as temperature, strain, curvature, refractive index, vibration, flow, torsion, etc., among which the extraordinary vector-bending sensing has also been extensively studied by making use of the differential responses between different cores of MCFs. In this paper, different types of MCF interferometric sensors and recent developments are comprehensively reviewed. The basic configurations and operating principles are introduced for each interferometric structure, and, eventually, the performances of various MCF interferometric sensors for different applications are compared, including curvature sensing, vibration sensing, temperature sensing, and refractive index sensing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Optical Sensors Technology in China)
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19 pages, 6233 KiB  
Review
Monitoring Various Bioactivities at the Molecular, Cellular, Tissue, and Organism Levels via Biological Lasers
by Hongrui Shan, Hailang Dai and Xianfeng Chen
Sensors 2022, 22(9), 3149; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22093149 - 20 Apr 2022
Viewed by 2282
Abstract
The laser is considered one of the greatest inventions of the 20th century. Biolasers employ high signal-to-noise ratio lasing emission rather than regular fluorescence as the sensing signal, directional out-coupling of lasing and excellent biocompatibility. Meanwhile, biolasers can also be micro-sized or smaller [...] Read more.
The laser is considered one of the greatest inventions of the 20th century. Biolasers employ high signal-to-noise ratio lasing emission rather than regular fluorescence as the sensing signal, directional out-coupling of lasing and excellent biocompatibility. Meanwhile, biolasers can also be micro-sized or smaller lasers with embedded/integrated biological materials. This article presents the progress in biolasers, focusing on the work done over the past years, including the molecular, cellular, tissue, and organism levels. Furthermore, biolasers have been utilized and explored for broad applications in biosensing, labeling, tracking, bioimaging, and biomedical development due to a number of unique advantages. Finally, we provide the possible directions of biolasers and their applications in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Optical Sensors Technology in China)
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24 pages, 4729 KiB  
Review
Recent Progress in Improving the Performance of Infrared Photodetectors via Optical Field Manipulations
by Jian Chen, Jiuxu Wang, Xin Li, Jin Chen, Feilong Yu, Jiale He, Jian Wang, Zengyue Zhao, Guanhai Li, Xiaoshuang Chen and Wei Lu
Sensors 2022, 22(2), 677; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22020677 - 16 Jan 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 6435
Abstract
Benefiting from the inherent capacity for detecting longer wavelengths inaccessible to human eyes, infrared photodetectors have found numerous applications in both military and daily life, such as individual combat weapons, automatic driving sensors and night-vision devices. However, the imperfect material growth and incomplete [...] Read more.
Benefiting from the inherent capacity for detecting longer wavelengths inaccessible to human eyes, infrared photodetectors have found numerous applications in both military and daily life, such as individual combat weapons, automatic driving sensors and night-vision devices. However, the imperfect material growth and incomplete device manufacturing impose an inevitable restriction on the further improvement of infrared photodetectors. The advent of artificial microstructures, especially metasurfaces, featuring with strong light field enhancement and multifunctional properties in manipulating the light–matter interactions on subwavelength scale, have promised great potential in overcoming the bottlenecks faced by conventional infrared detectors. Additionally, metasurfaces exhibit versatile and flexible integration with existing detection semiconductors. In this paper, we start with a review of conventionally bulky and recently emerging two-dimensional material-based infrared photodetectors, i.e., InGaAs, HgCdTe, graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus devices. As to the challenges the detectors are facing, we further discuss the recent progress on the metasurfaces integrated on the photodetectors and demonstrate their role in improving device performance. All information provided in this paper aims to open a new way to boost high-performance infrared photodetectors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Optical Sensors Technology in China)
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