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Routing in Aerial, Underground, and Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Sensor Networks".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021) | Viewed by 7230

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Professor, Department of Computer Engineering and Informatics University of Patras, Greece
Interests: algorithmic aspects of wireless sensor networks and the Internet of Things (IoT); wireless energy transfer protocols; probabilistic techniques and random graphs; average case analysis and probabilistic algorithms; algorithmic engineering

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Thanks to both the remarkable benefits that the usage of their sensor nodes offers and the continuously growing range of their applications, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are generally recognized as one of the most important scientific domains. Routing, that is, the steering of sensed data from their sources to their destinations, is certainly one of the primary processes for the operation of WSNs. On the other hand, routing is not only subject to various performance criteria, but also obstructed due to both the limited resources of the sensor nodes and the inherent restrictions of wireless communications. This is why numerous research efforts are continuously being developed in order to cope with problems of this kind. Traditionally, most of these research works refer to terrestrial WSNs.

Recent technological advances have aided the development of sensors that are able to monitor ambient conditions in non-terrestrial environments. Consequently, the challenge to develop WSNs capable of supporting human activities in underground, underwater, and aerial fields of interest has been triggered. However, the soil, aquatic, and aerial media are associated with additional restrictions and issues, which the methodologies proposed for terrestrial routing in WSNs are inadequate to fully cope with. Consequently, new research is needed.

This Special Issue aims to accommodate articles related to the state-of-the-art, standards, experimentations, implementations, applications, new research proposals, and industrial case studies of routing algorithms and protocols for underground, underwater, and aerial WSNs. Invited papers have to be original and neither published nor under review in any other conference or journal. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to:

  • Wireless sensor networks
  • Aerial wireless sensor networks
  • Underground wireless sensor networks
  • Underwater wireless sensor networks
  • Energy efficient routing
  • Data aggregation routing
  • Query based routing
  • Coherent /Non-Coherent routing
  • Negotiation based routing
  • Proactive routing
  • Reactive routing
  • Artificial Intelligence based routing
  • Hierarchy based routing
  • Zone based routing
  • Location based routing
  • Routing with mobile agents
  • Multipath routing
  • Query based routing
  • Secure routing
  • Multi-objective optimization routing

Prof. Dr. Dionisis Kandris
Prof. Dr. Sotiris Nikoletseas
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Wireless sensor networks
  • Aerial wireless sensor networks
  • Underground wireless sensor networks
  • Underwater wireless sensor networks
  • Energy efficient routing
  • Data aggregation routing
  • Query based routing
  • Coherent /Non-Coherent routing
  • Negotiation based routing
  • Proactive routing
  • Reactive routing
  • Artificial Intelligence based routing
  • Hierarchy based routing
  • Zone based routing
  • Location based routing
  • Routing with mobile agents
  • Multipath routing
  • Query based routing
  • Secure routing
  • Multi-objective optimization routing

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

18 pages, 3525 KiB  
Article
Data Delivery in a Disaster or Quarantined Area Divided into Triangles Using DTN-Based Algorithms for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
by Razvan Udroiu, Adrian Marius Deaconu and Corina-Ştefania Nanau
Sensors 2021, 21(11), 3572; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21113572 - 21 May 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2441
Abstract
The communication in quarantined areas, e.g., due to the new COVID-19 pandemic, between isolated areas and in areas with technical damage has resulted in a great deal of interest concerning the safety of the population. A new method for ensuring communication between different [...] Read more.
The communication in quarantined areas, e.g., due to the new COVID-19 pandemic, between isolated areas and in areas with technical damage has resulted in a great deal of interest concerning the safety of the population. A new method for ensuring communication between different areas, using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) networks with a well-established mobility schedule is proposed. UAVs fly based on a mission plan using regular polygons covering an area from a map. The area is considered to be equidistantly covered with points, grouped in triangles which are further grouped into hexagons. In this paper, UAVs, including battery charging or battery swapping stations and light weight Wi-Fi boards, are used for the data transfer among drones and stations using delivery protocols. UAV network analysis and evaluation (lengths of the arcs in seconds) based on experimental preliminary flight tests are proposed. Multiple simulations are performed based on six DTN algorithms, single-copy, and multiple-copies algorithms, and the efficiency of data transmission (delivery rate and latency) is analyzed. A very good delivery rate of 0.973 is obtained using the newly introduced TD-UAV Dijkstra algorithm. Full article
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28 pages, 6266 KiB  
Article
Void Avoidance Opportunistic Routing Protocol for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks
by Rogaia Mhemed, Frank Comeau, William Phillips and Nauman Aslam
Sensors 2021, 21(6), 1942; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21061942 - 10 Mar 2021
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 2316
Abstract
Much attention has been focused lately on the Opportunistic Routing technique (OR) that can overcome the restrictions of the harsh underwater environment and the unique structures of the Underwater Sensor Networks (UWSNs). OR enhances the performance of the UWSNs in both packet delivery [...] Read more.
Much attention has been focused lately on the Opportunistic Routing technique (OR) that can overcome the restrictions of the harsh underwater environment and the unique structures of the Underwater Sensor Networks (UWSNs). OR enhances the performance of the UWSNs in both packet delivery ratio and energy saving. In our work; we propose a new routing protocol; called Energy Efficient Depth-based Opportunistic Routing with Void Avoidance for UWSNs (EEDOR-VA), to address the void area problem. EEDOR-VA is a reactive OR protocol that uses a hop count discovery procedure to update the hop count of the intermediate nodes between the source and the destination to form forwarding sets. EEDOR-VA forwarding sets can be selected with less or greater depth than the packet holder (i.e., source or intermediate node). It efficiently prevents all void/trapped nodes from being part of the forwarding sets and data transmission procedure; thereby saving network resources and delivering data packets at the lowest possible cost. The results of our extensive simulation study indicate that the EEDOR-VA protocol outperforms other protocols in terms of packet delivery ratio and energy consumption. Full article
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14 pages, 4519 KiB  
Article
On Analyzing Routing Selection for Aerial Autonomous Vehicles Connected to Mobile Network
by Jordi Mongay Batalla, Constandinos X. Mavromoustakis, George Mastorakis, Evangelos K. Markakis, Evangelos Pallis, Tomasz Wichary, Piotr Krawiec and Przemysław Lekston
Sensors 2021, 21(2), 399; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21020399 - 8 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1634
Abstract
This paper proposes a two-phase algorithm for multi-criteria selection of packet forwarding in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), which communicate with the control station through commercial mobile network. The selection of proper data forwarding in the two radio link: From UAV to the antenna [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a two-phase algorithm for multi-criteria selection of packet forwarding in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), which communicate with the control station through commercial mobile network. The selection of proper data forwarding in the two radio link: From UAV to the antenna and from the antenna to the control station, are independent but subject to constrains. The proposed approach is independent of the intra-domain forwarding, so it may be useful for a number of different scenarios of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles connectivity (e.g., a swarm of drones). In the implementation developed in this paper, the connection is served by three different mobile network operators in order to ensure reliable connectivity. The proposed algorithm makes use of Machine Learning tools that are properly trained for predicting the behavior of the link connectivity during the flight duration. The results presented in the last section validate the algorithm and the training process of the machines. Full article
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