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Chemical Sensors for Toxic Chemical Detection

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Chemical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 August 2024 | Viewed by 17240

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry and Technology, University of Split, 21000 Split, Croatia
Interests: electrochemistry; electroanalysis; electrochemical sensors; surface modification; carbon electrodes; polyelectrolytes; electrochemical Impedance spectroscopy; voltammetry

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Guest Editor
Department of Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry and Technology, University of Split, 21000 Split, Croatia
Interests: electrochemical sensors; electrochemical methods; carbon electrode; environmental chemistry

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Guest Editor
Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry and Technology, University of Split, 21000 Split, Croatia
Interests: electrochemical sensors; electrochemical methods; carbon electrode; electrochemistry of inorganic complexes

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The growing interest in chemical sensing of toxic chemicals arises from the increasing demand for health and environmental standards, security and safety. Toxic chemicals (toxic inorganic species, gases, carcinogens substances, pesticides, etc.) have a wide range of household, industrial, and military applications, as cumulative exposure at trace concentrations can have long-term adverse effects. Chemical sensors are attractive devices that offer significant benefits, such as low cost, portability, simplicity of operation, selectivity, durability, etc.

The focus of this Special Issue will be on publishing original and review articles on recent advances and challenges in the development of chemical sensors in order to determine toxic chemicals.  Herein, this Special Issue will focus on the following themes:

  • New trends in developments of electrochemical sensors (immunosensors, biosensors, affinity-based, DNA-based, mediator-based, semiconductor-based, etc.) for determination of toxic chemicals;
  • Carbon nanomaterials in a chemical sensing system;
  • Composite materials as sensing elements in the determination of toxic chemicals;
  • Biochips and microarray in the manufacturing of sensors;
  • Optical sensors and arrays in the detection of harmful substances;
  • Acoustic-wave-based sensors;
  • Toxic chemical sensors based on living organisms, tissues, and cells;
  • Metal nanoparticles in sensing toxic chemicals.

Dr. Marijo Buzuk
Dr. Maša Buljac
Dr. Nives Vladislavić
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 6856 KiB  
Article
Highly Sensitive and Selective Defect WS2 Chemical Sensor for Detecting HCHO Toxic Gases
by Zhen Cui, Hanxiao Wang, Kunqi Yang, Yang Shen, Ke Qin, Pei Yuan and Enling Li
Sensors 2024, 24(3), 762; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24030762 - 24 Jan 2024
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 964
Abstract
The gas sensitivity of the W defect in WS2 (VW/WS2) to five toxic gases—HCHO, CH4, CH3HO, CH3OH, and CH3CH3—has been examined in this article. These five gases were [...] Read more.
The gas sensitivity of the W defect in WS2 (VW/WS2) to five toxic gases—HCHO, CH4, CH3HO, CH3OH, and CH3CH3—has been examined in this article. These five gases were adsorbed on the VW/WS2 surface, and the band, density of state (DOS), charge density difference (CDD), work function (W), current–voltage (I–V) characteristic, and sensitivity of adsorption systems were determined. Interestingly, for HCHO-VW/WS2, the energy level contribution of HCHO is closer to the Fermi level, the charge transfer (B) is the largest (0.104 e), the increase in W is more obvious than other adsorption systems, the slope of the I–V characteristic changes more obviously, and the calculated sensitivity is the highest. To sum up, VW/WS2 is more sensitive to HCHO. In conclusion, VW/WS2 has a great deal of promise for producing HCHO chemical sensors due to its high sensitivity and selectivity for HCHO, which can aid in the precise and efficient detection of toxic gases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Sensors for Toxic Chemical Detection)
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12 pages, 2562 KiB  
Article
Triangle-Shaped Cerium Tungstate Nanoparticles Used to Modify Carbon Paste Electrode for Sensitive Hydroquinone Detection in Water Samples
by Vesna Stanković, Slađana Đurđić, Miloš Ognjanović, Gloria Zlatić and Dalibor Stanković
Sensors 2024, 24(2), 705; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24020705 - 22 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 928
Abstract
In this study, we propose an eco-friendly method for synthesizing cerium tungstate nanoparticles using hydrothermal techniques. We used scanning, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction to analyze the morphology of the synthesized nanoparticles. The results showed that the synthesized nanoparticles were uniform and [...] Read more.
In this study, we propose an eco-friendly method for synthesizing cerium tungstate nanoparticles using hydrothermal techniques. We used scanning, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction to analyze the morphology of the synthesized nanoparticles. The results showed that the synthesized nanoparticles were uniform and highly crystalline, with a particle size of about 50 nm. The electrocatalytic properties of the nanoparticles were then investigated using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. We further used the synthesized nanoparticles to develop an electrochemical sensor based on a carbon paste electrode that can detect hydroquinone. By optimizing the differential pulse voltammetric method, a wide linearity range of 0.4 to 45 µM and a low detection limit of 0.06 µM were obtained. The developed sensor also expressed excellent repeatability (RSD up to 3.8%) and reproducibility (RSD below 5%). Interferences had an insignificant impact on the determination of analytes, making it possible to use this method for monitoring hydroquinone concentrations in tap water. This study introduces a new approach to the chemistry of materials and the environment and demonstrates that a careful selection of components can lead to new horizons in analytical chemistry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Sensors for Toxic Chemical Detection)
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13 pages, 2924 KiB  
Article
Ratiometric Sensing of Glyphosate in Water Using Dual Fluorescent Carbon Dots
by Adryanne Clermont-Paquette, Diego-Andrés Mendoza, Amir Sadeghi, Alisa Piekny and Rafik Naccache
Sensors 2023, 23(11), 5200; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23115200 - 30 May 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1970
Abstract
Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum pesticide used in crops and is found in many products used by industry and consumers. Unfortunately, glyphosate has been shown to have some toxicity toward many organisms found in our ecosystems and has been reported to have carcinogenic effects [...] Read more.
Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum pesticide used in crops and is found in many products used by industry and consumers. Unfortunately, glyphosate has been shown to have some toxicity toward many organisms found in our ecosystems and has been reported to have carcinogenic effects on humans. Hence, there is a need to develop novel nanosensors that are more sensitive and facile and permit rapid detection. Current optical-based assays are limited as they rely on changes in signal intensity, which can be affected by multiple factors in the sample. Herein, we report the development of a dual emissive carbon dot (CD) system that can be used to optically detect glyphosate pesticides in water at different pH levels. The fluorescent CDs emit blue and red fluorescence, which we exploit as a ratiometric self-referencing assay. We observe red fluorescence quenching with increasing concentrations of glyphosate in the solution, ascribed to the interaction of the glyphosate pesticide with the CD surface. The blue fluorescence remains unaffected and serves as a reference in this ratiometric approach. Using fluorescence quenching assays, a ratiometric response is observed in the ppm range with detection limits as low as 0.03 ppm. Our CDs can be used to detect other pesticides and contaminants in water, as cost-effective and simple environmental nanosensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Sensors for Toxic Chemical Detection)
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15 pages, 5990 KiB  
Article
Analytical Applicability of Graphene-Modified Electrode in Sunset Yellow Electrochemical Assay
by Lidia Măgeruşan, Florina Pogăcean, Bogdan Ionuţ Cozar and Stela Pruneanu
Sensors 2023, 23(4), 2160; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23042160 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1458
Abstract
Due to the recent increase in average living standards, food safety has caught public attention. It is necessary to conduct a qualitative and quantitative rapid test of prohibited food additives since the inclusion of food additives or the improper usage of synthetic dyes [...] Read more.
Due to the recent increase in average living standards, food safety has caught public attention. It is necessary to conduct a qualitative and quantitative rapid test of prohibited food additives since the inclusion of food additives or the improper usage of synthetic dyes can negatively impact on the human health. Herein, a highly sensitive method for Sunset Yellow detection based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with few-layer graphenes was proposed. The electrochemical behavior of SY at the GR-exf/GCE modified surface was investigated by Cyclic Voltammetry, Square Wave Voltammetry, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and Amperometry. The influences of pH, scan rate, and interfering species were studied. Under optimized conditions, the developed sensor shows good linearity over a broad SY concentration range, e.g., 0.028–30 µM, with a low limit of detection (LOD = 0.0085 µM) and quantification (LOQ = 0.028 µM) (data obtained by amperometric technique). Furthermore, the modified electrode shows good selectivity, precision and sensitivity and has been successfully applied for SY quantification from commercially available pharmaceutical formulation as well as from candy bars and orange juice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Sensors for Toxic Chemical Detection)
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14 pages, 4990 KiB  
Article
Natural Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Dots Obtained from Hydrothermal Carbonization of Chebulic Myrobalan and Their Sensing Ability toward Heavy Metal Ions
by Raji Atchudan, Suguna Perumal, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel Edison, Ashok K. Sundramoorthy, Rajangam Vinodh, Sambasivam Sangaraju, Somasundaram Chandra Kishore and Yong Rok Lee
Sensors 2023, 23(2), 787; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23020787 - 10 Jan 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2507
Abstract
Chebulic Myrobalan is the main ingredient in the Ayurvedic formulation Triphala, which is used for kidney and liver dysfunctions. Herein, natural nitrogen-doped carbon dots (NN-CDs) were prepared from the hydrothermal carbonization of Chebulic Myrobalan and were demonstrated to sense heavy metal ions in [...] Read more.
Chebulic Myrobalan is the main ingredient in the Ayurvedic formulation Triphala, which is used for kidney and liver dysfunctions. Herein, natural nitrogen-doped carbon dots (NN-CDs) were prepared from the hydrothermal carbonization of Chebulic Myrobalan and were demonstrated to sense heavy metal ions in an aqueous medium. Briefly, the NN-CDs were developed from Chebulic Myrobalan by a single-step hydrothermal carbonization approach under a mild temperature (200 °C) without any capping and passivation agents. They were then thoroughly characterized to confirm their structural and optical properties. The resulting NN-CDs had small particles (average diameter: 2.5 ± 0.5 nm) with a narrow size distribution (1–4 nm) and a relatable degree of graphitization. They possessed bright and durable fluorescence with excitation-dependent emission behaviors. Further, the as-synthesized NN-CDs were a good fluorometric sensor for the detection of heavy metal ions in an aqueous medium. The NN-CDs showed sensitive and selective sensing platforms for Fe3+ ions; the detection limit was calculated to be 0.86 μM in the dynamic range of 5–25 μM of the ferric (Fe3+) ion concentration. Moreover, these NN-CDs could expand their application as a potential candidate for biomedical applications and offer a new method of hydrothermally carbonizing waste biomass. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Sensors for Toxic Chemical Detection)
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14 pages, 1380 KiB  
Article
Potentiometric Determination of Maprotiline Hydrochloride in Pharmaceutical and Biological Matrices Using a Novel Modified Carbon Paste Electrode
by Josip Radić, Dorotea Perović, Ema Gričar and Mitja Kolar
Sensors 2022, 22(23), 9201; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22239201 - 26 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1506
Abstract
Potentiometry with membrane selective electrodes is preferable for measuring the various constituents of pharmaceuticals. In this work, carbon paste electrodes (CPE) were prepared, modified, and tested for the determination of maprotiline hydrochloride, which acts as an antidepressant. The proposed CPE was based on [...] Read more.
Potentiometry with membrane selective electrodes is preferable for measuring the various constituents of pharmaceuticals. In this work, carbon paste electrodes (CPE) were prepared, modified, and tested for the determination of maprotiline hydrochloride, which acts as an antidepressant. The proposed CPE was based on an ionic association complex of maprotiline-tetraphenylborate, 2-nitrophenyloctyl as a binder, and sodium tetraphenylborate as an ionic lipophilic additive. The optimized composition improved potentiometric properties up to theoretical Nernst response values of −59.5 ± 0.8 mV dec−1, in the concentration range of maprotiline from 1.6 × 10−7 to 1.0 × 10−2 mol L−1, and a detection limit of 1.1 × 10−7 mol L−1. The CPE provides excellent reversibility and reproducibility, exhibits a fast response time, and is applicable over a wide pH range. No significant effect was observed in several interfering species tested. The proposed electrode was used for the precise determination of maprotiline in pure solutions, urine samples, and a real sample—the drug Ludiomil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Sensors for Toxic Chemical Detection)
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19 pages, 4060 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Rare Earths on the Response of Photo UV-Activate ZnO Gas Sensors
by Isabel Sayago, José Pedro Santos and Carlos Sánchez-Vicente
Sensors 2022, 22(21), 8150; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22218150 - 25 Oct 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1725
Abstract
In this work, ZnO nanoparticle resistive sensors decorated with rare earths (REs; including Er, Tb, Eu and Dy) were used at room temperature to detect atmospheric pollutant gases (NO2, CO and CH4). Sensitive films were prepared by drop casting [...] Read more.
In this work, ZnO nanoparticle resistive sensors decorated with rare earths (REs; including Er, Tb, Eu and Dy) were used at room temperature to detect atmospheric pollutant gases (NO2, CO and CH4). Sensitive films were prepared by drop casting from aqueous solutions of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) and trivalent RE ions. The sensors were continuously illuminated by ultraviolet light during the detection processes. The effect of photoactivation of the sensitive films was studied, as well as the influence of humidity on the response of the sensors to polluting gases. Comparative studies on the detection properties of the sensors showed how the presence of REs increased the response to the gases detected. Low concentrations of pollutant gases (50 ppb NO2, 1 ppm CO and 3 ppm CH4) were detected at room temperature. The detection mechanisms were then discussed in terms of the possible oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction in both dry and humid air atmospheres. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Sensors for Toxic Chemical Detection)
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Review

Jump to: Research

18 pages, 1047 KiB  
Review
Recent Trends in Chemical Sensors for Detecting Toxic Materials
by Yeonhong Kim, Yangwon Jeon, Minyoung Na, Soon-Jin Hwang and Youngdae Yoon
Sensors 2024, 24(2), 431; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24020431 - 10 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2230
Abstract
Industrial development has led to the widespread production of toxic materials, including carcinogenic, mutagenic, and toxic chemicals. Even with strict management and control measures, such materials still pose threats to human health. Therefore, convenient chemical sensors are required for toxic chemical monitoring, such [...] Read more.
Industrial development has led to the widespread production of toxic materials, including carcinogenic, mutagenic, and toxic chemicals. Even with strict management and control measures, such materials still pose threats to human health. Therefore, convenient chemical sensors are required for toxic chemical monitoring, such as optical, electrochemical, nanomaterial-based, and biological-system-based sensors. Many existing and new chemical sensors have been developed, as well as new methods based on novel technologies for detecting toxic materials. The emergence of material sciences and advanced technologies for fabrication and signal-transducing processes has led to substantial improvements in the sensing elements for target recognition and signal-transducing elements for reporting interactions between targets and sensing elements. Many excellent reviews have effectively summarized the general principles and applications of different types of chemical sensors. Therefore, this review focuses on chemical sensor advancements in terms of the sensing and signal-transducing elements, as well as more recent achievements in chemical sensors for toxic material detection. We also discuss recent trends in biosensors for the detection of toxic materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Sensors for Toxic Chemical Detection)
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21 pages, 1408 KiB  
Review
Electrochemical and Optical Sensors for the Detection of Chemical Carcinogens Causing Leukemia
by Adrian Kowalczyk, Julia Zarychta, Monika Lejman and Joanna Zawitkowska
Sensors 2023, 23(7), 3369; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23073369 - 23 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2696
Abstract
The incidence and mortality due to neoplastic diseases have shown an increasing tendency over the years. Based on GLOBOCAN 2020 published by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), leukemias are the thirteenth most commonly diagnosed cancer in the world, with 78.6% [...] Read more.
The incidence and mortality due to neoplastic diseases have shown an increasing tendency over the years. Based on GLOBOCAN 2020 published by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), leukemias are the thirteenth most commonly diagnosed cancer in the world, with 78.6% of leukemia cases diagnosed in countries with a very high or high Human Development Index (HDI). Carcinogenesis is a complex process initiated by a mutation in DNA that may be caused by chemical carcinogens present in polluted environments and human diet. The IARC has identified 122 human carcinogens, e.g., benzene, formaldehyde, pentachlorophenol, and 93 probable human carcinogens, e.g., styrene, diazinone. The aim of the following review is to present the chemical carcinogens involved or likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of leukemia and to summarize the latest reports on the possibility of detecting these compounds in the environment or food with the use of electrochemical sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Sensors for Toxic Chemical Detection)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Research progress on Ti3C2X based MXene as sensing materials of gas sensors for NH3 detection under room temperature:A review
Authors: Kaixin Cheng; Xu Tian; Qiuyue Feng; Shaorui Yuan; Yude Wang
Affiliation: School of Materials and Energy, Yunnan University, 650504 Kunming, People’s Republic of China
Abstract: As a typical MXenes material, Ti3C2Tx has the characteristics of two-dimensional lamellar structure, large specific surface area, easy surface functionalization, gas sensitivity at room temperature and good selectivity to NH3, making it an ideal material for ammonia detection at room temperature.In this review, the latest research progress and preparation methods of Ti3C2Tx-based gas sensor for ammonia detection at room temperature are introduced in detail, and the advantages of Ti3C2Tx-based gas sensor material for ammonia detection at room temperature are discussed, including easy preparation, high stability, and can be coated on flexible substrate to prepare wearable flexible gas sensor. Since the gas sensitivity of pure Ti3C2Tx to NH3 still needs to be further improved, the methods to improve the sensing performance of pure Ti3C2Tx to NH3 are discussed in this paper, including surface group modification, metal oxide, polymer materials and other 2D materials composite heterojunction.

Title: Use of UV Light to Enhance the Sensitivity and the Specificity of Naphthalene Detection by a TiO2 Sensor
Authors: Jorge H. Torres; Vincent A. Rosa; Roshanak Gonzalez; Anthony Gomez; Patricia D. Barreto; Jose C. Barreto
Affiliation: 1 Department of Bioengineering, Civil Engineering, and Environmental Engineering (Formerly Department of Bioengineering), Florida Gulf Coast University, 10501 FGCU Blvd South, Fort Myers, Florida 33965 2 Formerly at the Department of Bioengineering, Florida Gulf Coast University 3 Formerly at the Department of Chemistry and Mathematics, Florida Gulf Coast University
Abstract: A titanium oxide (TiO2) sensor has been previously shown to be able to detect a variety of volatile organic compounds including aliphatic as well as low-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), all of which are potentially toxic to humans and animals. Although our group has previously reported such detection ability by our own version of TiO2 sensor, it did not have clear detection specificity for any particular compound from the various hydrocarbons mentioned above. As a follow-up study, we report here the effect of applying UV light at a wavelength of 375 nm to the TiO2 coating layer at the time of detection measurement. We studied the sensor response, with and without application of UV light, to exposure to five different hydrocarbon compounds: ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, acetone, benzene, and naphthalene; the latter as a PAH model. The results showed a clearly enhanced and different sensor response to exposure to naphthalene compared to the response to the other compounds when applying the UV light. We considered this different response to be the result of direct UV absorption by naphthalene at the applied wavelength, which was absent for the other compounds. The absorption of UV radiation subsequently resulted in an increased electrical conductivity of the TiO2 layer of the sensor. With this method of detection, our sensor shows specificity for naphthalene, and that specificity has great potential to extend to other PAHs.

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