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Blockchain Security and Its Application in Internet of Things

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Internet of Things".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2024) | Viewed by 47089

Special Issue Editor

Bachelor's Program of Artificial Intelligence and Information Security, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City 24206, Taiwan
Interests: information and network security; wireless sensor networks; mobile computing security; Internet of Things security; cloud computing security; blockchain security and its application; RFID security and its application; telemedicine information system security; security protocols for ad hoc networks; information retrieval and dictionary search
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Blockchain technology has received great attention in different areas due to its unique properties such as anonymity, verifiability, immutability, and decentralization. Moreover, the Internet of Things will soon create a world in which physical things can be seamlessly integrated into communication networks in order to provide autonomous and intelligent services as well as applications. However, due to the publicity of communication environments, such as the Internet, WiFi, LAN, or other types of networks, security and privacy concerns with Blockhain and IoT systems have become hot topics of discussion. This Special Issue is focused on new security solutions for scenarios or applications where blockchain and the Internet of Things are deployed in various areas. We invite researchers to contribute research and review articles that futher the efforts in leading to future improvements for security and privacy in Blockchain and IoT settings.

Submissions are welcome on but not limited to the following topics:

  • Blockchain and IoT solutions on existing systems;
  • Blockchain security and privacy;
  • Blockchain issues and trends;
  • Blockchain authentication and authorization;
  • Blockchain-based security for IoT;
  • Cryptographic protocols for Blockchain and IoT;
  • Data and system integrity in Blockchain and IoT;
  • IoT-based solutions on the Blockchain system;
  • IoT authentication and authorization;
  • Security and privacy in IoT;
  • Service and system design in IoT; and
  • Trust management and untraceability in Blockchain and IoT.

Dr. Chun-Ta Li
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Blockchain
  • Internet of Things
  • Security and privacy
  • Cryptography protocol
  • Secure communication

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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19 pages, 5623 KiB  
Article
Securing the Cyber Resilience of a Blockchain-Based Railroad Non-Stop Customs Clearance System
by Sungbeen Kim and Dohoon Kim
Sensors 2023, 23(6), 2914; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23062914 - 8 Mar 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1984
Abstract
Current railroad customs clearance systems are problematic in that the movement of trains is occasionally restricted for extended periods during inspections to verify cargo integrity at customs clearance. Consequently, significant human and material resources are consumed to obtain customs clearance to the destination, [...] Read more.
Current railroad customs clearance systems are problematic in that the movement of trains is occasionally restricted for extended periods during inspections to verify cargo integrity at customs clearance. Consequently, significant human and material resources are consumed to obtain customs clearance to the destination, considering different processes exist for cross-border trade. Therefore, we developed a cross-border blockchain-based non-stop customs clearance (NSCC) system to address these delays and reduce resource consumption for cross-border trains. The integrity, stability, and traceability of blockchain technology are used to construct a stable and reliable customs clearance system to address these problems. The proposed method connects diverse trade and customs clearance agreements in a single blockchain network, which ensures integrity and minimal resource consumption, and includes railroads, freight vehicles, and transit stations in addition to the current customs clearance system. The integrity and confidentiality of customs clearance data are protected using sequence diagrams and the blockchain to strengthen the resilience of the NSCC process against attacks; the blockchain-based NSCC system structurally verifies the attack resilience based on matching sequences. The results confirm that the blockchain-based NSCC system is time- and cost-efficient compared with the current customs clearance system and offers improved attack resilience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blockchain Security and Its Application in Internet of Things)
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20 pages, 606 KiB  
Article
A Machine Learning and Blockchain Based Efficient Fraud Detection Mechanism
by Tehreem Ashfaq, Rabiya Khalid, Adamu Sani Yahaya, Sheraz Aslam, Ahmad Taher Azar, Safa Alsafari and Ibrahim A. Hameed
Sensors 2022, 22(19), 7162; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22197162 - 21 Sep 2022
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 11513
Abstract
In this paper, we address the problems of fraud and anomalies in the Bitcoin network. These are common problems in e-banking and online transactions. However, as the financial sector evolves, so do the methods for fraud and anomalies. Moreover, blockchain technology is being [...] Read more.
In this paper, we address the problems of fraud and anomalies in the Bitcoin network. These are common problems in e-banking and online transactions. However, as the financial sector evolves, so do the methods for fraud and anomalies. Moreover, blockchain technology is being introduced as the most secure method integrated into finance. However, along with these advanced technologies, many frauds are also increasing every year. Therefore, we propose a secure fraud detection model based on machine learning and blockchain. There are two machine learning algorithms—XGboost and random forest (RF)—used for transaction classification. The machine learning techniques train the dataset based on the fraudulent and integrated transaction patterns and predict the new incoming transactions. The blockchain technology is integrated with machine learning algorithms to detect fraudulent transactions in the Bitcoin network. In the proposed model, XGboost and random forest (RF) algorithms are used to classify transactions and predict transaction patterns. We also calculate the precision and AUC of the models to measure the accuracy. A security analysis of the proposed smart contract is also performed to show the robustness of our system. In addition, an attacker model is also proposed to protect the proposed system from attacks and vulnerabilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blockchain Security and Its Application in Internet of Things)
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26 pages, 3297 KiB  
Article
A Secure and Traceable Vehicles and Parts System Based on Blockchain and Smart Contract
by Chin-Ling Chen, Zhi-Peng Zhu, Ming Zhou, Woei-Jiunn Tsaur, Chih-Ming Wu and Hongyu Sun
Sensors 2022, 22(18), 6754; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22186754 - 7 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1805
Abstract
As society advances, so does the total number of vehicles on the road, creating a massive consumer market for automobiles. According to statistics, a major portion of today’s traffic difficulties are caused by accidents caused by subpar cars and auto parts. As a [...] Read more.
As society advances, so does the total number of vehicles on the road, creating a massive consumer market for automobiles. According to statistics, a major portion of today’s traffic difficulties are caused by accidents caused by subpar cars and auto parts. As a result, each country has, over time, enacted equivalent rules and regulations to prevent such tragedies. However, in the face of profit, some people are desperate enough to employ illegal parts and illegally modified cars, and auto fraud is rampant. As a result, we employ the blockchain of the symmetrical Blockchain’s digital ledger and smart contract technology to build a decentralized supply chain system that can identify specific parts. In this study, we design and discuss the proposed system framework by user functions and the flow of parts based on blockchain, and we discuss communication protocols that use the symmetry and asymmetry cryptography, algorithms, properties, and security of the mechanism while providing related analysis and comparing the properties and costs of the system with other studies. Overall, the proposed method has the potential to successfully address the issue of automobile fraud. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blockchain Security and Its Application in Internet of Things)
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20 pages, 720 KiB  
Article
A Blockchain-Based Privacy Information Security Sharing Scheme in Industrial Internet of Things
by Yue Wang, Tingyu Che, Xiaohu Zhao, Tao Zhou, Kai Zhang and Xiaofei Hu
Sensors 2022, 22(9), 3426; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22093426 - 30 Apr 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2219
Abstract
Due to the competitive relationship among different smart factories, equipment manufacturers cannot integrate the private information of all smart factories to train the intelligent manufacturing equipment fault prediction model and improve the accuracy of intelligent manufacturing equipment fault detection. The use of a [...] Read more.
Due to the competitive relationship among different smart factories, equipment manufacturers cannot integrate the private information of all smart factories to train the intelligent manufacturing equipment fault prediction model and improve the accuracy of intelligent manufacturing equipment fault detection. The use of a low fault recognition rate model for smart factories will cause additional losses for them. In this work, we propose a blockchain-based privacy information security sharing scheme in Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) to solve the sharing problem of private information in smart factories. Firstly, we abstract smart factories as edge nodes and build decentralized, distributed trusted blockchain networks based on Ethereum clients on simulated edge devices and propose an Intelligent Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (IECDSA) to guarantee the ownership of shared information by edge nodes. Secondly, we propose the Reputation-based Delegated Proof of Stake (RDPoS) consensus algorithm to improve the security and reliability of the Delegated Proof of Stake (DPoS) consensus algorithm. Furthermore, we design and implement an incentive mechanism based on information attributes to increase the motivation of edge nodes to share information. Finally, the proposed solution is simulated. Through theoretical and simulation experiments, it is proved that the blockchain-based privacy information security sharing scheme in IIoT can improve the enthusiasm of edge nodes to share information on the premise of ensuring the security of information sharing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blockchain Security and Its Application in Internet of Things)
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23 pages, 4333 KiB  
Article
Enterprise Data Sharing with Privacy-Preserved Based on Hyperledger Fabric Blockchain in IIOT’s Application
by Chin-Ling Chen, Jiaxin Yang, Woei-Jiunn Tsaur, Wei Weng, Chih-Ming Wu and Xiaojun Wei
Sensors 2022, 22(3), 1146; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22031146 - 2 Feb 2022
Cited by 38 | Viewed by 4574
Abstract
Internet of Things (IoT) technology is now widely used in energy, healthcare, services, transportation, and other fields. With the increase in industrial equipment (e.g., smart mobile terminals, sensors, and other embedded devices) in the Internet of Things and the advent of Industry 4.0, [...] Read more.
Internet of Things (IoT) technology is now widely used in energy, healthcare, services, transportation, and other fields. With the increase in industrial equipment (e.g., smart mobile terminals, sensors, and other embedded devices) in the Internet of Things and the advent of Industry 4.0, there has been an explosion of data generated that is characterized by a high volume but small size. How to manage and protect sensitive private data in data sharing has become an urgent issue for enterprises. Traditional data sharing and storage relies on trusted third-party platforms or distributed cloud storage, but these approaches run the risk of single-node failure, and third parties and cloud storage providers can be vulnerable to attacks that can lead to data theft. To solve these problems, this paper proposes a Hyperledger Fabric blockchain-based secure data transfer scheme for enterprises in the Industrial Internet of Things (IIOT). We store raw data in the IIoT in the InterPlanetary File System (IPFS) network after encryption and store the Keyword-index table we designed in Hyperledger Fabric blockchain, and enterprises share the data by querying the Keyword-index table. We use Fabric’s channel mechanism combined with our designed Chaincode to achieve privacy protection and efficient data transmission while using the Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) to ensure data integrity. Finally, we performed security analysis and experiments on the proposed scheme, and the results show that overall the data transfer performance in the IPFS network is generally better than the traditional network, In the case of transferring 5 MB file size data, the transmission speed and latency of IPFS are 19.23 mb/s and 0.26 s, respectively, and the IPFS network is almost 4 times faster than the TCP/IP network while taking only a quarter of the time, which is more advantageous when transferring small files, such as data in the IIOT. In addition, our scheme outperforms the blockchain systems mainly used today in terms of both throughput, latency, and system overhead. The average throughput of our solution can reach 110 tps (transactions are executed per second), and the minimum throughput in experimental tests can reach 101 tps. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blockchain Security and Its Application in Internet of Things)
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26 pages, 4229 KiB  
Article
Authorized Shared Electronic Medical Record System with Proxy Re-Encryption and Blockchain Technology
by Weizhe Chen, Shunzhi Zhu, Jianmin Li, Jiaxin Wu, Chin-Ling Chen and Yong-Yuan Deng
Sensors 2021, 21(22), 7765; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21227765 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3571
Abstract
With the popularity of the internet 5G network, the network constructions of hospitals have also rapidly developed. Operations management in the healthcare system is becoming paperless, for example, via a shared electronic medical record (EMR) system. A shared electronic medical record system plays [...] Read more.
With the popularity of the internet 5G network, the network constructions of hospitals have also rapidly developed. Operations management in the healthcare system is becoming paperless, for example, via a shared electronic medical record (EMR) system. A shared electronic medical record system plays an important role in reducing diagnosis costs and improving diagnostic accuracy. In the traditional electronic medical record system, centralized database storage is typically used. Once there is a problem with the data storage, it could cause data privacy disclosure and security risks. Blockchain is tamper-proof and data traceable. It can ensure the security and correctness of data. Proxy re-encryption technology can ensure the safe sharing and transmission of relatively sensitive data. Based on the above situation, we propose an electronic medical record system based on consortium blockchain and proxy re-encryption to solve the problem of EMR security sharing. Electronic equipment in this process is connected to the blockchain network, and the security of data access is ensured through the automatic execution of blockchain chaincodes; the attribute-based access control method ensures fine-grained access to the data and improves the system security. Compared with the existing electronic medical records based on cloud storage, the system not only realizes the sharing of electronic medical records, but it also has advantages in privacy protection, access control, data security, etc. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blockchain Security and Its Application in Internet of Things)
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Review

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13 pages, 1192 KiB  
Review
Adaptation of IoT with Blockchain in Food Supply Chain Management: An Analysis-Based Review in Development, Benefits and Potential Applications
by Amanpreet Kaur, Gurpreet Singh, Vinay Kukreja, Sparsh Sharma, Saurabh Singh and Byungun Yoon
Sensors 2022, 22(21), 8174; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22218174 - 25 Oct 2022
Cited by 52 | Viewed by 7253
Abstract
In today’s scenario, blockchain technology is an emerging area and promising technology in the field of the food supply chain industry (FSCI). A literature survey comprising an analytical review of blockchain technology with the Internet of things (IoT) for food supply chain management [...] Read more.
In today’s scenario, blockchain technology is an emerging area and promising technology in the field of the food supply chain industry (FSCI). A literature survey comprising an analytical review of blockchain technology with the Internet of things (IoT) for food supply chain management (FSCM) is presented to better understand the associated research benefits, issues, and challenges. At present, with the concept of farm-to-fork gaining increasing popularity, food safety and quality certification are of critical concern. Blockchain technology provides the traceability of food supply from the source, i.e., the seeding factories, to the customer’s table. The main idea of this paper is to identify blockchain technology with the Internet of things (IoT) devices to investigate the food conditions and various issues faced by transporters while supplying fresh food. Blockchain provides applications such as smart contracts to monitor, observe, and manage all transactions and communications among stakeholders. IoT technology provides approaches for verifying all transactions; these transactions are recorded and then stored in a centralized database system. Thus, IoT enables a safe and cost-effective FSCM system for stakeholders. In this paper, we contribute to the awareness of blockchain applications that are relevant to the food supply chain (FSC), and we present an analysis of the literature on relevant blockchain applications which has been conducted concerning various parameters. The observations in the present survey are also relevant to the application of blockchain technology with IoT in other areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blockchain Security and Its Application in Internet of Things)
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19 pages, 968 KiB  
Review
A Survey of Dummy-Based Location Privacy Protection Techniques for Location-Based Services
by Shiwen Zhang, Mengling Li, Wei Liang, Voundi Koe Arthur Sandor and Xiong Li
Sensors 2022, 22(16), 6141; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22166141 - 17 Aug 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2256
Abstract
As smart devices and mobile positioning technologies improve, location-based services (LBS) have grown in popularity. The LBS environment provides considerable convenience to users, but it also poses a significant threat to their privacy. A large number of research works have emerged to protect [...] Read more.
As smart devices and mobile positioning technologies improve, location-based services (LBS) have grown in popularity. The LBS environment provides considerable convenience to users, but it also poses a significant threat to their privacy. A large number of research works have emerged to protect users’ privacy. Dummy-based location privacy protection solutions have been widely adopted for their simplicity and enhanced privacy protection results, but there are few reviews on dummy-based location privacy protection. Or, for existing works, some focus on aspects of cryptography, anonymity, or other comprehensive reviews that do not provide enough reviews on dummy-based privacy protection. In this paper, the authors provide a review of dummy-based location privacy protection techniques for location-based services. More specifically, the connection between the level of privacy protection, the quality of service, and the system overhead is summarized. The difference and connection between various location privacy protection techniques are also described. The dummy-based attack models are presented. Then, the algorithms for dummy location selection are analyzed and evaluated. Finally, we thoroughly evaluate different dummy location selection methods and arrive at a highly useful evaluation result. This result is valuable both to users and researchers who are studying this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blockchain Security and Its Application in Internet of Things)
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27 pages, 1496 KiB  
Review
Blockchain for Modern Applications: A Survey
by Moez Krichen, Meryem Ammi, Alaeddine Mihoub and Mutiq Almutiq
Sensors 2022, 22(14), 5274; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22145274 - 14 Jul 2022
Cited by 65 | Viewed by 9963
Abstract
Blockchain is a modern technology that has revolutionized the way society interacts and trades. It could be defined as a chain of blocks that stores information with digital signatures in a distributed and decentralized network. This technique was first adopted for the creation [...] Read more.
Blockchain is a modern technology that has revolutionized the way society interacts and trades. It could be defined as a chain of blocks that stores information with digital signatures in a distributed and decentralized network. This technique was first adopted for the creation of digital cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin and Ethereum. However, research and industrial studies have recently focused on the opportunities that blockchain provides in various other application domains to take advantage of the main features of this technology, such as: decentralization, persistency, anonymity, and auditability. This paper reviews the use of blockchain in several interesting fields, namely: finance, healthcare, information systems, wireless networks, Internet of Things, smart grids, governmental services, and military/defense. In addition, our paper identifies the challenges to overcome, to guarantee better use of this technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blockchain Security and Its Application in Internet of Things)
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