Feature Papers—Multidisciplinary Sciences 2022

A special issue of Sci (ISSN 2413-4155).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 14281

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Guest Editor
Division of Bioorganic Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Saarland University, D-66123 Saarbruecken, Germany
Interests: bioorganic chemistry; catalytic sensor/effector agents; epistemology; intracellular diagnostics; nanotechnology; natural products; reactive sulfur and selenium species; redox regulation via the cellular thiolstat
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Guest Editor Assistant
Division of Bioorganic Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Saarland University, D-66123 Saarbruecken, Germany
Interests: philosophy of science; history of science; scientific communication; philosophy of chemistry; pharmacy; history of pharmacy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are pleased to announce our third Special Issue of the annual series of Feature Papers Collection. We intend to focus again this year on interdisciplinarity. We aim to develop Sci to become more inclusive in terms of content and audiences. Sci aims at bridging the traditional gaps between different scientific disciplines and encourages collaborations to tackle the main challenges facing us today, such as energy, food, water, climate, and health. Furthermore, we would like to introduce the “what’s it about?” initiative in which authors provide a concise summary of their contribution rendered towards non-specialists and the more general public.

Therefore, in 2022, our Special Issue aims to publish original articles and reviews on topics considered by our editors as being actual and highly significant to their field, environment, and society. We invite you as an authority in your field of research to contribute a keynote publication aimed especially though not exclusively at interdisciplinary scientific problem solving. These “Feature Papers” will be collected as part of the annual overview of activities in the areas relevant to Sci and will be published in book format after the Special Issue has been completed.

As always, we welcome high-quality contributions falling within the scope of our journal and its various fields of scientific activity. Submitted manuscripts in these areas will gain immediate visibility on Preprints, receive the possibility of undergoing public peer review, and will feature prominently on the Sci website.

Prof. Dr. Claus Jacob
Guest Editor
Ahmad Yaman Abdin
Guest Editor Assistant

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sci is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 661 KiB  
Article
Urban Heat Island High Water-Vapor Feedback Estimates and Heatwave Issues: A Temperature Difference Approach to Feedback Assessments
by Alec Feinberg
Sci 2022, 4(4), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/sci4040044 - 11 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1559
Abstract
The goal of this paper is to provide an initial assessment of water-vapor feedback (WVF) in humid urban heat island (UHI) environments based on temperature difference data. To achieve this, a novel temperature difference WVF model was developed that can analyze global and [...] Read more.
The goal of this paper is to provide an initial assessment of water-vapor feedback (WVF) in humid urban heat island (UHI) environments based on temperature difference data. To achieve this, a novel temperature difference WVF model was developed that can analyze global and UHI local temperature difference data. Specifically, the model was applied to a comparative temperature literature study of similar cities located in humid versus dry climates. The literature study found that the daytime UHI ΔT was observed to be 3.3 K higher in humid compared to dry climates when averaged over thirty-nine cities. Since the direct measurement of WVF in UHI areas could prove challenging due to variations in the temperature lapse rates from tall buildings, modeling provides an opportunity to make a preliminary assessment where measurements may be difficult. Thus, the results provide the first available UHI ΔT WVF model assessment. The preliminary results find local water-vapor feedback values for wet-biased cities of 3.1 Wm−2K−1, 3.4 Wm−2K−1, and 4 Wm−2K−1 for 5 °C, 15 °C, and 30 °C UHI average temperatures, respectively. The temperature difference model could also be used to reproduce literature values. This capability helps to validate the model and its findings. Heatwave assessments are also discussed, as they are strongly affected by UHI water-vapor feedback and support the observation that humid regions amplify heat higher than UHIs in dry regions, exacerbating heatwave problems. Furthermore, recent studies have found that urbanization contributions to global warming more than previously anticipated. Therefore, cities in humid environments are likely larger contributors to such warming trends compared to cities in dry environments. These preliminary modeling results show concern for a strong local UHI water-vapor feedback issue for cities in humid environments, with results possibly over a factor of two higher than the global average. This assessment also indicates that albedo management would likely be an effective way to reduce the resulting WVF temperature increase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers—Multidisciplinary Sciences 2022)
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13 pages, 2697 KiB  
Article
Synthesis and Structural Characterization of an Amorphous and Photoluminescent Mixed Eu/Zr Coordination Compound, a Potential Marker for Gunshot Residues
by Ayla Roberta Borges Serra, Thiago Rui Casagrande, Juliana Fonseca de Lima, Marcelo Firmino de Oliveira, Severino Alves Júnior, Marcos de Oliveira Junior and Osvaldo Antonio Serra
Sci 2022, 4(4), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/sci4040043 - 11 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1398
Abstract
Hydrogels based on mixed zirconium/europium ions and benzene tricarboxylic acid were synthesized by hydrothermal reaction. A solid glass-like material is formed upon drying, showing strong reddish luminescence. The system was characterized by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, thermal analyses, and infrared spectroscopy. The results [...] Read more.
Hydrogels based on mixed zirconium/europium ions and benzene tricarboxylic acid were synthesized by hydrothermal reaction. A solid glass-like material is formed upon drying, showing strong reddish luminescence. The system was characterized by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, thermal analyses, and infrared spectroscopy. The results reveal the amorphous character of the structure and the presence of at least four types of binding modes between the metal oxide clusters and benzene tricarboxylic acid. On the other hand, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed high thermal stability, with the material decomposing at temperatures higher than 500 °C. The combination of intense Eu3+ luminescence with large thermal stability makes this material a strong candidate for application as a luminescent red marker for gunshot residue (GSR). As proof of concept, we show the feasibility of this application by performing shooting tests using our compound as a GSR marker. After the shots, the residual luminescent particles could be visualized in the triggered cartridge, inner the muzzle of the firearm, and a lower amount on the hands of the shooter, using a UV lamp (λ = 254 nm). Remarkably, our results also show that the Eu3+ emission for the GSR is very similar to that observed for the original solid material. These characteristics are of huge importance since they provide a chance to use smaller amounts of the marker in the ammunition, lowering the costs of potential industrial manufacturing processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers—Multidisciplinary Sciences 2022)
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9 pages, 1279 KiB  
Article
Evolution of Realistic Organic Mixtures for the Origins of Life through Wet–Dry Cycling
by Kiernan Foster, Brooke Hillman, Vahab Rajaei, Kimsorn Seng and Sarah Maurer
Sci 2022, 4(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/sci4020022 - 27 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2389
Abstract
One of the challenges in understanding chemical evolution is the large number of starting organics and environments that were plausible on early Earth. Starting with realistic organic mixtures and using chemical analyses that are not biologically biased, understanding the interplay between organic composition [...] Read more.
One of the challenges in understanding chemical evolution is the large number of starting organics and environments that were plausible on early Earth. Starting with realistic organic mixtures and using chemical analyses that are not biologically biased, understanding the interplay between organic composition and environment can be approached using statistical analysis. In this work, a mixture of 73 organics was cycled through dehydrating conditions five times, considering environmental parameters of pH, salinity, and rehydration solution. Products were analyzed by HPLC, amide and ester assays, and phosphatase and esterase assays. While all environmental factors were found to influence chemical evolution, salinity was found to play a large role in the evolution of these mixtures, with samples diverging at very high sea salt concentrations. This framework should be expanded and formalized to improve our understanding of abiogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers—Multidisciplinary Sciences 2022)
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Review

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11 pages, 4448 KiB  
Review
Pediatric Foreign Body Ingestion: Complications and Patient and Foreign Body Factors
by Gregory P. Conners
Sci 2022, 4(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/sci4020020 - 17 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 7764
Abstract
Background: Management of the child who has swallowed a foreign body should be guided by the risk of complication. Objective of the Review: This review discusses the patient and foreign body characteristics most likely to be associated with complications. Discussion: Most swallowed foreign [...] Read more.
Background: Management of the child who has swallowed a foreign body should be guided by the risk of complication. Objective of the Review: This review discusses the patient and foreign body characteristics most likely to be associated with complications. Discussion: Most swallowed foreign bodies will pass through the GI tract without complication. Children with pre-existing GI tract abnormalities of any sort, or those who swallow higher-risk foreign bodies, are at higher risk. Higher-risk foreign bodies include long, sharp, or pointed objects, button batteries, and small magnets. Nearly any child who presents to an Emergency Department or other acute care setting after foreign body ingestion should undergo plain radiography; other forms of imaging may also be appropriate. Primary care providers may opt for an initial observation period when there is lower risk of complication. Esophageal button batteries should be emergently removed; other esophageal objects should be promptly removed or, if low risk, allowed a brief period to pass spontaneously. Most lower GI tract foreign bodies will pass spontaneously. Prevention, while not always possible, is preferable to management of foreign body ingestion. Conclusions: Management strategies for children who have swallowed foreign bodies can be optimized by considering relevant patient and foreign body factors, and how they contribute to the risk of complication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers—Multidisciplinary Sciences 2022)
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