Kinematics and Robot Design V, KaRD2022

A special issue of Robotics (ISSN 2218-6581).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2022) | Viewed by 55698

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A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Engineering Department, University of Ferrara, 44122 Ferrara, Italy
Interests: kinematics; dynamics; mechanism and machine theory; parallel manipulators; robot mechanics; biomechanics; vehicle mechanics; robotics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Scientific Committee

- Massimo Callegari, Polytechnic University of Marche (Italy)

- Juan Antonio Carretero, University of New Brunswick (Canada)

- Yan Chen, Tianjin University (China)

- Daniel Condurache, “Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iași (Romania)

- Xilun Ding, Beijing University of Aeronautics & Astronautics (China)

- Mary Frecker, Penn State - College of Engineering (USA)

- Clement Gosselin, Laval University (Canada)

- Just Herder, TU Deft (Netherlands)

- Larry Howell, Brigham Young University (USA)

- Xianwen Kong, Heriot-Watt University (UK)

- Pierre Larochelle, South Dakota School of Mines & Technology (USA)

- Giovanni Legnani, University of Brescia (Italy)

- Haitao Liu, Tianjin University (China)

- Daniel Martins, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (Brazil)

- Andreas Mueller, Johannes Kepler Universität (Austria)

- Andrew Murray, University of Dayton (USA)

- Leila Notash, Queen's University (Canada)

- Matteo Palpacelli, Polytechnic University of Marche (Italy)

- Alba Perez, Remy Robotics, Barcelona (Spain)

- Victor Petuya, University of the Basque Country (Spain)

- José Maria Rico Martinez, Universidad de Guanajuato (Mexico)

- Nina Robson, California State University, Fullerton (USA)

- Jon M. Selig, London South Bank University (UK)

- Bruno Siciliano, University of Naples Federico II (Italy)

- Tao Sun, Tianjin University (China)

- Yukio Takeda, Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan)

- Federico Thomas, Institute of Industrial Robotics (Spain)

- Volkert Van Der Wijk, TU Deft (Netherlands)

Dear Colleagues,

KaRD2022 is the 5th issue of the KaRD series, hosted by MDPI’s Robotics. The KaRD series of open access Special Issues is characterized with low publication costs (CHF 400 /paper is the author processing fee (APC) for each published paper), which is comparable to the registration fee of a small international congress.

The KaRD series started in 2018 and publishes one issue annually. Its websites are an open environment where researchers can present their works and discuss all the topics focused on the many aspects that involve kinematics in the design of robotic/automatic systems by using supplementary multimedia materials uploadable during submission. A “Scientific Committee”, which collects researchers from all over the world, supports and supervises the Guest Editor activity.

All the papers are peer-reviewed as soon as they are submitted and, if accepted, are immediately published on MDPI’s Robotics and appear on the website of the KaRD issue. Starting with the last edition, the papers of each KaRD issue are also collected into freely downloadable e-books, the printed copy of which can also be ordered at a price that covers the printing costs. 

Kinematics is central for nearly all the design aspects of robotic/automatic systems. Topics such as analysis and synthesis of mechanisms, robot modeling and simulation, robot control, mobility and singularity analysis, performance measures, accuracy analysis, path planning, and obstacle avoidance, collaborative robotics, novel manipulator architectures, metamorphic mechanisms, compliant mechanism analysis and synthesis, micro/nano-manipulator design, origami-based robotics, medical and rehabilitation robotics, bioinspired robotics, etc., deal with kinematics. All these topics have a deep social impact and, somehow, delineate future perspectives of human welfare, which makes kinematics an alive research field for theoretical and applicative subjects.

KaRD2022 provides a good opportunity for presenting research results that are immediately readable and usable by other researchers. In particular, submitting authors:

- Are able to also submit accompanying multimedia material;

- Can request the “Open Peer Review” during the submission;

- Are immediately able to upload, as a preprint on https://www.preprints.org/, the paper version submitted for review, where it will receive a DOI and will be readable/citable by other researchers;

- After the possible paper acceptance and the publication on Robotics, are able to upload their published paper on many social networks for researchers (e.g., ResearchGate.net), where they can publicly or privately interact with other researchers to start a discussion on the published results.

In short, KaRD series is an “agora”, where researchers efficiently exchange their experiences.

The Special Issue aims at collecting recent research on the following topics. Nevertheless, review papers are welcome, too.

Topics of interest include (but are not limited to):

  • Synthesis of mechanisms;
  • Theoretical and computational kinematics;
  • Robot modeling and simulation;
  • Kinematics in robot control;
  • Position analysis;
  • Mobility and singularity analysis;
  • Performance measures;
  • Accuracy analysis;
  • Path planning and obstacle avoidance;
  • Novel manipulator architectures;
  • Metamorphic mechanisms;
  • Compliant mechanism analysis and synthesis;
  • Micro/nano manipulator design;
  • Origami-based robotics;
  • Medical and rehabilitation robotics;
  • Kinematics in biological systems, humanoid robots, and humanoid subsystems;
  • Education in robotics.

Raffaele Di Gregorio
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Robotics is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs), but it is reduced to 400 CHF for the papers submitted to this special issue. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • mechanism synthesis
  • kinematic analysis
  • robot modeling and simulation
  • robot control
  • singularity analysis
  • performance measures
  • accuracy analysis
  • path planning
  • parallel manipulator
  • serial manipulator
  • robot design
  • compliant mechanism
  • micro/nano manipulator
  • origami
  • medical and rehabilitation robotics
  • biomechanics

Related Special Issues

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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27 pages, 14012 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Design of a Biped Robot FORREST and an Extended Capture-Point-Based Walking Pattern Generator
by Hongxi Zhu and Ulrike Thomas
Robotics 2023, 12(3), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics12030082 - 7 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2725
Abstract
In recent years, many studies have shown that soft robots with elastic actuators enable robust interaction with the environment. Compliant joints can protect mechanical systems and provide better dynamic performance, thus offering huge potential for further developments of humanoid robots. This paper proposes [...] Read more.
In recent years, many studies have shown that soft robots with elastic actuators enable robust interaction with the environment. Compliant joints can protect mechanical systems and provide better dynamic performance, thus offering huge potential for further developments of humanoid robots. This paper proposes a new biped robot. The new robot combines a torque sensor-based active elastic hip and a spring-based passive elastic knee/ankle. In the first part, the mechanical design is introduced, and in the second part, the kinematics and dynamics capabilities are described. Furthermore, we introduce a new extended capture-point-based walking pattern generator that calculates footstep positions, which are used as input for the controller of our new biped robot. The main contribution of this article is the novel mechanical design and an extended walking pattern generator. The new design offers a unique solution for cable-driven bipeds to achieve both balancing and walking. Meanwhile, the new walking pattern generator can generate smooth desired curves, which is an improvement over traditional generators that use a constant zero-moment-point (ZMP). A simple cartesian controller is applied to test the performance of the walking pattern generator. Although the robot has been built, all experiments regarding the pattern generator are still simulated using MATLAB/Simulink. The focus of this work is to analyze the mechanical design and show the capabilities of the robot by applying a new pattern generator. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinematics and Robot Design V, KaRD2022)
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18 pages, 2093 KiB  
Article
Inverse Kinematics of a Class of 6R Collaborative Robots with Non-Spherical Wrist
by Luca Carbonari, Matteo-Claudio Palpacelli and Massimo Callegari
Robotics 2023, 12(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics12020036 - 3 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3711
Abstract
The spread of cobotsin common industrial practice has led constructors to prefer the development of collaborative features that are necessary to prevent injuries to operators over the realization of simple kinematic structures for which the joints-to-workspace mapping is well known. An example is [...] Read more.
The spread of cobotsin common industrial practice has led constructors to prefer the development of collaborative features that are necessary to prevent injuries to operators over the realization of simple kinematic structures for which the joints-to-workspace mapping is well known. An example is given by the replacement in serial robots of spherical wrists with safer solutions, where the danger of crushing and shearing is intrinsically avoided. Despite this tendency, the kinematic map between actuated joints and the Cartesian workspace remains of paramount importance for robot analysis and programming, deserving the attention of the research community. This paper proposes a closed-form solution for the inverse kinematics of a class of 6R robotic arms with six degrees of freedom and non-spherical wrists. The solutions are worked out by a single polynomial, of minimum degree, in terms of one of the positioning parameters chosen for the description of the robot posture. The roots of such a polynomial are then back-substituted to determine all the remaining unknowns. A numerical example is finally shown to verify the validity of the proposed implementation for a commercial collaborative robot. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinematics and Robot Design V, KaRD2022)
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23 pages, 9475 KiB  
Article
A Dynamic Approach to Low-Cost Design, Development, and Computational Simulation of a 12DoF Quadruped Robot
by Md. Hasibur Rahman, Saadia Binte Alam, Trisha Das Mou, Mohammad Faisal Uddin and Mahady Hasan
Robotics 2023, 12(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics12010028 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3255
Abstract
Robots equipped with legs have significant potential for real-world applications. Many industries, including those concerned with instruction, aid, security, and surveillance, have shown interest in legged robots. However, these robots are typically incredibly complicated and expensive to purchase. Iron Dog Mini is a [...] Read more.
Robots equipped with legs have significant potential for real-world applications. Many industries, including those concerned with instruction, aid, security, and surveillance, have shown interest in legged robots. However, these robots are typically incredibly complicated and expensive to purchase. Iron Dog Mini is a low-cost, easily replicated, and modular quadruped robot built for training, security, and surveillance. To keep the price low and its upkeep simple, we designed our quadruped robot in a modular manner. We provide a comparative study of robotic manufacturing cost between our proposed robot and previously established robots. We were able to create a compact femur and tibia structure with sufficient load-bearing capacity. To improve stability and motion efficiency, we considered the novel Watt six-bar linkage mechanism. Using the SolidWorks modeling software, we analyzed the structural integrity of the robot’s components, considering their respective material properties. Furthermore, our research involved developing URDF data for our quadruped robot based on its CAD model. Its gait trajectory is planned using a 14-point Bezier curve. We demonstrate the operation of the simulation model and briefly discuss the robot’s kinematics. Computational methods are emphasized in this research, coupled with the simulation of kinematic and dynamic performances and analytical/numerical modeling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinematics and Robot Design V, KaRD2022)
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24 pages, 2109 KiB  
Article
Constrained-Differential-Kinematics-Decomposition-Based NMPC for Online Manipulator Control with Low Computational Costs
by Jan Reinhold, Henry Baumann and Thomas Meurer
Robotics 2023, 12(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics12010007 - 3 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2311
Abstract
Flexibility combined with the ability to consider external constraints comprises the main advantages of nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC). Applied as a motion controller, NMPC enables applications in varying and disturbed environments, but requires time-consuming computations. Hence, given the full nonlinear multi-DOF robot [...] Read more.
Flexibility combined with the ability to consider external constraints comprises the main advantages of nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC). Applied as a motion controller, NMPC enables applications in varying and disturbed environments, but requires time-consuming computations. Hence, given the full nonlinear multi-DOF robot model, a delay-free execution providing short control horizons at appropriate prediction horizons for accurate motions is not applicable in common use. This contribution introduces an approach that analyzes and decomposes the differential kinematics similar to the inverse kinematics method to assign Cartesian boundary conditions to specific systems of equations during the model building, reducing the online computational costs. The resulting fully constrained NMPC realizes the translational obstacle avoidance during trajectory tracking using a reduced model considering both joint and Cartesian constraints coupled with a Jacobian transposed controller performing the end-effector’s orientation correction. Apart from a safe distance from the obstacles, the presented approach does not lead to any limitations of the reachable workspace, and all degrees of freedom (DOFs) of the robot are used. The simulative evaluation in Gazebo using the Stäubli TX2-90 commanded of ROS on a standard computer emphasizes the significantly lower online computational costs, accuracy analysis, and extended adaptability in obstacle avoidance, providing additional flexibility. An interpretation of the new concept is discussed for further use and extensions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinematics and Robot Design V, KaRD2022)
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19 pages, 2263 KiB  
Article
A Novel Gripper with Integrated Rotary Unit and Force Control for Pick and Place Applications
by Alexey M. Romanov, Ntmitrii Gyrichidi and Mikhail P. Romanov
Robotics 2022, 11(6), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics11060155 - 18 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2733
Abstract
Modern electrical grippers have lower life-cycle costs compared to pneumatic ones. Furthermore, they provide force control, making it possible to grasp objects with different fragility using a single device. At the same time, electrical grippers have a higher end-effector weight, installed on the [...] Read more.
Modern electrical grippers have lower life-cycle costs compared to pneumatic ones. Furthermore, they provide force control, making it possible to grasp objects with different fragility using a single device. At the same time, electrical grippers have a higher end-effector weight, installed on the robot’s flange and lower closing speed, preventing them from replacing pneumatic solutions in high dynamic Pick and Place applications. This research faces both issues by synthesizing a novel gripper mechanism based on a Torque Distribution Gearbox, which makes it possible to relocate the electric motors to the static frame of a delta robot. The proposed gripper not only has a lower mass and a higher closing speed than competitive electric solutions, but it also provides unlimited rotation around the vertical axis. The performance of the gripper was tested in experimental studies, which showed that a created aluminum prototype provides a precise force control in the range from 3 N to 48 N with an accuracy not worse than 1.27 N. Moreover, its finger’s speed is 3.1–56 times higher than market available electrical grippers, which makes it comparable by this parameter with pneumatic solutions used in high dynamic Pick and Place applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinematics and Robot Design V, KaRD2022)
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14 pages, 5110 KiB  
Article
Application of Half-Derivative Damping to Cartesian Space Position Control of a SCARA-like Manipulator
by Luca Bruzzone and Shahab Edin Nodehi
Robotics 2022, 11(6), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics11060152 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1933
Abstract
In classical Cartesian space position control, KD, the end-effector follows the set-point trajectory with a stiffness expressed in the directions of the external coordinates through the stiffness matrix, K, and with a damping proportional to the first-order derivatives of errors of the external [...] Read more.
In classical Cartesian space position control, KD, the end-effector follows the set-point trajectory with a stiffness expressed in the directions of the external coordinates through the stiffness matrix, K, and with a damping proportional to the first-order derivatives of errors of the external coordinates through the damping matrix, D. This work deals with a fractional-order extension of the Cartesian space position control, KDHD, which is characterized by an additional damping term, proportional to the half-order derivatives of the errors of the external coordinates through a second damping matrix, HD. The proposed Cartesian position control scheme is applied to a SCARA-like serial manipulator with elastic compensation of gravity. Multibody simulation results show that the proposed scheme was able to reduce the tracking error, in terms of mean absolute value of the end-effector position error and Integral Square Error, with the same amount of Integral Control Effort and comparable maximum actuation torques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinematics and Robot Design V, KaRD2022)
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16 pages, 1140 KiB  
Article
Partial Lagrangian for Efficient Extension and Reconstruction of Multi-DoF Systems and Efficient Analysis Using Automatic Differentiation
by Takashi Kusaka and Takayuki Tanaka
Robotics 2022, 11(6), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics11060149 - 9 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2149
Abstract
In the fields of control engineering and robotics, either the Lagrange or Newton–Euler method is generally used to analyze and design systems using equations of motion. Although the Lagrange method can obtain analytical solutions, it is difficult to handle in multi-degree-of-freedom systems because [...] Read more.
In the fields of control engineering and robotics, either the Lagrange or Newton–Euler method is generally used to analyze and design systems using equations of motion. Although the Lagrange method can obtain analytical solutions, it is difficult to handle in multi-degree-of-freedom systems because the computational complexity increases explosively as the number of degrees of freedom increases. Conversely, the Newton–Euler method requires less computation even for multi-degree-of-freedom systems, but it cannot obtain an analytical solution. Therefore, we propose a partial Lagrange method that can handle the Lagrange equation efficiently even for multi-degree-of-freedom systems by using a divide-and-conquer approach. The proposed method can easily handle system extensions and system reconstructions, such as changes to intermediate links, for multi-degree-of-freedom serial link manipulators. In addition, the proposed method facilitates the derivation of the equations of motion-by-hand calculations, and when combined with an analysis algorithm using automatic differentiation, it can easily realize motion analysis and control the simulation of multi-degree-of-freedom models. Using multiple pendulums as examples, we confirm the effectiveness of system expansion and system reconstruction with the partial Lagrangians. The derivation of their equations of motion and the results of motion analysis by simulation and motion control experiments are presented. The system extensions and reconstructions proposed herein can be used simultaneously with conventional analytical methods, allowing manual derivations of equations of motion and numerical computer simulations to be performed more efficiently. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinematics and Robot Design V, KaRD2022)
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14 pages, 2881 KiB  
Article
Singularity Analysis and Complete Methods to Compute the Inverse Kinematics for a 6-DOF UR/TM-Type Robot
by Jessica Villalobos, Irma Y. Sanchez and Fernando Martell
Robotics 2022, 11(6), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics11060137 - 29 Nov 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 5774
Abstract
Improving the strategies employed to control robotic arms is of great importance because of the increase in their use in advanced supervisory control strategies, such as digital twins. The inverse kinematic (IK) control of manipulators requires an IK solution and an awareness of [...] Read more.
Improving the strategies employed to control robotic arms is of great importance because of the increase in their use in advanced supervisory control strategies, such as digital twins. The inverse kinematic (IK) control of manipulators requires an IK solution and an awareness of the singular configurations. This work presents a complete IK calculation system with singularity analysis for the UR5 robotic arm created by Universal Robots. For a specific robot pose, different angle solution sets are obtained, and one of these solution sets has to be selected to achieve movement continuity and avoid singularities. Two methods for this double purpose are proposed: one calculates all the solution possibilities, and the other obtains only one solution set by following a sequence of decisions and calculations clearly stated by a finite state machine (FSM). Both methods are effective in managing singularities. The FSM-based method complements the IK solution procedure with advantages in the number of computations and performance by producing results that would not lead the joints to move abruptly. The results prove that the presented methods select an IK solution that does not result in a singular configuration, and that most of the time, they lead to the same valid IK solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinematics and Robot Design V, KaRD2022)
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21 pages, 30658 KiB  
Article
Kinematic Graph for Motion Planning of Robotic Manipulators
by Burkhard Corves and Amir Shahidi
Robotics 2022, 11(5), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics11050105 - 5 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2281
Abstract
We introduce a kinematic graph in this article. A kinematic graph results from structuring the data obtained from the sampling method for sampling-based motion planning algorithms in robotics with the motivation to adapt the method to the positioning problem of robotic manipulators. The [...] Read more.
We introduce a kinematic graph in this article. A kinematic graph results from structuring the data obtained from the sampling method for sampling-based motion planning algorithms in robotics with the motivation to adapt the method to the positioning problem of robotic manipulators. The term kinematic graph emphasises the fact that any path computed by sampling-based motion planning algorithms using a kinematic graph is guaranteed to correspond to a feasible motion for the positioning of the robotic manipulator. We propose methods to combine the information from the configuration and task spaces of the robotic manipulators to cluster the samples. The kinematic graph is the result of this systematic clustering and a tremendous reduction in the size of the problem. Hence, using a kinematic graph, it is possible to effectively employ sampling-based motion planning algorithms for robotic manipulators, where the problem is defined in higher dimensions than those for which these algorithms were developed. Other barriers that hindered adequate utilisation of such algorithms for robotic manipulators with articulated arms, such as the non-injective surjection of the forward kinematic function, are also addressed in the structure of the kinematic graph. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinematics and Robot Design V, KaRD2022)
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19 pages, 7792 KiB  
Article
Development of an End-Effector Type Therapeutic Robot with Sliding Mode Control for Upper-Limb Rehabilitation
by Md Mahafuzur Rahaman Khan, Asif Al Zubayer Swapnil, Tanvir Ahmed, Md Mahbubur Rahman, Md Rasedul Islam, Brahim Brahmi, Raouf Fareh and Mohammad Habibur Rahman
Robotics 2022, 11(5), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics11050098 - 21 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3501
Abstract
Geriatric disorders, strokes, spinal cord injuries, trauma, and workplace injuries are all prominent causes of upper limb disability. A two-degrees-of-freedom (DoFs) end-effector type robot, iTbot (intelligent therapeutic robot) was designed to provide upper limb rehabilitation therapy. The non-linear control of iTbot utilizing modified [...] Read more.
Geriatric disorders, strokes, spinal cord injuries, trauma, and workplace injuries are all prominent causes of upper limb disability. A two-degrees-of-freedom (DoFs) end-effector type robot, iTbot (intelligent therapeutic robot) was designed to provide upper limb rehabilitation therapy. The non-linear control of iTbot utilizing modified sliding mode control (SMC) is presented in this paper. The chattering produced by a conventional SMC is undesirable for this type of robotic application because it damages the mechanical structure and causes discomfort to the robot user. In contrast to conventional SMC, our proposed method reduces chattering and provides excellent dynamic tracking performance, allowing rapid convergence of the system trajectory to its equilibrium point. The performance of the developed robot and controller was evaluated by tracking trajectories corresponding to conventional passive arm movement exercises, including several joints. According to the results of experiment, the iTbot demonstrated the ability to follow the desired trajectories effectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinematics and Robot Design V, KaRD2022)
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19 pages, 6621 KiB  
Article
Collision Avoidance for Redundant 7-DOF Robots Using a Critically Damped Dynamic Approach
by Henrique Simas and Raffaele Di Gregorio
Robotics 2022, 11(5), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics11050093 - 8 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2200
Abstract
The presence of collaborative robots in industrial environments requires that their control strategies include collision avoidance in the generation of trajectories. In general, collision avoidance is performed via additional displacements of the kinematic chain that make the robot move far from the objects [...] Read more.
The presence of collaborative robots in industrial environments requires that their control strategies include collision avoidance in the generation of trajectories. In general, collision avoidance is performed via additional displacements of the kinematic chain that make the robot move far from the objects that are occasionally inserted into its safety workspace. The variability of the coordinates of the collision points inside the safety volume leads to abrupt movements for the robot. This paper presents a general method for smoothing abrupt movements in robots with one degree of redundancy for collision-avoidance trajectories, employing a second-order digital filter designed with adjustable critical damping. The method is illustrated by applying it to a redundant robot with a spherical–revolute–spherical type (SRS-type) kinematic chain, which is a benchmark used to test the algorithms ideated for solving this problem. This paper also presents an alternative algorithm for the inverse kinematics of the SRS-type robot and the computational experiments that show the collision avoidance proposal’s performance and its properties through graphical results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinematics and Robot Design V, KaRD2022)
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Review

Jump to: Research

28 pages, 8670 KiB  
Review
Reformulation of Theories of Kinematic Synthesis for Planar Dyads and Triads
by Sean Mather and Arthur Erdman
Robotics 2023, 12(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics12010022 - 1 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1819
Abstract
Methods for solving planar dyads and triads in kinematic synthesis are scattered throughout the literature. A review of and a new compilation of the complex number synthesis method for planar dyads and triads is presented. The motivation of this paper is to formulate [...] Read more.
Methods for solving planar dyads and triads in kinematic synthesis are scattered throughout the literature. A review of and a new compilation of the complex number synthesis method for planar dyads and triads is presented. The motivation of this paper is to formulate uniform solution procedures, pointing out the commonalities of various approaches and emphasizing a consistent method for synthesizing mechanisms defined by specified precision positions. Particular emphasis is given to the solution method using compatibility linkages. The textbook Advanced Mechanism Design Vol II by Erdman and Sandor (1984) only includes a small portion of the available information on this method, and several researchers have added to the basic knowledge in the years since. In some cases, the approach and nomenclature were not consistent, yielding a need to describe and chart a generic formulation and solution procedure for dyads/triads using compatibility linkages and solution structures. The present method offers benefits for solving for exact dyad/triad solutions for complex multiloop mechanisms and could be a promising tool for reducing the computational load of finding complex mechanisms, and for visualizing properties of the solution space. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinematics and Robot Design V, KaRD2022)
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33 pages, 12704 KiB  
Review
Current Designs of Robotic Arm Grippers: A Comprehensive Systematic Review
by Jaime Hernandez, Md Samiul Haque Sunny, Javier Sanjuan, Ivan Rulik, Md Ishrak Islam Zarif, Sheikh Iqbal Ahamed, Helal Uddin Ahmed and Mohammad H Rahman
Robotics 2023, 12(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics12010005 - 2 Jan 2023
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 18278
Abstract
Recent technological advances enable gripper-equipped robots to perform many tasks traditionally associated with the human hand, allowing the use of grippers in a wide range of applications. Depending on the application, an ideal gripper design should be affordable, energy-efficient, and adaptable to many [...] Read more.
Recent technological advances enable gripper-equipped robots to perform many tasks traditionally associated with the human hand, allowing the use of grippers in a wide range of applications. Depending on the application, an ideal gripper design should be affordable, energy-efficient, and adaptable to many situations. However, regardless of the number of grippers available on the market, there are still many tasks that are difficult for grippers to perform, which indicates the demand and room for new designs to compete with the human hand. Thus, this paper provides a comprehensive review of robotic arm grippers to identify the benefits and drawbacks of various gripper designs. The research compares gripper designs by considering the actuation mechanism, degrees of freedom, grasping capabilities with multiple objects, and applications, concluding which should be the gripper design with the broader set of capabilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinematics and Robot Design V, KaRD2022)
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