Kinematics and Robot Design VI, KaRD2023

A special issue of Robotics (ISSN 2218-6581).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2023) | Viewed by 13083

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Engineering Department, University of Ferrara, 44122 Ferrara, Italy
Interests: kinematics; dynamics; mechanism and machine theory; parallel manipulators; robot mechanics; biomechanics; vehicle mechanics; robotics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Scientific Committee

  • Massimo Callegari, Polytechnic University of Marche (Italy);
  • Juan Antonio Carretero, University of New Brunswick (Canada);
  • Yan Chen, Tianjin University (China);
  • Daniel Co-ndurache, “Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iași (Romania);
  • Xilun Ding, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics (China);
  • Mary Frecker, Penn State - College of Engineering (USA);
  • Clement Gosselin, Laval University (Canada);
  • Just Herder, TU Deft (Netherlands);
  • Larry Howell, Brigham Young University (USA) ;
  • Xianwen Kong, Heriot-Watt University (UK);
  • Pierre Larochelle, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (USA);
  • Giovanni Legnani, University of Brescia (Italy);
  • Haitao Liu, Tianjin University (China);
  • Daniel Martins, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (Brazil);
  • Andreas Mueller, Johannes Kepler Universität (Austria);
  • Andrew Murray, University of Dayton (USA);
  • Leila Notash, Queen's University (Canada);
  • Matteo Palpacelli, Polytechnic University of Marche (Italy);
  • Alba Perez, Remy Robotics, Barcelona (Spain);
  • Victor Petuya, University of the Basque Country (Spain);
  • José Maria Rico Martinez, Universidad de Guanajuato (Mexico);
  • Nina Robson, California State University, Fullerton (USA);
  • Jon M. Selig, London South Bank University (UK);
  • Bruno Siciliano, University of Naples Federico II (Italy);
  • Tao Sun, Tianjin University (China);
  • Yukio Takeda, Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan);
  • Federico Thomas, Institute of Industrial Robotics (Spain);
  • Volkert Van Der Wijk, TU Deft (Netherlands).

Dear Colleagues,

KaRD2023 is the 6th issue of the KaRD series, hosted by MDPI’s Robotics. The KaRD series of open-access Special Issues is characterized by a low publication cost (400 CHF/paper is the article-processing fee (APC) for each published paper), which is comparable with the registration fee of a small international congress.

The KaRD series started in 2018 and publishes one issue yearly. The websites are open environments where researchers can present their works and discuss all the topics on the many aspects of kinematics in the design of robotic/automatic systems by also using supplementary multimedia materials uploadable during the submission. A “Scientific Committee”, which collects researchers coming from all over the world, supports and supervises the Guest Editor activity.

All the papers are peer-reviewed as soon as they are submitted and, if accepted, are immediately published in MDPI’s Robotics and appear on the website of the KaRD issue. The papers of each KaRD issue are also collected into freely downloadable e-books, whose printed copies can also be ordered at a price that covers the printing costs. 

Kinematics is central to nearly all the design aspects of robotic/automatic systems. Topics like analysis and synthesis of mechanisms, robot modeling and simulation, robot control, mobility and singularity analysis, performance measures, accuracy analysis, path planning and obstacle avoidance, collaborative robotics, novel manipulator architectures, metamorphic mechanisms, compliant mechanism analysis and synthesis, micro/nano-manipulator design, origami-based robotics, medical and rehabilitation robotics, bioinspired robotics, etc., deal with kinematics. All these topics have a deep social impact and, somehow, delineate future perspectives of human welfare, which makes kinematics an alive research field hosting theoretical and applicative subjects.

KaRD2023 provides a good opportunity to present research results that are immediately readable and usable by other researchers. In particular, submitting authors:

  • Are able to also submit accompanying multimedia material;
  • Can request the “Open Peer Review” during the submission;
  • Are immediately able to upload, as a preprint on https://www.preprints.org/, the paper version submitted for review, where it will receive a DOI and will be readable/citable by other researchers;
  • Are able to upload their published paper on many social networks for researchers (e.g., ResearchGate.net), where they can publicly or privately interact with other researchers to start a discussion on the published results.
  • Can receive comments and reply to them directly on the website of their published papers, where the same authors can add comments to their papers, which integrate them and are jointly visible with them.

In short, the KaRD series is an “agora”, where researchers efficiently exchange their experiences.

The Special Issue aims to collect recent research on the following topics. Nevertheless, review papers are welcome, too.

Topics of interest include (but are not limited to):

  • Synthesis of mechanisms;
  • Theoretical and computational kinematics;
  • Robot modeling and simulation;
  • Kinematics in robot control;
  • Position analysis;
  • Mobility and singularity analysis;
  • Performance measures;
  • Accuracy analysis;
  • Path planning and obstacle avoidance;
  • Novel manipulator architectures;
  • Metamorphic mechanisms;
  • Compliant mechanism analysis and synthesis;
  • Micro/nanomanipulator design;
  • Origami-based robotics;
  • Medical and rehabilitation robotics;
  • Kinematics in biological systems, humanoid robots and humanoid subsystems;
  • Education in robotics.

Prof. Dr. Raffaele Di Gregorio
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Robotics is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs), but it is reduced to 400 CHF for the papers submitted to this special issue. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • mechanism synthesis
  • kinematic analysis
  • robot modeling and simulation
  • robot control
  • singularity analysis
  • performance measures
  • accuracy analysis
  • path planning
  • parallel manipulator
  • serial manipulator
  • robot design
  • compliant mechanism
  • micro/nanomanipulator
  • origami
  • medical and rehabilitation robotics
  • biomechanics

Related Special Issues

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 2685 KiB  
Article
Motion Planning of Differentially Flat Planar Underactuated Robots
by Michele Tonan, Matteo Bottin, Alberto Doria and Giulio Rosati
Robotics 2024, 13(4), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics13040057 - 30 Mar 2024
Viewed by 534
Abstract
Differential flat underactuated robots have fewer actuators than degrees of freedom (DOFs). This characteristic makes it possible to design light and cost-effective robots with great dexterity. The primary challenge associated with these robots lies in effectively controlling the passive joint, in particular, when [...] Read more.
Differential flat underactuated robots have fewer actuators than degrees of freedom (DOFs). This characteristic makes it possible to design light and cost-effective robots with great dexterity. The primary challenge associated with these robots lies in effectively controlling the passive joint, in particular, when collisions with obstacles in the workspace have to be avoided. Most of the previous research focused on point-to-point motions without any control on the actual robot trajectory. In this work, a new method is presented to plan trajectories that include one or more via points. In this way, the underactuated robot can avoid the obstacles in the workspace, similarly to traditional fully actuated robots. First, a trajectory planning strategy is analytically described; then, numerical results are presented. The numerical results show the effects of the via points and of the order of the polynomials adopted to define the motion laws. In addition, experimental tests performed on a two-DOF underactuated robot are presented, and their results validate the proposed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinematics and Robot Design VI, KaRD2023)
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18 pages, 13149 KiB  
Article
Posture Optimization of the TIAGo Highly-Redundant Robot for Grasping Operation
by Albin Bajrami, Matteo-Claudio Palpacelli, Luca Carbonari and Daniele Costa
Robotics 2024, 13(4), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics13040056 - 23 Mar 2024
Viewed by 663
Abstract
This study explores the optimization of the TIAGo robot’s configuration for grasping operation, with a focus on the context of aging. In fact, featuring a mobile base and a robotic arm, the TIAGo robot can conveniently aid individuals with disabilities, including those with [...] Read more.
This study explores the optimization of the TIAGo robot’s configuration for grasping operation, with a focus on the context of aging. In fact, featuring a mobile base and a robotic arm, the TIAGo robot can conveniently aid individuals with disabilities, including those with motor and cognitive impairments in both domestic and clinical settings. Its capabilities include recognizing visual targets such as faces or gestures using stereo cameras, as well as interpreting vocal commands through acoustic sensors to execute tasks. For example, the robot can grasp and lift objects such as a glass of water and navigate autonomously in order to fulfill a request. The paper presents the position and differential kinematics that form the basis for using the robot in numerous application contexts. In the present case, they are used to evaluate the kinematic performance of the robot relative to an assigned pose in the search for the optimal configuration with respect to the higher-order infinite possible configurations. Ultimately, the article provides insight into how to effectively use the robot in gripping operations, as well as presenting kinematic models of the TIAGo robot. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinematics and Robot Design VI, KaRD2023)
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23 pages, 9845 KiB  
Article
An Experimental Investigation of the Dynamic Performances of a High Speed 4-DOF 5R Parallel Robot Using Inverse Dynamics Control
by Paolo Righettini, Roberto Strada, Filippo Cortinovis, Federico Tabaldi, Jasmine Santinelli and Andrea Ginammi
Robotics 2024, 13(3), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics13030054 - 20 Mar 2024
Viewed by 687
Abstract
High-speed pick-and-place industrial applications often use parallel kinematic robots due to their high stiffness and dynamic performance; furthermore, the latter not only depends on the mechanical characteristics of the robots but also on the control algorithm. The literature shows several theoretical contributions to [...] Read more.
High-speed pick-and-place industrial applications often use parallel kinematic robots due to their high stiffness and dynamic performance; furthermore, the latter not only depends on the mechanical characteristics of the robots but also on the control algorithm. The literature shows several theoretical contributions to such controllers, mainly tested at the simulation level or on simple proof-of-concept laboratory equipment that execute low-speed and simple trajectories. This paper presents an experimental investigation of the dynamic performance of an industrial high-speed 4-DOF 5R parallel robot designed for pick-and-place applications on moving objects. The inverse dynamics control in the task space is used as a control algorithm. The results show the contribution of all the components of the control algorithm to the motor torque, and the inverse dynamics controller performances are discussed also in comparison to those achievable with simpler PD or PID controllers in a joint space. Moreover, the paper shows the controller synthesis from a modern mechatronic point of view, and the effectiveness of the proposed solution for the tracking of complex high-speed trajectories in an industrial application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinematics and Robot Design VI, KaRD2023)
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22 pages, 8825 KiB  
Article
Driving Strategies for Omnidirectional Mobile Robots with Offset Differential Wheels
by Joan Badia Torres, Alba Perez Gracia and Carles Domenech-Mestres
Robotics 2024, 13(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics13010019 - 18 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1412
Abstract
In this work, we present an analysis of, as well as driving strategies and design considerations for, a type of omnidirectional mobile robot: the offset-differential robot. This system presents omnidirectionality while using any type of standard wheel, allowing for applications in uneven and [...] Read more.
In this work, we present an analysis of, as well as driving strategies and design considerations for, a type of omnidirectional mobile robot: the offset-differential robot. This system presents omnidirectionality while using any type of standard wheel, allowing for applications in uneven and rough terrains, as well as cluttered environments. The known fact that these robots, as well as simple differential robots, have an unstable driving zone, has mostly been dealt with by designing driving strategies in the stable zone of internal dynamics. However, driving in the unstable zone may be advantageous when dealing with rough and uneven terrains. This work is based on the full kinematic and dynamic analysis of a robot, including its passive elements, to explain the unexpected behaviors that appear during its motion due to instability. Precise torque calculations taking into account the configuration of the passive elements were performed for better torque control, and design recommendations are included. The stable and unstable behaviors were characterized, and driving strategies were described in order to achieve the desired performance regarding precise positioning and speed. The model and driving strategies were validated through simulations and experimental testing. This work lays the foundation for the design of better control strategies for offset-differential robots. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinematics and Robot Design VI, KaRD2023)
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15 pages, 1516 KiB  
Article
A Bi-Invariant Approach to Approximate Motion Synthesis of Planar Four-Bar Linkage
by Tianze Xu, David H. Myszka and Andrew P. Murray
Robotics 2024, 13(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics13010013 - 10 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1262
Abstract
This paper presents a planar four-bar approximate motion synthesis technique that uses only pole locations. Synthesis for rigid-body guidance determines the linkage dimensions that guide a body in a desired manner. The desired motion is specified with task positions including a location and [...] Read more.
This paper presents a planar four-bar approximate motion synthesis technique that uses only pole locations. Synthesis for rigid-body guidance determines the linkage dimensions that guide a body in a desired manner. The desired motion is specified with task positions including a location and orientation angle. Approximation motion synthesis is necessary when an exact match to the task positions cannot be obtained. A linkage that achieves the task positions as closely as possible becomes desired. Structural error refers to the deviations between the task positions and the linkage’s generated positions. A challenge in approximate motion synthesis is that structural error involves metrics that include location and orientation. A best-fit solution is not evident because the structural error is based on an objective function that combines the location and orientation. Such solutions lack bi-invariance because a change in reference for the motion changes the values of the metric. This work uses only displacement poles, described solely by their coordinates, as they sufficiently characterize the relative task positions. The optimization seeks to minimize the distance between the poles of the task positions and the poles of the generated positions. The use of poles results in a bi-invariant statement of the problem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinematics and Robot Design VI, KaRD2023)
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16 pages, 4168 KiB  
Article
DDPG-Based Adaptive Sliding Mode Control with Extended State Observer for Multibody Robot Systems
by Hamza Khan, Sheraz Ali Khan, Min Cheol Lee, Usman Ghafoor, Fouzia Gillani and Umer Hameed Shah
Robotics 2023, 12(6), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics12060161 - 26 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1449
Abstract
This research introduces a robust control design for multibody robot systems, incorporating sliding mode control (SMC) for robustness against uncertainties and disturbances. SMC achieves this through directing system states toward a predefined sliding surface for finite-time stability. However, the challenge arises in selecting [...] Read more.
This research introduces a robust control design for multibody robot systems, incorporating sliding mode control (SMC) for robustness against uncertainties and disturbances. SMC achieves this through directing system states toward a predefined sliding surface for finite-time stability. However, the challenge arises in selecting controller parameters, specifically the switching gain, as it depends on the upper bounds of perturbations, including nonlinearities, uncertainties, and disturbances, impacting the system. Consequently, gain selection becomes challenging when system dynamics are unknown. To address this issue, an extended state observer (ESO) is integrated with SMC, resulting in SMCESO, which treats system dynamics and disturbances as perturbations and estimates them to compensate for their effects on the system response, ensuring robust performance. To further enhance system performance, deep deterministic policy gradient (DDPG) is employed to fine-tune SMCESO, utilizing both actual and estimated states as input states for the DDPG agent and reward selection. This training process enhances both tracking and estimation performance. Furthermore, the proposed method is compared with the optimal-PID, SMC, and H in the presence of external disturbances and parameter variation. MATLAB/Simulink simulations confirm that overall, the SMCESO provides robust performance, especially with parameter variations, where other controllers struggle to converge the tracking error to zero. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinematics and Robot Design VI, KaRD2023)
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20 pages, 8568 KiB  
Article
Applying Screw Theory to Design the Turmell-Bot: A Cable-Driven, Reconfigurable Ankle Rehabilitation Parallel Robot
by Julio Vargas-Riaño, Óscar Agudelo-Varela and Ángel Valera
Robotics 2023, 12(6), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics12060154 - 14 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1708
Abstract
The ankle is a complex joint with a high injury incidence. Rehabilitation Robotics applied to the ankle is a very active research field. We present the kinematics and statics of a cable-driven reconfigurable ankle rehabilitation robot. First, we studied how the tendons pull [...] Read more.
The ankle is a complex joint with a high injury incidence. Rehabilitation Robotics applied to the ankle is a very active research field. We present the kinematics and statics of a cable-driven reconfigurable ankle rehabilitation robot. First, we studied how the tendons pull mid-foot bones around the talocrural and subtalar axes. We proposed a hybrid serial-parallel mechanism analogous to the ankle. Then, using screw theory, we synthesized a cable-driven robot with the human ankle in the closed-loop kinematics. We incorporated a draw-wire sensor to measure the axes’ pose and compute the product of exponentials. We also reconfigured the cables to balance the tension and pressure forces using the axis projection on the base and platform planes. Furthermore, we computed the workspace to show that the reconfigurable design fits several sizes. The data used are from anthropometry and statistics. Finally, we validated the robot’s statics with MuJoCo for various cable length groups corresponding to the axes’ range of motion. We suggested a platform adjusting system and an alignment method. The design is lightweight, and the cable-driven robot has advantages over rigid parallel robots, such as Stewart platforms. We will use compliant actuators for enhancing human–robot interaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinematics and Robot Design VI, KaRD2023)
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15 pages, 4313 KiB  
Article
Instantaneous Kinematics and Free-from-Singularity Workspace of 3-XXRRU Parallel Manipulators
by Henrique Simas, Raffaele Di Gregorio and Roberto Simoni
Robotics 2023, 12(5), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics12050138 - 05 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1364
Abstract
3-XXRRU parallel manipulators (PMs) constitute a family of six-degrees-of-freedom (DOF) PMs with three limbs of type XXRRU, where R and U stand for revolute pair and universal joint, respectively, and XX indicates any actuated two-DOF mechanism that moves the axis of the first [...] Read more.
3-XXRRU parallel manipulators (PMs) constitute a family of six-degrees-of-freedom (DOF) PMs with three limbs of type XXRRU, where R and U stand for revolute pair and universal joint, respectively, and XX indicates any actuated two-DOF mechanism that moves the axis of the first R-pair. The members of this family share the fact that they all become particular 3-RRU structures when the actuators are locked. By exploiting this feature, the present paper proposes a general approach, which holds for all the members of this family, to analyze the instantaneous kinematics, workspace, and kinetostatic performances of any 3-XXRRU PM. The results of this study include the identification of singularity conditions without reference to a specific actuation system, the proposal of two specific dimensionless performance indices ranging from 0 to 1, the determination of the optimal actuation system, and the demonstration that 3-XXRRU PMs, when appropriately sized and actuated, possess a broad singularity-free workspace that is also fully isotropic. These findings hold significance in the context of the dimensional synthesis and control of 3-XXRRU PMs. Moreover, when combined with the closed-form solutions for their positional analysis, as demonstrated in a previous publication by the same authors, 3-XXRRU PMs emerge as intriguing alternatives to other six-DOF PMs. The efficacy of the proposed approach is further illustrated through a case study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinematics and Robot Design VI, KaRD2023)
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14 pages, 4340 KiB  
Article
A Novel Error Sensitivity Analysis Method for a Parallel Spindle Head
by Liping Wang, Mengyu Li and Guang Yu
Robotics 2023, 12(5), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics12050129 - 11 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 999
Abstract
Geometric errors are the main factors affecting the output accuracy of the parallel spindle head, and it is necessary to perform a sensitivity analysis to extract the critical geometric errors. The traditional sensitivity analysis method analyzes the output position and orientation errors independently, [...] Read more.
Geometric errors are the main factors affecting the output accuracy of the parallel spindle head, and it is necessary to perform a sensitivity analysis to extract the critical geometric errors. The traditional sensitivity analysis method analyzes the output position and orientation errors independently, defining multiple sensitivity indices and making it difficult to determine critical geometric errors. In this paper, we propose sensitivity indices that can comprehensively consider position and orientation errors. First, the configuration of the hybrid machine tool is introduced, and the TCP position error model is derived. Then, the tool radius and the effective cutting length are introduced, and the sensitivity indices are defined. After that, the sensitivity analysis of the 3-DOF parallel spindle head is performed using the proposed sensitivity indices, and six critical geometric errors are extracted. The machining accuracy of the parallel spindle head can be greatly improved by improving the critical geometric errors. The proposed sensitivity analysis method can provide important guidance for machine tool accuracy design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinematics and Robot Design VI, KaRD2023)
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0 pages, 7653 KiB  
Article
Type Synthesis of 5-DOF Hybrid (Parallel-Serial) Manipulators Designed from Open Kinematic Chains
by Anton Antonov, Alexey Fomin, Victor Glazunov, Daniil Petelin and Gleb Filippov
Robotics 2023, 12(4), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics12040098 - 09 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1389
Abstract
The article proposes an approach for synthesizing hybrid (parallel-serial) manipulators with five degrees of freedom (5-DOF) using open kinematic chains. The method idea consists in taking an open kinematic chain, selecting a subchain within it, and replacing the subchain with a parallel mechanism. [...] Read more.
The article proposes an approach for synthesizing hybrid (parallel-serial) manipulators with five degrees of freedom (5-DOF) using open kinematic chains. The method idea consists in taking an open kinematic chain, selecting a subchain within it, and replacing the subchain with a parallel mechanism. The article considers 5-DOF open chains and 3-DOF subchains, substituted for 3-DOF parallel mechanisms with the same motion pattern as the subchain. Thus, synthesized hybrid manipulators have a 3-DOF parallel part and a 2-DOF serial part. First, we grouped 26 structures of open chains with revolute and prismatic joints into five types and 78 subtypes. Next, for each type, we selected one subtype and presented several hybrid mechanisms that can correspond to it. We considered hybrid manipulators that included 3-DOF parallel mechanisms with planar, spherical, and other commonly used motion types. The suggested synthesis method is intuitive for a designer, and it does not need any mathematical formulations like screw theory or group theory approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinematics and Robot Design VI, KaRD2023)
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