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Remote Sensing and Numerical Simulation for Tidal Dynamics

A special issue of Remote Sensing (ISSN 2072-4292). This special issue belongs to the section "Ocean Remote Sensing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 March 2024) | Viewed by 11136

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Lab of Marine Science and Numerical Modeling, First Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Qingdao 266061, China
Interests: ocean circulation dynamics; tidal wave dynamics; ocean numerical simulation and prediction

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Guest Editor
Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
Interests: dynamics of indo-pacific region; indonesian throughflow measurement and monitoring

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Guest Editor
CAS Key Laboratory of Ocean Circulation and Waves, Institute of Oceanology Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China
Interests: internal waves; internal tides and turbulence mixing processes in the ocean; multiscale processes interaction; wave-wave and wave-current interaction
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Lab of Marine Science and Numerical Modeling, First Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Qingdao 266061, China
Interests: remote sensing product application; inter-ocean water exchange; ocean dynamics effects on marine primary productivity

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Guest Editor
Lab of Marine Science and Numerical Modeling, First Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Qingdao 266061, China
Interests: ocean tides; satellite altimeters; tidal analysis; sea levels; ocean dynamics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Tides are basic and important movements in the ocean. Accurate tidal predictions are necessary and essential for numerous marine activities, such as fishery, navigation, and coastal engineering. The non-negligible influences of tides and tidal mixing on ocean circulation and marine ecosystems have been indicated by numerical models, in situ observations, and remote sensing data. Now, more than ever, remote sensing data play a vital role in tidal research. Multisource satellite altimeter data such as TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason1, Jason2, and Jason3 have been assimilated into tidal models and have greatly improved the accuracy of numerical simulations of barotropic tides and internal tides. Satellite-derived sea-surface temperature and chlorophyll-a concentrations display noticeable spring-neap cycles which are important indicators of tide mixing.

As remote sensing observation technology improves, more high-frequency and accurate observation data of sea levels, sea surface temperature, and chlorophyll-a concentrations in the global ocean, especially coastal areas, are available, which provides a great opportunity to explore tidal evolution and tidal influences on ocean environments. Therefore, this Special Issue of Remote Sensing endeavors to assemble novel research that utilizes multisource remote sensing data and numerical models to study the spatial–temporal variations of barotropic tides and internal tides, as well as tidal influences on ocean circulation and marine ecosystems. We welcome you to submit one or more research and review articles to the Special Issue on “Remote Sensing and Numerical Simulation for tidal dynamics”.

Prof. Dr. Zexun Wei
Prof. Dr. R. Dwi Susanto
Prof. Dr. Zhenhua Xu
Dr. Tengfei Xu
Dr. Haidong Pan
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • tidal dynamics
  • barotropic tides
  • internal tides
  • tidal mixing
  • tidal modeling with data assimilation
  • tidal effects on ocean environment

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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20 pages, 12822 KiB  
Article
Two-Dimensional Numerical Simulation of Tide and Tidal Current of Eight Major Tidal Constituents in the Bohai, Yellow, and East China Seas
by Zizhou Liu, Shengyi Jiao, Xingchuan Liu and Xianqing Lv
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(15), 3735; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15153735 - 27 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1100
Abstract
Numerical simulations of the eight major tidal constituents (M2, S2, K1, O1, N2, K2, P1, and Q1) in the Bohai, Yellow and East China Seas (BYES) were [...] Read more.
Numerical simulations of the eight major tidal constituents (M2, S2, K1, O1, N2, K2, P1, and Q1) in the Bohai, Yellow and East China Seas (BYES) were conducted using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) based on altimeter products from X-TRACK. Tidal harmonic constants and two-dimensional tidal current data with a spatial resolution of 1/12° were obtained. To validate the simulation results (SRs), harmonic constants from altimeters and tide gauges, two sea level anomaly time series, and velocity observations from 12 current meters were utilized. Additionally, data from five tidal models were used for comparison. The validation and comparison results demonstrated the accuracy of SR, especially when compared with coastal tide gauge data where SR performs exceptionally well. The cotidal charts and tidal current ellipses obtained through SR exhibited good continuity and consistency with the previous studies, effectively reflecting the tidal characteristics of the BYES. The SR can serve as a valuable reference and support for tidal-related fields in the BYES, including the supplement and verification of ocean measurements and the calculation of reference planes for ocean engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing and Numerical Simulation for Tidal Dynamics)
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18 pages, 4525 KiB  
Article
Improved Estimation of the Open Boundary Conditions in Tidal Models Using Trigonometric Polynomials Fitting Scheme
by Shengyi Jiao, Yibo Zhang, Haidong Pan and Xianqing Lv
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(2), 480; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15020480 - 13 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 991
Abstract
Tidal open boundary conditions (OBCs) of the M2 tidal constituent in the Bohai and Yellow Seas (BYS) are estimated via the assimilation of multi-satellite altimeter data to optimize regional tidal numerical simulation. A two-dimensional adjoint assimilation model is used for tidal numerical [...] Read more.
Tidal open boundary conditions (OBCs) of the M2 tidal constituent in the Bohai and Yellow Seas (BYS) are estimated via the assimilation of multi-satellite altimeter data to optimize regional tidal numerical simulation. A two-dimensional adjoint assimilation model is used for tidal numerical simulation and, as an improvement, trigonometric polynomials fitting (TPF) is applied in the inversion of OBCs. It is assumed that the linearized amplitudes/phases in the open boundary are spatially varying and can be represented by nonlinear functions. Based on the discrete Fourier series, taking the trigonometric function as the basis function, the spatially varying OBCs are constructed by selecting the maximum truncation period. The independent points scheme used in previous studies was also compared in the experiments. Twin experiments show that the errors of simulations with TPF are the smallest in different schemes, and their results show the highest correlation with observations while maintaining the best performance in terms of observation errors. The mean absolute errors (MAEs) in amplitude/phase between the simulated results using estimated OBCs and the satellite altimeter records are 2.82 cm and 2.26°, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing and Numerical Simulation for Tidal Dynamics)
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17 pages, 6554 KiB  
Article
Subseasonal Tidal Variability in the Gulf of Tonkin Observed by Multi-Satellite Altimeters and Tide Gauges
by Haidong Pan, Bingtian Li, Tengfei Xu and Zexun Wei
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(2), 466; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15020466 - 12 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1643
Abstract
Exploring multi-timescale tidal variability is fundamental and necessary for numerous practical purposes, such as flood protection, marine cultivation, and ocean transport. It is well known that tides show significant seasonal, inter-annual, and 18.61-year nodal variability. Less known and less discussed is the subseasonal [...] Read more.
Exploring multi-timescale tidal variability is fundamental and necessary for numerous practical purposes, such as flood protection, marine cultivation, and ocean transport. It is well known that tides show significant seasonal, inter-annual, and 18.61-year nodal variability. Less known and less discussed is the subseasonal tidal variability (i.e., ter-annual, quarter-annual, and penta-annual cycles) in the coastal ocean. In this study, we explore subseasonal tidal modulations in the Gulf of Tonkin via the combination of four tide gauges and 27-year multi-satellite altimeter observations. Both tide gauges and satellite altimeters indicate that tidal subseasonality is significant in the Gulf of Tokin, although the amplitudes of subseasonal variations are much smaller than those of seasonal variations. Compared to spatially limited tide gauges, satellite altimeters successfully derive the basin-scale tidal subseasonality in the Gulf of Tonkin. The largest amplitude of subseasonal tidal constituents originated from the subseasonality of main tidal constituents, and can reach as high as 31.8 mm. It is suggested that subseasonal variations in ocean environments (e.g., sea levels and ocean stratification) induce tidal subseasonality through changing tidal propagation and dissipation. Although powerful, satellite altimeters also have some defects. Due to tidal aliasing related to long-period sampling intervals, some subseasonal tidal constituents are indistinguishable in satellite altimeter records. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing and Numerical Simulation for Tidal Dynamics)
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19 pages, 5235 KiB  
Article
The Temporal Evolution of Coastlines in the Bohai Sea and Its Impact on Hydrodynamics
by Jingfang Lu, Yibo Zhang, Xianqing Lv and Honghua Shi
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(21), 5549; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14215549 - 03 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1627
Abstract
Over the past 40 years, increasing coastal reclamation and natural sedimentation has changed coastline positions and resulted in variation in the hydrodynamic environment in the Bohai Sea (BHS), China. Based on the Landsat series images, an interpretative identifier for identifying the coastline was [...] Read more.
Over the past 40 years, increasing coastal reclamation and natural sedimentation has changed coastline positions and resulted in variation in the hydrodynamic environment in the Bohai Sea (BHS), China. Based on the Landsat series images, an interpretative identifier for identifying the coastline was proposed to assess the hydrodynamic changes caused by the coastline change and was applied to a typical case of the Bohai Sea (BHS), China. We combined a grid-based coastline position with an adjoint data assimilation method to seamlessly map the distribution of the amplitude, phase lag, and tidal current of the M2 tidal constituent along the BHS’s coast from 1985 to 2018. Our findings reveal that the coastline change at long time scales dominated reclamation, and around 72.9% of the coastline of the BHS mapped in 2018 had seaward movement compared with its position in 1985. From 1985 to 2018, the BHS volume decreased by 0.17%, the sea surface area decreased by 4.54%, and the kinetic energy increased by 2.53%. The change in the coastline increased the amplitude of the M2 tidal constituent in the Bohai Bay by 6–14 cm and increased the residual current in the eastern coast of the Liaodong Bay by up to 0.07 (0.01) m/s. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing and Numerical Simulation for Tidal Dynamics)
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15 pages, 4303 KiB  
Article
Anomalous 18.61-Year Nodal Cycles in the Gulf of Tonkin Revealed by Tide Gauges and Satellite Altimeter Records
by Haidong Pan, Adam Thomas Devlin, Tengfei Xu, Xianqing Lv and Zexun Wei
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(15), 3672; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14153672 - 31 Jul 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1432
Abstract
Understanding nodal tidal characteristics is essential for accurate long-term tidal prediction. Observational nodal evolution of tides is mainly based on tide gauge records in coastal areas which are limited in time and space, thus impeding coherent determinations of basin-wide patterns of tidal variability. [...] Read more.
Understanding nodal tidal characteristics is essential for accurate long-term tidal prediction. Observational nodal evolution of tides is mainly based on tide gauge records in coastal areas which are limited in time and space, thus impeding coherent determinations of basin-wide patterns of tidal variability. In this paper, we indicate the potential of satellite altimeter data to investigate 18.61-year nodal modulations of main constituents in the Gulf of Tonkin. Three tide gauges and multi-source satellite altimeter observations (TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason1, Jason2, and Jason3) revealed that 18.61-year nodal cycles in tidal amplitudes have noticeable deviations from the equilibrium tidal theory in the Gulf of Tonkin. In general, M2 and N2 nodal modulations are anomalously larger than theoretical values while K2, K1, and O1 nodal modulations are noticeably smaller than theoretical values. Compared to point-based tide gauges, satellite altimeter records can provide basin-wide features of nodal modulations of main constituents. Although overlapping geographical blocks are applied to eliminate the effect of tidal alias originated from long-period sampling intervals, the estimation of nodal cycles of minor constituents are still questionable. Nevertheless, the methods described here provide a strong foundation for future research on time-varying tidal dynamics using the combination of tide gauges and satellite altimeter data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing and Numerical Simulation for Tidal Dynamics)
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15 pages, 37380 KiB  
Technical Note
Characteristics of Spring Sea Surface Currents near the Pearl River Estuary Observed by a Three-Station High-Frequency Surface Wave Radar System
by Haoyue Li, Lin Zhang, Daosheng Wang and Lin Mu
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(4), 672; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16040672 - 13 Feb 2024
Viewed by 598
Abstract
The processes of ocean dynamics are complex near the Pearl River Estuary and are not clear due to a lack of abundant observations. The spatial characteristics of the spring sea surface currents in the adjacent waters of the Pearl River Estuary were analyzed [...] Read more.
The processes of ocean dynamics are complex near the Pearl River Estuary and are not clear due to a lack of abundant observations. The spatial characteristics of the spring sea surface currents in the adjacent waters of the Pearl River Estuary were analyzed using the current data observed by a three-station high-frequency surface wave radar system (HFSWRS). Compared with the two-station HFSWRS, the deviation of current velocity and direction observed by the three-station HFSWRS from the underway measurements decreased by 42.86% and 38.30%, respectively. The analyzed results show that the M2 tidal current is the dominant current among all the tidal constituents, followed by K1, with angles of inclination ranging from 130° to 150°. The tidal flow is dominated by northwest–southeast back-and-forth flow. In the southern part of the observed area, which is far from the coastline, the tidal current ellipses exhibit a circular pattern. The prevalent tidal current type in this region is irregularly semi-diurnal, and the shallow water constituents also have a significant effect. The tidal energy in the adjacent waters of the Pearl River Estuary is affected by potential energy flux and kinetic energy flux. As the water depth and currents velocity increase in the southeast direction, the tidal energy flux increases. In the nearshore zone, the direction of tidal energy flux varies along the coastline. The changes in the residual current within the observed area are correlated with the sea surface wind field. Based on the high-precision sea surface current observed by the three-station HFSWRS, the characteristics of the ocean dynamic processes near the Pearl River Estuary are analyzed comprehensively, which provides important reference and confidence for the application of the developing new radar observing network with about 10 radar stations near the Pearl River Estuary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing and Numerical Simulation for Tidal Dynamics)
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19 pages, 8722 KiB  
Technical Note
Equidistant Nodes Orthogonal Polynomial Fitting for Harmonic Constants of Long-Period Tides Based on Satellite Altimeter Data
by Yunfei Zhang, Qixiang Wang, Yibo Zhang, Minjie Xu, Yonggang Wang and Xianqing Lv
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(13), 3246; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15133246 - 23 Jun 2023
Viewed by 795
Abstract
The harmonic constants of long-period tidal constituents are critical for simulating the tide process, obtaining theoretical datum sounding reduction, and conducting further ocean research. In this paper, the equidistant node orthogonal polynomial fitting (ENOPF) method is employed to fit the harmonic constants of [...] Read more.
The harmonic constants of long-period tidal constituents are critical for simulating the tide process, obtaining theoretical datum sounding reduction, and conducting further ocean research. In this paper, the equidistant node orthogonal polynomial fitting (ENOPF) method is employed to fit the harmonic constants of the T/P satellite altimeter data and the gridded altimeter data from the Data Unification and Altimeter Combination System (DUACS) to obtain the full-field harmonic constants of the long-period tidal constituents (Sa and Ssa) in the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and East China Sea (BYECS). To verify the validity of the ENOPF method, the long-period tidal harmonic constants of the ENOPF method, the Finite Element Solutions 2014 (FES2014) model, the Empirical Ocean Tide 20 (EOT20) model, and the DUACS data were compared with the observations of the X-TRACK products and the tide gauges. In addition, the root-mean-square errors (RMSEs), amplitude differences (ΔH), and phase-lag differences (ΔG) of the comparison results were calculated. According to the error analysis and the cotidal charts, the ENOPF method is better than the other three methods or models for comparing tide gauges (6.19 cm, 5.85 cm, 25.44°; 1.10 cm, 0.72 cm, 59.09°, respectively. The cotidal charts obtained by the ENOPF method are smoother and have better consistency with the actual track data. The results indicate that, due to the polynomial fitting method adopted in ENOPF method, which has the characteristics of improving the resolution infinitely, it is easier to obtain the harmonic constant of full field than with other models or methods. This study proves that the ENOPF method is a reasonable and simple tool in extracting the harmonic constants of the BYECS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing and Numerical Simulation for Tidal Dynamics)
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16 pages, 5297 KiB  
Technical Note
A Novel Method to Improve the Estimation of Ocean Tide Loading Displacements for K1 and K2 Components with GPS Observations
by Haidong Pan, Xiaoqing Xu, Huayi Zhang, Tengfei Xu and Zexun Wei
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(11), 2846; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15112846 - 30 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1208
Abstract
The accurate estimation of ocean tide loading displacements is essential and necessary for geodesy, oceanic and geophysical studies. It is common knowledge that K1 and K2 tidal constituents estimated from Global Positioning System (GPS) observations are unsatisfactory because their tidal periods [...] Read more.
The accurate estimation of ocean tide loading displacements is essential and necessary for geodesy, oceanic and geophysical studies. It is common knowledge that K1 and K2 tidal constituents estimated from Global Positioning System (GPS) observations are unsatisfactory because their tidal periods are nearly same to the revisit cycle or orbital period of GPS constellation. To date, this troublesome problem is not fully solved. In this paper, we revisit this important issue and develop a novel method based on the unique characteristic of tidal waves to separate GPS-system errors from astronomical K1/K2 tides. The well-known credo of smoothness indicates that tidal admittances of astronomical constituents in a narrow band can be expressed as smooth functions of tidal frequencies, while the interference of GPS-system errors seriously damages the smooth nature of observed tidal admittances. Via quadratic fitting, smooth functions of tidal frequencies for tidal admittances can be determined, thus, astronomical K1 and K2 tides can be interpolated using fitted quadratic functions. Three GPS stations are selected to demonstrate our method because of their typicality in terms of poor estimates of K1/K2 tidal parameters related to GPS-system errors. After removing GPS-systematical contributions based on our method, corrected K1/K2 tides at three GPS stations are much closer to the modeled K1/K2 tides from FES2014, which is one of the most accurate tide models. Furthermore, the proposed method can be easily applied to other areas to correct GPS-system errors because their smooth nature is valid for global tidal signals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing and Numerical Simulation for Tidal Dynamics)
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