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Precision Orbit Determination of Satellites

A special issue of Remote Sensing (ISSN 2072-4292). This special issue belongs to the section "Satellite Missions for Earth and Planetary Exploration".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2023) | Viewed by 27340

Special Issue Editors


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Co-Guest Editor
State Key Laboratory of Geodesy and Earth’s Dynamics, Innovation Academy for Precision Measurement Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China
Interests: Models, algorithms and applications on high-precision GNSS data processing

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the past several decades, satellites represented by Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites have been widely used in positioning, sensing and communications. With the development of GNSS and LEO constellations, more satellites and signals are available for these scientific missions. LEO-enhanced GNSS has brought benefits for positioning, navigation and timing (PNT) services, and is expected to serve space science applications. However, precise orbit determination (POD) is a significant prerequisite for these applications. It is believed that with the emergence of new theories and technologies, the performance of satellite POD is likely to be further improved. In this Special Issue, we are looking for papers describing new POD methods with GNSS and LEO. In addition, this Special Issue aims to explore the possible benefits of the PNT brought by GNSS, LEO and their combination with POD.

Dr. Baocheng Zhang
Dr. Teng Liu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • GNSS POD
  • LEO POD
  • advanced techniques of POD
  • integrity monitoring of GNSS and LEO satellite orbits and clocks
  • quality control of GNSS and LEO signals
  • LEO-augmented GNSS positioning.

Published Papers (17 papers)

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17 pages, 3645 KiB  
Article
Current Status and Challenges of BDS Satellite Precise Orbit Products: From a View of Independent SLR Validation
by Xingxing Li, Chengbo Liu, Yongqiang Yuan and Keke Zhang
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(11), 2782; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15112782 - 26 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1277
Abstract
As an essential infrastructure that provides positioning, navigation, and timing services, China constructed the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS). The last BDS satellite was launched in June 2020, which represents the completion of BDS. BDS’s constellation consists of Medium Earth Orbit (MEO), Inclined [...] Read more.
As an essential infrastructure that provides positioning, navigation, and timing services, China constructed the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS). The last BDS satellite was launched in June 2020, which represents the completion of BDS. BDS’s constellation consists of Medium Earth Orbit (MEO), Inclined Geosynchronous Orbit (IGSO), and Geostationary Orbit satellites. The precise modeling of non-conservative forces for BDS satellites is a challenging task. As an independent observation, Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) is an important validation method of GNSS orbit modeling. In this paper, we validated the precise orbit products of different Analysis Centers (ACs) by using SLR observations, focusing on the BDS orbit modeling. By comparing BDS precise orbit products generated by four ACs with respect to SLR observations for the period of February 2017 to March 2021, we proved that an obvious satellite signature effect exists in the SLR residuals of BDS observed by multi-photon stations. The result indicates that multi-photon stations have a root mean square (RMS) of SLR residuals about 5 mm lower than that of single-photon detectors. The slope of SLR residuals with regard to nadir angle of IGSO satellites for single-photon and multi-photon stations is −2.0 and −2.5 mm/deg, respectively, while the slope of MEO satellites for these stations is about −0.6 to −0.3 and −1.0 to −0.4 mm/deg, respectively. To assess the effect of non-conservative force modeling, we selected seven high-performing stations, including five single-photon and two multi-photon stations. By comparing the SLR residuals of four ACs’ orbits, we analyzed the effect of the solutions of orbit processing, especially solar radiation pressure (SRP) models. We found that some centers may have modeling defects, including BDS-3 orbits of the Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum and BDS-2 orbits of the European Space Agency, inferred from the large RMS of SLR residuals. Modeling the SRP of BDS satellites is challenging, while an appropriate prior box-wing model can improve the accuracy of SRP modeling and provide a more stable performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Orbit Determination of Satellites)
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17 pages, 11916 KiB  
Article
Precise Orbit Determination and Accuracy Analysis for BDS-3 Satellites Using SLR Observations
by Zicong An, Kai Shao, Defeng Gu, Chunbo Wei, Zheyu Xu, Lisheng Tong, Jubo Zhu, Jian Wang and Daoping Liu
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(7), 1833; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15071833 - 29 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1612
Abstract
Satellite laser ranging (SLR) is the space geodetic technique with the highest degree of range, measuring precision and distances right down to the millimeter level. Thanks to the improvement of SLR station layouts and the advance of SLR technology, in recent years, more [...] Read more.
Satellite laser ranging (SLR) is the space geodetic technique with the highest degree of range, measuring precision and distances right down to the millimeter level. Thanks to the improvement of SLR station layouts and the advance of SLR technology, in recent years, more research has been conducted to determine Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) satellite orbits using SLR data. The primary goal of this contribution is to investigate the accuracy of BeiDou Navigation-3 (BDS-3) Satellite precise orbit determination (POD) using solely SLR data, as well as explore the impact of various factors on that accuracy. Firstly, we used actual SLR data to make the POD for BDS-3 satellites, and the POD accuracy was positively connected with the orbital arc lengths. The 9-day median root mean square (RMS) in radial (R), along-track (T), and cross-track (N) directions were estimated at 4.7–8.2, 22.1–35.2, and 27.4–43.8 cm, respectively, for comparison with WUM precise orbits. Then, we explored the impact of SLR observations and stations on POD accuracy. For 9-day orbital arc lengths, five station or 20 observation arcs may offer an orbit with a 1 m precision. Six to eight stations or 30–35 observation arcs allow an improved orbit accuracy up to approximately 0.5 m. Furthermore, we examined how measurement errors and orbit modeling errors affect the SLR-only POD accuracy using simulated SLR data. For orbital arc lengths of 9 days, each cm of random error leads to a 9.3–11.0 cm decrease in orbit accuracy. The accuracy of an orbit is reduced by 10.1–15.0 cm for every 1 cm of systematic error. Moreover, for solar radiation pressure (SRP) errors, the effect of POD accuracy is 20.5–45.1 cm, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Orbit Determination of Satellites)
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18 pages, 5957 KiB  
Article
High-Precision Inversion of Shallow Bathymetry under Complex Hydrographic Conditions Using VGG19—A Case Study of the Taiwan Banks
by Jiaxin Cui, Xiaowen Luo, Ziyin Wu, Jieqiong Zhou, Hongyang Wan, Xiaolun Chen and Xiaoming Qin
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(5), 1257; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15051257 - 24 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1448
Abstract
Shallow bathymetry is important for ocean exploration, and the development of high-precision bathymetry inversion methods, especially for shallow waters with poor quality, is a major research aim. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image data benefit from a wide coverage, high measurement density, rapidity, and [...] Read more.
Shallow bathymetry is important for ocean exploration, and the development of high-precision bathymetry inversion methods, especially for shallow waters with poor quality, is a major research aim. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image data benefit from a wide coverage, high measurement density, rapidity, and low consumption but are limited by low accuracy. Alternatively, multibeam data have low coverage and are difficult to obtain but have a high measurement accuracy. In this paper, taking advantage of the complementary properties, we use SAR image data as the content map and multibeam images as the migrated style map, applying the VGG19 neural network (optimizing the loss function formula) for bathymetric inversion. The model was universal and highly accurate for bathymetric inversion of shallow marine areas, such as turbid water in Taiwan. There was a strong correlation between bathymetric inversion data and measured data (R2 = 0.8822; RMSE = 1.86 m). The relative error was refined by 9.22% over those of previous studies. Values for different bathymetric regions were extremely correlated in the region of 20–40 m. The newly developed approach is highly accurate over 20 m in the open ocean, providing an efficient, precise shallow bathymetry inversion method for complex hydrographic conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Orbit Determination of Satellites)
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20 pages, 9055 KiB  
Article
Performance and Consistency of Final Global Ionospheric Maps from Different IGS Analysis Centers
by Wei Li, Keke Wang and Kaitian Yuan
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(4), 1010; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15041010 - 12 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1480
Abstract
Ionospheric delay is one of the most problematic errors in satellite-based positioning data processing. The Global Ionospheric Map (GIM), which is publicly available daily in various analysis centers, is thus vitally important for positioning users. There are variations in the accuracy and consistency [...] Read more.
Ionospheric delay is one of the most problematic errors in satellite-based positioning data processing. The Global Ionospheric Map (GIM), which is publicly available daily in various analysis centers, is thus vitally important for positioning users. There are variations in the accuracy and consistency of GIMs issued by Ionosphere Associate Analysis Centers (IAACs) due to the differences in ionospheric modeling methods and selected tracking stations. In this study on the International GNSS Service’s (IGS) final GIM, the ionospheric total electron content (TEC) (from 243 global navigation satellite system (GNSS) monitoring stations around the world) and the ionospheric TEC (from the Jason-3 altimeter satellite) are selected as reference. By using these three references, we evaluate the performance and consistency of final GIM products from seven IGS IAACs, including the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE), Natural Resources Canada (EMR), the European Space Agency (ESA), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), and Wuhan University (WHU) in the mid-solar activity year (2022) and the low-solar activity year (2020). Firstly, the comparison with the IGS final GIM shows that the consistency of each GIMs is basically the same, with the mean value ranging from −0.3 TECu (total electron content unit) to 1.4 TECu. Secondly, the validation with Jason-3 altimeter satellite shows that the accuracy of several GIMs is almost the same, except for the JPL with the worst accuracy and an overall mean deviation (BIAS) between 2 and 6 TECu. Thirdly, the comparison with VTEC extracted from GNSS monitor stations shows that the CAS has the best accuracy in different latitude bands with a root mean square (RMS) of about 2.2–4.7 TECu. In addition, it is found that the accuracy in areas with more stations for ionospheric modelling is better than those with less stations in different latitude bands; meanwhile, the accuracy is closely related to the modeling methods of different GIMs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Orbit Determination of Satellites)
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18 pages, 6547 KiB  
Article
Estimation of Vertical Phase Center Offset and Phase Center Variations for BDS-3 B1CB2a Signals
by Shichao Xie, Guanwen Huang, Le Wang, Xingyuan Yan and Zhiwei Qin
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(24), 6380; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14246380 - 16 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1489
Abstract
The BeiDou Global Satellite Navigation System (BDS-3) broadcast newly developed B1C and B2a signals. To provide a better service for global users, the vertical phase center offset (PCO) and phase center variation (PCV) are estimated for the B1C/B2a ionospheric-free linear combination of the [...] Read more.
The BeiDou Global Satellite Navigation System (BDS-3) broadcast newly developed B1C and B2a signals. To provide a better service for global users, the vertical phase center offset (PCO) and phase center variation (PCV) are estimated for the B1C/B2a ionospheric-free linear combination of the BDS-3 inclined geostationary orbit (IGSO) and medium earth orbit (MEO) satellites in this study. And considering the traditional PCC estimation method needs two Precise orbit determination (POD) processing, based on the correlation between PCO z-offset and PCV, the theoretical analysis and experimental comparison have been made to discuss whether the POD procedure for the PCO estimation can be omitted. The estimated z-offset time series revealed the inadequacy of the solar radiation pressure (SRP) model for the IGSO satellites and the MEO satellites with Pseudo Random Noise code (PRN) C45 and C46. The PCVraws estimated by the traditional method and the PCO estimation omitted method have the same characteristic. The final PCO z-offsets and PCVs calculated by the two schemes agreed very well with differences can be harmlessly ignored, which confirmed that the PCO estimation can be safely omitted to save computation time. The PCC model proposed in this study has been compared with the Test and Assessment Research Center of China Satellite Navigation Office (TARC/CSNO) released model, the qualities of the orbits and BDS-only precise point positioning (PPP) solutions of the new model both show improvements, except for the IGSO orbits. The analysis of the IGSO orbits further verifies the SRP model is not suitable for the IGSO satellites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Orbit Determination of Satellites)
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18 pages, 3277 KiB  
Article
Regional Ionospheric Maps with Quad-Constellation Raw Observations as Applied to Single-Frequency PPP
by Wei Li, Kaitian Yuan, Robert Odolinski and Shaocheng Zhang
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(23), 6149; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14236149 - 04 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1340
Abstract
Ionospheric delay is one of the most problematic errors in single-frequency (SF) global navigation satellite system (GNSS) data processing. Global/regional ionospheric maps (GIM/RIM) are thus vitally important for positioning users. Given the coexistence of multi-GNSS, the integration of quad-constellation observations is essential for [...] Read more.
Ionospheric delay is one of the most problematic errors in single-frequency (SF) global navigation satellite system (GNSS) data processing. Global/regional ionospheric maps (GIM/RIM) are thus vitally important for positioning users. Given the coexistence of multi-GNSS, the integration of quad-constellation observations is essential for improving the distribution of ionospheric penetration points (IPPs) and increasing redundant observations compared with the existing GIM products from the IGS analysis center. In this paper, quad-constellation (GPS/GLONASS/Galileo/BDS) observations are applied to set up the RIM over Australia with uncombined precise point positioning (UC-PPP) and a low-order spherical harmonic function. The generated RIMs are then introduced to ionosphere-corrected (IC) and ionosphere-weighted (IW) single-frequency PPP (IC-SFPPP and IW-SFPPP) to verify their performance in terms of positioning accuracy and convergence time. Taking the CODE GIM as a reference, the results show that the mean root mean square (RMS) of VTEC differences is 0.867 TECUs, and the quad-constellation RIM (referred as ‘RIM4′) can improve the RMS of RIMs compared to single-constellation mode at the edge of regional experiment area. The application of the RIM4 in the BDS IC-SFPPP results in a 18.38% improvement (from 100.47 cm to 82.00 cm) of 3D positioning RMS compared to the CODE-GIMs, whereas 35.36% enhancement (from 115.92 cm to 74.62 cm) of 3D positioning RMS is achievable during an active ionospheric period. Moreover, if the criterion of the convergence time is defined as when positioning errors in the horizontal and vertical directions are less than 0.3 m and 0.6 m for 20 consecutive epochs, the IW-SFPPP can significantly speed up the convergence time compared to the uncombined SFPPP; that is, the convergence time is reduced by 52.7% (from 37 min to 17.5 min), 37.2% (from 72.5 min to 45.5 min), and 37.1% (from 62.0 min to 39.0 min) in the north, east and up direction, respectively, at the 68% confidence level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Orbit Determination of Satellites)
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14 pages, 4470 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Precise Orbit Determination of BDS-3 MEO and IGSO Satellites Based on Several Dual-Frequency Measurement Combinations
by Bingfeng Tan, Qingsong Ai and Yunbin Yuan
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(23), 6030; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14236030 - 28 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1145
Abstract
The Chinese BeiDou-3 navigation satellite system (BDS-3) is capable of transmitting both old B1I, B3I signals and new B1C, B2a, B2b signals. Current BDS-3 precise orbits are generally calculated using a B1I/B3I combination considering overlap with the BeiDou-2 navigation satellite system (BDS-2). In [...] Read more.
The Chinese BeiDou-3 navigation satellite system (BDS-3) is capable of transmitting both old B1I, B3I signals and new B1C, B2a, B2b signals. Current BDS-3 precise orbits are generally calculated using a B1I/B3I combination considering overlap with the BeiDou-2 navigation satellite system (BDS-2). In this contribution, the observation quality of BDS-3 medium earth orbit (MEO) satellites and inclined geosynchronous orbit (IGSO) satellites are analyzed based on three aspects, i.e., carrier to noise ratio (C/N0), pseudo-range noise and pseudo-range multipath (MP). The C/N0 of the MEO satellite is 2~3 dB higher than that of the IGSO satellite at the same elevation angle. Meanwhile, the order of the Root Mean Square (RMS) values of both pseudo-range noise and MP is B1I < B1C < B3I < B2a ≈ B2b. Three kinds of combinations, i.e., B1CB2a, B1CB2b and B1IB3I, are selected for the BDS-3 precise orbit determination (POD) experiment. Orbits are assessed by the orbit-only signal-in-space range error (SISRE) computed between pairs of the three kinds of combinations in this contribution, CODE and GFZ final orbits. Orbit-only SISRE assessment shows that B1CB2a/CODE, B1CB2b/CODE, B1CB2a/GFZ and B1CB2b/GFZ are at the same level with CODE/GFZ, and the orbit-only SISRE is at the level of 5 cm for MEOs and 9 cm for IGSOs, respectively. Meanwhile, B1IB3I/CODE and B1IB3I/GFZ are about 1–2 cm worse. Inter-solution comparison between B1CB2a, B1CB2b and B1IB3I also indicate that B1CB2a and B1CB2b have good consistency, while B1IB3I shows poor performance. Satellite laser ranging (SLR) residuals indicate that the mean RMS is 3–4 cm for the four BDS-3 MEOs for CODE final orbit, GFZ final orbit, B1CB2a and B1CB2b combinations, while the mean RMS value for B1IB3I combination is a few millimeters worse, at approximately 4–5 cm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Orbit Determination of Satellites)
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16 pages, 2638 KiB  
Article
A VGGNet-Based Method for Refined Bathymetry from Satellite Altimetry to Reduce Errors
by Xiaolun Chen, Xiaowen Luo, Ziyin Wu, Xiaoming Qin, Jihong Shang, Bin Li, Mingwei Wang and Hongyang Wan
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(23), 5939; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14235939 - 24 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1766
Abstract
Only approximately 20% of the global seafloor topography has been finely modeled. The rest either lacks data or its data are not accurate enough to meet practical requirements. On the one hand, the satellite altimeter has the advantages of large-scale and real-time observation. [...] Read more.
Only approximately 20% of the global seafloor topography has been finely modeled. The rest either lacks data or its data are not accurate enough to meet practical requirements. On the one hand, the satellite altimeter has the advantages of large-scale and real-time observation. Therefore, it is widely used to measure bathymetry, the core of seafloor topography. However, there is often room to improve its precision. Multibeam sonar bathymetry is more precise but generally limited to a smaller coverage, so it is in a complementary relationship with the satellite-derived bathymetry. To combine the advantages of satellite altimetry-derived and multibeam sonar-derived bathymetry, we apply deep learning to perform multibeam sonar-based bathymetry correction for satellite altimetry bathymetry data. Specifically, we modify a pretrained VGGNet neural network model to train on three sets of bathymetry data from the West Pacific, Southern Ocean, and East Pacific. Experiments show that the correlation of bathymetry data before and after correction can reach a high level, with the performance of R2 being as high as 0.81, and the normalized root-mean-square deviation (NRMSE) improved by over 19% compared with previous research. We then explore the relationship between R2 and water depth and conclude that it varies at different depths. Thus, the terrain specificity is a factor that affects the precision of the correction. Finally, we apply the difference in water depth before and after the correction for evaluation and find that our method can improve by more than 17% compared with previous research. The results show that the VGGNet model can perform better correction to the bathymetry data. Hence, we provide a novel method for accurate modeling of the seafloor topography. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Orbit Determination of Satellites)
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17 pages, 5391 KiB  
Article
Anomalous Zenith Total Delays for an Insular Tropical Location: The Tahiti Island Case
by Fangzhao Zhang, Peng Feng, Guochang Xu and Jean-Pierre Barriot
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(22), 5723; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14225723 - 12 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1144
Abstract
The weighted mean temperature of the troposphere, Tm, is a key parameter in GNSS meteorology. It can be routinely derived based on meteorological data from radiosonde (RS) or numerical weather models. Alternatively, it can be also derived through a least-squares model [...] Read more.
The weighted mean temperature of the troposphere, Tm, is a key parameter in GNSS meteorology. It can be routinely derived based on meteorological data from radiosonde (RS) or numerical weather models. Alternatively, it can be also derived through a least-squares model of the ratio between the precipitable water vapor from RS data and the zenith wet delay estimates from GNSS measurement in the precise point positioning mode. In this last case, we found anomalous Tm values for the remote sub-tropical humid location of the Tahiti Island in the South Pacific Ocean and traced these anomalous values to anomalous zenith total delays (ZTD) that seem to have an accuracy poorer by one order of magnitude than the claimed accuracy of ZTD delays from worldwide databases. The possible causes of these discrepancies are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Orbit Determination of Satellites)
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19 pages, 6936 KiB  
Article
Improving Vehicle Positioning Performance in Urban Environment with Tight Integration of Multi-GNSS PPP-RTK/INS
by Luguang Lai, Dongqing Zhao, Tianhe Xu, Zhenhao Cheng, Wenzhuo Guo and Linyang Li
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(21), 5489; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14215489 - 31 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1692
Abstract
Global navigation satellite system (GNSS) signals are easily blocked by urban canyons, tree-lined roads, and overpasses in urban environments, making it impossible to ensure continuous and reliable positioning using only GNSS, even with the widely used precise point positioning and real-time kinematic (PPP-RTK). [...] Read more.
Global navigation satellite system (GNSS) signals are easily blocked by urban canyons, tree-lined roads, and overpasses in urban environments, making it impossible to ensure continuous and reliable positioning using only GNSS, even with the widely used precise point positioning and real-time kinematic (PPP-RTK). Since the inertial navigation system (INS) and GNSS are complementary, a tightly coupled PPP-RTK/INS model is developed to improve the positioning performance in these GNSS-challenged scenarios, in which the atmospheric corrections are used to achieve a rapid ambiguity resolution and the mechanization results from INS are utilized to assist GNSS preprocessing, re-fixing, and reconvergence. The experiment was conducted using three sets of vehicle-mounted data, and the performance of low-cost receiver and microelectromechanical system (MEMS) inertial measurement unit (IMU) was compared. The result shows that the positioning accuracy of PPP-RTK/INS can reach 2 cm in the horizontal component and 5 cm in the vertical component in the open environment. In the complex urban environment, continuous and reliable positioning can be ensured during GNSS short interruption, ambiguity can be instantaneously re-fixed with the assistance of INS, and decimeter-level positioning accuracy can be achieved. As a result, the horizontal positioning errors of more than 95% of the total epochs were within 20 cm. In addition, average positioning accuracy better than 15 cm and 30 cm in the horizontal and vertical components, respectively, can be obtained using the low-cost receiver and MEMS IMU. Compared with tactical IMU, the improvements in positioning accuracy and the ambiguity fixing rate using the geodetic receiver were more significant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Orbit Determination of Satellites)
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23 pages, 6186 KiB  
Article
VMD–WT-Based Method for Extracting On-the-Fly GNSS Tide Level and Its Realization
by Wenlong Gao, Yongfu Sun, Lei Wang and Shengli Wang
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(19), 4816; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14194816 - 27 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1240
Abstract
In this paper, a method for extracting the on-the-fly (OTF) GNSS tide level was designed by combining variational modal decomposition (VMD) and a wavelet thresholding (WT) method to improve the extraction accuracy of the OTF GNSS tide level. First, the energy difference ratio [...] Read more.
In this paper, a method for extracting the on-the-fly (OTF) GNSS tide level was designed by combining variational modal decomposition (VMD) and a wavelet thresholding (WT) method to improve the extraction accuracy of the OTF GNSS tide level. First, the energy difference ratio method was used to determine the number of layers for the VMD. Subsequently, the VMD performed a second decomposition of the IMF1 obtained from the first VMD to achieve an efficient separation of signal and noise. The normalized cross-correlation coefficient (NCC) was applied to determine the number of layers for the WT method. Finally, experimental results showed that the VMD–WT method outperformed the other seven filtering methods in three metrics: maximum error, the root-mean-square error (RMSE), and error distribution. Therefore, the VMD–WT method was able to extract extremely accurate on-the-fly GNSS tide level and additionally obtain more accurate bathymetry data after tidal correction of the bathymetry data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Orbit Determination of Satellites)
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24 pages, 15088 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Long-Term Characteristics of BDS On-Orbit Satellite Atomic Clock: Since BDS-3 Was Officially Commissioned
by Yifeng Liang, Jiangning Xu, Miao Wu and Fangneng Li
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(18), 4535; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14184535 - 11 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1219
Abstract
Satellite atomic clocks are the key elements for position, navigation, and timing services of the Global navigation satellite system (GNSS); it is necessary to research the characteristics of BDS-3 on-orbit satellite atomic clocks for their further optimization. In this study, clock offset data [...] Read more.
Satellite atomic clocks are the key elements for position, navigation, and timing services of the Global navigation satellite system (GNSS); it is necessary to research the characteristics of BDS-3 on-orbit satellite atomic clocks for their further optimization. In this study, clock offset data with a duration of 620 days since BDS-3 was officially commissioned were applied to long-term characteristic analysis. To begin with, the precision clock offset data of Deutsches geoforschungs zentrum (GFZ) processed by a MAD-based method were used as reliable test data. Herein, the working principle and main characteristics of satellite atomic clocks are analyzed and discussed, and thus, a comprehensive long-term characteristic analysis scheme is designed. On this basis, the performance indicators—mainly including physical parameters, periodic characteristics, frequency drift rate, frequency accuracy, frequency stability—were calculated and analyzed respectively, revealing the long-term characteristics of the BDS in orbit satellite atomic clocks during the test period. The results of experimental data testify that the performance of BDS-3 satellite atomic clocks is significantly superior to that of BDS-2, especially in terms of drift rate and frequency stability, and the performance of passive hydrogen maser (PHM) is generally superior to that of rubidium atomic frequency standards (RAFS). Within about half a year since BDS-3 was officially commissioned, the frequency stability of BDS-3 satellite atomic clock gradually improved and then reached the order of 10−15, reflecting the effectiveness of system maintenance and inter-satellite link. Furthermore, some novel conclusions are drawn, such as the long-term period term of the fitting residual and drift rate, which may be caused by the earth’s revolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Orbit Determination of Satellites)
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22 pages, 6603 KiB  
Article
Real-Time Multi-GNSS Precise Orbit Determination Based on the Hourly Updated Ultra-Rapid Orbit Prediction Method
by Bingfeng Tan, Yunbin Yuan, Qingsong Ai and Jiuping Zha
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(17), 4412; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14174412 - 05 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1712
Abstract
Offering real-time precise point positioning (PPP) services for global and large areas based on global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) has drawn more and more attention from institutions and companies. A precise and reliable satellite orbit is a core premise for multi-GNSS real-time services, [...] Read more.
Offering real-time precise point positioning (PPP) services for global and large areas based on global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) has drawn more and more attention from institutions and companies. A precise and reliable satellite orbit is a core premise for multi-GNSS real-time services, especially for the GPS and GLONASS, which are undergoing modernization, whereas the Galileo, BDS and QZSS have just fulfilled the construction stage. In this contribution, a real-time precise orbit determination (POD) strategy for the five operational constellations based on the hourly updated ultrarapid orbit prediction method is presented. After combination of 72 h arc through three adjacent 24 h arc normal equations, the predicted orbits are finally generated (hourly updated). The POD results indicate that the mean one-dimensional (1-D) root mean square (RMS) values compared with the Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ) final multi-GNSS orbits are approximately 3.7 cm, 10.2 cm, 5.8 cm, 5.7 cm, 4.1 cm and 25.1 cm for GPS, BDS IGSOs, BDS MEOs, GLONASS, Galileo and QZSS NONE GEOs, respectively. The mean 1-D RMS values of the hourly updated ultrarapid orbit boundary overlapping comparison are approximately 1.6 cm, 6.9 cm, 3.2 cm, 2.7 cm, 1.8 cm and 22.2 cm for GPS, BDS IGSOs, BDS MEOs, GLONASS, Galileo and QZSS NONE GEOs, respectively. The satellite laser ranging (SLR) validation illuminates that the mean RMS values are approximately 4.53 cm and 4.73 cm for the four MEOs of BDS-3 and four BDS-2 satellites, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Orbit Determination of Satellites)
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15 pages, 3512 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Space-Borne GPS Data Quality and Evaluation of Precise Orbit Determination for COSMIC-2 Mission Based on Reduced Dynamic Method
by Qiaoli Kong, Yanfei Chen, Wenhao Fang, Guangzhe Wang, Changsong Li, Tianfa Wang, Qi Bai and Jingwei Han
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(15), 3544; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14153544 - 24 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1486
Abstract
COSMIC-2 is a remote sensing satellite mission that mainly provides scientific data for weather forecasting, ionosphere, and climate research. High precise orbit is the basis for the application of remote sensing satellite data. In order to realize the precise orbit determination (POD) of [...] Read more.
COSMIC-2 is a remote sensing satellite mission that mainly provides scientific data for weather forecasting, ionosphere, and climate research. High precise orbit is the basis for the application of remote sensing satellite data. In order to realize the precise orbit determination (POD) of COSMIC-2, we have assessed the quality of space-borne GPS observation in detail, including the utilization of GPS observations, cycle slip ratio (o/slps), multipath error, single-noise ratio (SNR) and ionospheric delay rate (IOD) of the data, realized the POD of COSMIC-2 with the reduced dynamic (RD) method, and evaluated the accuracy of the solved orbit by means of the carrier-phase residual, overlapping orbit comparison and the reference orbit comparison. The data quality assessments show that the data is less affected by the multipath effect, the utilization of the data is low, cycle slips occur frequently, and the carrier-phase data is often interrupted. The POD results indicate that the root mean square (RMS) values of the carrier-phase residuals of six COSMIC-2 satellites are between 6.0 mm and 7.5 mm, The mean RMS values of the overlapping orbit are better than 0.92 cm, 1.33 cm and 1.03 cm in the radial (R), tangential (T) and normal (N) directions respectively, and the mean RMS values of the six satellites in the 3D direction are between 1.38 cm and 1.75 cm. The mean RMS values in R, T and N directions orbit determination accuracy of the reference orbit comparison are better than 5.61 cm, 6.59 cm and 2.29 cm respectively, and the mean RMS values of the six satellites in the 3D direction are between 7.35 cm and 8.79 cm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Orbit Determination of Satellites)
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17 pages, 2420 KiB  
Article
Validating Precise Orbit Determination from Satellite-Borne GPS Data of Haiyang-2D
by Jinyun Guo, Guangzhe Wang, Hengyang Guo, Mingsen Lin, Hailong Peng, Xiaotao Chang and Yingming Jiang
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(10), 2477; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14102477 - 21 May 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1808
Abstract
Haiyang-2D (HY-2D) is the fourth satellite in the marine dynamic satellite series established by China. It was successfully launched on 19 May 2021, marking the era of the 3-satellite network in the marine dynamic environment satellite series of China. The satellite’s precision orbit [...] Read more.
Haiyang-2D (HY-2D) is the fourth satellite in the marine dynamic satellite series established by China. It was successfully launched on 19 May 2021, marking the era of the 3-satellite network in the marine dynamic environment satellite series of China. The satellite’s precision orbit determination (POD) and validations are of great significance for ocean warning and marine altimetry missions. HY-2D is equipped with a laser reflector array (LRA), a satellite-borne Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS) receiver, and a satellite-borne dual-frequency GPS receiver named HY2 that was independently developed in China. In this paper, the quality of GPS data collected by the HY2 is analyzed based on indicators such as the multipath effect, cycle slips, and data completeness. The results suggest that the receiver can be used in POD missions involving low-Earth-orbit (LEO) satellites. The precise orbits of HY-2D are determined by the reduced-dynamics (RD) method. Apart from POD, validation of orbit accuracy is another important task for LEO POD. Therefore, two external validation methods are proposed, including carrier differential validation using one GPS satellite and inter-satellite differential validation using two GPS satellites. These are based on space-borne carrier-phase data, and the GPS satellites used for POD validation do not participate in orbit determination. The results of SLR range validation cannot illustrate the orbit accuracy in x, y, and z directions particularly, so to make validation results more intuitive, the SLR three-dimensional (3D) validation is proposed based on SLR range validation, and the RMSs in x, y, and z directions are 2.66, 3.32, and 2.69 cm, respectively. The results of SLR 3D validation are the same as those of SLR range validation, which proves that the new external validation method provided by SLR 3D is reliable. The RMSs of carrier differential validation and inter-satellite differential validation are 0.68 and 1.06 cm, respectively. The proposed validation methods are proved to be reliable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Orbit Determination of Satellites)
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Jump to: Research

16 pages, 7394 KiB  
Technical Note
Mitigating Satellite-Induced Code Pseudorange Variations at GLONASS G3 Frequency Using Periodical Model
by Linyang Li, Yang Shen and Xin Li
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(2), 431; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15020431 - 11 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1053
Abstract
With the modernization of GLONASS, four M+ and two K satellites are able to broadcast code-division multiple-access signals at a G3 frequency. The evaluation of the G3 frequency is necessary, among which the satellite-induced code pseudorange variation is one of the most important [...] Read more.
With the modernization of GLONASS, four M+ and two K satellites are able to broadcast code-division multiple-access signals at a G3 frequency. The evaluation of the G3 frequency is necessary, among which the satellite-induced code pseudorange variation is one of the most important indicators. Using the code-minus-carrier (CMC) combination, it was found that the magnitude of the code pseudorange variations at the G3 frequency is about 1 m, which is primarily caused by the fact that G3 is transmitted from a different antenna, the same as G1 and G2. However, different from BDS-2 medium Earth orbit and inclined geo-synchronous orbit satellites, the code pseudorange variations at the GLONASS G3 frequency have a very weak relationship with the elevation angle, while a strong correlation exists with the time series, by using wavelet transformation and correlation analysis. Validation is carried out using a single-site model and a continuous multi-site model over 24 h, and the correction performance of these two models is comparable. The systematic deviation of the CMC and Melbourne–Wübbena combinations are significantly corrected, so only random errors remain. With a more concentrated distribution of the pseudorange residuals of single point positioning, the standard deviation of the pseudorange residuals is reduced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Orbit Determination of Satellites)
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17 pages, 31734 KiB  
Technical Note
Adaptive Kalman Filter for Real-Time Precise Orbit Determination of Low Earth Orbit Satellites Based on Pseudorange and Epoch-Differenced Carrier-Phase Measurements
by Min Li, Tianhe Xu, Yali Shi, Kai Wei, Xianming Fei and Dixing Wang
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(9), 2273; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14092273 - 08 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2837
Abstract
Real-time precise orbit determination (POD) of low earth orbiters (LEOs) is crucial for orbit maintenance as well as autonomous operation for space missions. The Global Positioning System (GPS) has become the dominant technique for real-time precise orbit determination (POD) of LEOs. However, the [...] Read more.
Real-time precise orbit determination (POD) of low earth orbiters (LEOs) is crucial for orbit maintenance as well as autonomous operation for space missions. The Global Positioning System (GPS) has become the dominant technique for real-time precise orbit determination (POD) of LEOs. However, the observation conditions of near-earth space are more critical than those on the ground. Real-time POD accuracy can be seriously affected when the observation environment suffers from strong space events, i.e., a heavy solar storm. In this study, we proposed a reliable adaptive Kalman filter based on pseudorange and epoch-differenced carrier-phase measurements. This approach uses the epoch-differenced carrier phase to eliminate the ambiguities and thus reduces the significant number of unknown parameters. Real calculations demonstrate that four to five observed GPS satellites is sufficient to solve reliable position parameters. Furthermore, with accurate pseudorange and epoch-differenced carrier-phase-based reference orbits, orbital dynamic disturbance can be detected precisely and reliably with an adaptive Kalman filter. Analyses of Swarm-A POD show that sub-meter level real-time orbit solutions can be obtained when the observation conditions are good. For poor observation conditions such as the GRACE-A satellite on 8 September 2017, when fewer than five GPS satellites were observed for 14% of the observation time, 1–2 m orbital accuracy can still be achieved with the proposed approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Orbit Determination of Satellites)
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