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Air-Sea Interaction and Climate Variability in the Ocean: Observations and Modeling Based on Remote Sensing Techniques

A special issue of Remote Sensing (ISSN 2072-4292). This special issue belongs to the section "Ocean Remote Sensing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2024 | Viewed by 4399

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
State Key Laboratory of Tropical Oceanography, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301, China
Interests: tropical air-sea interactions; global water cycle and ocean dynamics

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Guest Editor
College of Life Sciences and Oceanography, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518061, China
Interests: tropical air-sea interactions; remote sensing of marine ecology

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Guest Editor
Satellite Oceanography Laboratory, Russian State Hydrometeorological University, 195196 St. Petersburg, Russia
Interests: experimental and satellite oceanography; remote sensing; wind waves and wave breaking; small-scale wind waves; wave-wave and wave-current interactions; image and video processing
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The ocean and atmosphere are a complex coupled system, with air- sea interactions occurring on multiple spatial and temporal scales. The study of large-scale sea-air interactions has made remarkable achievements in the last half century. Small- to meso-scale air-sea interactions are current frontier scientific issues that play an important role in heat, water vapor, and momentum fluxes at the sea-air interface. The use of high-resolution observations or model data to study the processes and mechanisms of small- and meso-scale air-sea interactions are expected to deepen the understanding of the global climate system and effectively improve the accuracy of air-sea coupled models and climate models.

Remote sensing observations of the ocean have played a critical role in our understanding of the real ocean and air-sea interaction system and have greatly contributed to the study of global air-sea interactions. The accumulated large number of high-resolution, high-quality remote sensing datasets brings a novel opportunity to break the bottleneck of small- and meso-scale air- sea interaction studies and deepen the understanding of the global climate system. This special issue focus on the air-sea interaction and climate variability in the high-resolution ocean observations and modeling based on remote sensing techniques, aiming to provide new insights and methods in the study of small- and meso-scale sea-air interaction processes and mechanisms.

Nowadays, an increasing amount of high-resolution ocean remote sensing data, including sea surface temperature, salinity, precipitation, winds, sea level height, seawater color, and soon-to-be-realized total currents, provide new opportunities to better understand sea-air interactions and climate variability. This Special Issue calls for innovative research results, methods and models for air- sea interactions and climate change based on remote sensing. Acceptable topics include, but are not limited to, processes, mechanisms, and drivers of regional or global sea-air interactions, model simulation and parameterization schemes, and drivers of climate change, methods and key parameters for improving climate model simulation results, etc.

Dr. Yuhong Zhang
Dr. Xiaomei Liao
Prof. Dr. Vladimir N. Kudryavtsev
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Remote Sensing is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • air-sea interactions
  • climate variability
  • oceanic dynamics
  • small- and meso-scale processes
  • remote sensing observations
  • high-resolution modeling

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

18 pages, 8701 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Diurnal Variability of Sea Surface Temperature on Air–Sea Heat Flux Estimation over the Northwest Pacific Ocean
by Qianguang Tu, Zengzhou Hao, Dong Liu, Bangyi Tao, Liangliang Shi and Yunwei Yan
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(4), 628; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16040628 - 08 Feb 2024
Viewed by 584
Abstract
Accurate and consistent observations of diurnal variability of sea surface temperature (SST DV) and its impact on air–sea heat fluxes over large areas for extended periods are challenging due to their short time scale and wide coverage. The hourly gap-free SSTs generated from [...] Read more.
Accurate and consistent observations of diurnal variability of sea surface temperature (SST DV) and its impact on air–sea heat fluxes over large areas for extended periods are challenging due to their short time scale and wide coverage. The hourly gap-free SSTs generated from Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency-Japan Agency for Marine–Earth Science and Technology (JAXA-JAMSTEC) are input to the COARE3.5 bulk flux algorithm to investigate the impact of SST DV on air–sea heat fluxes over the Northwest Pacific Ocean (NWPO). The main results are as follows. (1) The JAXA-JAMSTEC SSTs were found to be in good agreement with the buoy observations on SST DV with a very slight negative bias of −0.007 °C and a root mean square error of 0.018 °C. (2) The case study conducted on 26 June 2020 showed that the fluxes’ diurnal amplitudes were about 30–50 W m2, and evolution was in agreement with SST DV. (3) The average impact of SST DV on heat fluxes was 2.93 W m2 over the subtropical NWPO, decreasing from southeast to northwest and from low to high latitudes, and showing a clear seasonal cycle during 2019–2022. This research highlights the need to consider SST DV for accurate estimation of heat fluxes, which is crucial for climate and atmospheric studies. Full article
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18 pages, 5223 KiB  
Article
Sea Surface pCO2 Response to Typhoon “Wind Pump” and Kuroshio Intrusion in the Northeastern South China Sea
by Jingrou Lin, Qingyang Sun, Yupeng Liu, Haijun Ye, Danling Tang, Xiaohao Zhang and Yang Gao
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(1), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16010123 - 27 Dec 2023
Viewed by 664
Abstract
The Luzon Strait (LS) is a key region for estimating carbon sources and sinks in the South China Sea (SCS) and is highly influenced by the Kuroshio Current (KC) and typhoons. Understanding the variations in the sea surface partial pressure of carbon dioxide [...] Read more.
The Luzon Strait (LS) is a key region for estimating carbon sources and sinks in the South China Sea (SCS) and is highly influenced by the Kuroshio Current (KC) and typhoons. Understanding the variations in the sea surface partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2-sw) under the combined effects of typhoons and KC in this region is crucial for estimating local and regional changes in ocean carbon flux. Based on valuable in situ pCO2-sw and remote sensing data, this study aimed to reveal the temporal variations and the physical mechanisms of pCO2-sw variations under the comprehensive effects of both typhoons and Kuroshio Intrusion (KI) in the LS. One week after the passage of the tropical cyclone (TC) Nanmadol, the concentration in the pCO2-sw and the influencing mechanisms varied in three different regions (W1–W3) on Transect A (120°E). In the region dominated by SCS waters (W1), the average pCO2-sw increased by 5.1 μatm after TC, which was mainly due to the TC “Wind Pump” inducing strong vertical mixing, which brought dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC)-rich deeper water up to the surface. In the region affected by KC (W2 and W3), pCO2-sw decreased after the TC (−8.2 μatm and −1.8 μatm, respectively) with TC-enhanced KI because the invasion of lower pCO2-sw of Kuroshio waters inhibited the TC-induced upwelling. More significant TC-induced upwelling (W3) would alleviate the decrease in pCO2-sw caused by the TC-enhanced KI. This study is a rare case providing a better understanding of the variations in pCO2-sw under TC-enhanced KI, which provides support for regional climate change prediction and carbon flux estimation in the western boundary current regions. Full article
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22 pages, 6960 KiB  
Article
Ocean Eddies in the Drake Passage: Decoding Their Three-Dimensional Structure and Evolution
by Xiayan Lin, Hui Zhao, Yu Liu, Guoqing Han, Han Zhang and Xiaomei Liao
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(9), 2462; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15092462 - 08 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2632
Abstract
The Drake Passage is known for its abundant mesoscale eddies, but little is known about their three-dimensional characteristics, which hinders our understanding of their impact on eddy-induced transport and deep-sea circulation. A 10-year study was conducted using GLORYS12 Mercator Ocean reanalysis data from [...] Read more.
The Drake Passage is known for its abundant mesoscale eddies, but little is known about their three-dimensional characteristics, which hinders our understanding of their impact on eddy-induced transport and deep-sea circulation. A 10-year study was conducted using GLORYS12 Mercator Ocean reanalysis data from 2009 to 2018. The study analyzed the statistical characteristics of eddies in the Drake Passage, spanning from the surface down to a depth of 2000 m in three dimensions. The findings indicate that the mean radius of the eddies is 35.5 km, with a mean lifespan of 12.3 weeks and mean vorticity of 2.2 × 10−5 s−1. The eddies are most active and energetic near the three main fronts and propagate north-eastward at an average distance of 97.8 km. The eddy parameters vary with water depth, with more anticyclones detected from the surface to 400 m, displaying a larger radius and longer propagation distance. Cyclones have longer lifespans and greater vorticity. However, beyond 400 m, there is not much difference between anticyclones and cyclones. Approximately 23.3% of the eddies reach a depth of 2000 m, with larger eddies tending to penetrate deeper. The eddies come in three different shapes, bowl-shaped (52.7%), lens-shaped (27.1%) and cone-shaped (20.2%). They exhibit annual and monthly distribution patterns. Due to its high latitude location, the Drake Passage has strong rotation and weak stratification, resulting in the generation of small and deep-reaching eddies. These eddies contribute to the formation of Antarctic intermediate water and lead to modulation of turbulent dissipation. Full article
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