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Oceans from Space V

A special issue of Remote Sensing (ISSN 2072-4292). This special issue belongs to the section "Ocean Remote Sensing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 June 2024 | Viewed by 9262

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Joint Research Centre, European Commission (Retired), 21027 Ispra, Italy
Interests: marine sciences; remote sensing applications; integrated coastal management; maritime spatial planning

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the last half century, satellite observations have become a cornerstone of all planetary sciences and of our efforts to understand and sustainably manage the earth. Major new developments have been achieved in ocean observations, to the point that many aspects of modern oceanography have been revolutionized by the unprecedented capabilities offered by orbital remote sensing. No other technology allows gathering information about marine variables and processes, at suitable space and time scales, like satellite observations do. Ocean exploration and environmental trend monitoring, coupled ocean and atmosphere forecasting, marine resources management, maritime spatial planning: the list of current or potential applications is virtually endless.

The Special Issue aims to collect in a single publication the best papers presented at the 5th “Oceans from Space” Symposium (held in Venice, Italy at the Scuola Grande di San Marco on 24–28 October 2022). As in past editions, this event focuses on the major scientific and technological achievements, innovations, and challenges of ocean observations from space. Therefore, the topics covered by the symposium, and highlighted by the selected papers composing the Special Issue, are well in line with the scope of Remote Sensing.

The selected “Oceans from Space” papers shall cover all aspects of ocean remote sensing, including both passive and active techniques, in the visible, infrared, and microwave spectral regions. General themes will be space missions, satellites and sensors, calibration and validation, and algorithms and models. Applications will include sea parameters and processes, bio-geo-chemical cycles, and ecological status, from local to global scales. Only full-scale articles solicited by the Guest Editor(s) will be submitted.

Dr. Vittorio Barale
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Remote Sensing is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • ocean observations
  • marine environment
  • oceanographic missions, satellite, and sensors
  • data cal-val, processing algorithms, and model assimilation
  • sea parameters and processes, bio-geo-chemical cycles, and ecological status.

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Editorial

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16 pages, 1095 KiB  
Editorial
Half a Century of Oceans from Space: Features and Futures
by Vittorio Barale
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(16), 4064; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15164064 - 17 Aug 2023
Viewed by 710
Abstract
Half a century separates us from the dawning of satellite oceanography. Aircraft flights, photographs from early space missions, and data from meteorological satellites in the 1960s already provided glimpses of the future role of remote sensing in marine science. A first generation of [...] Read more.
Half a century separates us from the dawning of satellite oceanography. Aircraft flights, photographs from early space missions, and data from meteorological satellites in the 1960s already provided glimpses of the future role of remote sensing in marine science. A first generation of dedicated ocean-viewing satellites followed in the 1970s. The “Oceans from Space” conference series, which convenes every ten years in Venice, Italy, started in 1980, when unprecedented data sets originated by a second generation of satellites, SEASAT, TIROS-N, and NIMBUS-7, were just beginning to be analyzed. When “Oceans from Space II” was held in 1990, no major new missions were operating. However, in the 1990s, a third generation of missions were underway, based on a longer satellite series and larger orbital platform. By the time “Oceans from Space III” was held in 2000, increasing data quality, accessibility, and usability were contributing to the growth of this young research field. “Oceans from Space IV”, in 2010, came at a time when remote sensing was already in everyday use as part of the marine scientist’s standard toolkit. “Oceans from Space V”, delayed by the COVID pandemic until 2022, offered a scientific and technical program reflecting the astounding panorama of missions, instruments, and innovations available today. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oceans from Space V)
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Research

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23 pages, 8649 KiB  
Article
Links between Land Cover and In-Water Optical Properties in Four Optically Contrasting Swedish Bays
by Susanne Kratzer and Martin Allart
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(1), 176; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16010176 - 31 Dec 2023
Viewed by 573
Abstract
The optical complexity of coastal waters is mostly caused by the water discharged from land carrying optical components (such as dissolved and particulate matter) into coastal bays and estuaries, and increasing the attenuation of light. This paper aims to investigate the links between [...] Read more.
The optical complexity of coastal waters is mostly caused by the water discharged from land carrying optical components (such as dissolved and particulate matter) into coastal bays and estuaries, and increasing the attenuation of light. This paper aims to investigate the links between in-water optical properties in four Swedish bays (from the northern Baltic proper up to the Bothnian bay) and the land use and land cover (LULC) in the respective catchment of each bay. The optical properties were measured in situ over the last decade by various research and monitoring groups while the LULC in each bay was classified using the Copernicus Land Monitoring Service based on Landsat 8/OLI data. The absorption coefficient of colored dissolve organic matter (CDOM) at 440 nm, aCDOM (440), was significantly correlated to Wetlands which may act as sources of CDOM, while Developed areas (Agricultural and Urban classes) were negatively correlated. The Agriculture class was also negatively related to suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM), whilst Coniferous Forests and Mixed Forests as well as Meadows were positively correlated. SPOM seems thus to mostly originate from Natural classes, possibly due to the release of pollen and other organic matter. Overall, the methods applied here allow for a better understanding of effects of land use and land cover on the bio-optical properties, and thus coastal water quality, on a macroscopic scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oceans from Space V)
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22 pages, 16268 KiB  
Article
Satellite and High-Spatio-Temporal Resolution Data Collected by Southern Elephant Seals Allow an Unprecedented 3D View of the Argentine Continental Shelf
by Melina M. Martinez, Laura A. Ruiz-Etcheverry, Martin Saraceno, Anatole Gros-Martial, Julieta Campagna, Baptiste Picard and Christophe Guinet
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(23), 5604; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15235604 - 02 Dec 2023
Viewed by 2227
Abstract
High spatial and temporal resolution hydrographic data collected by Southern Elephant Seals (Mirounga leonina, SESs) and satellite remote sensing data allow a detailed oceanographic description of the Argentine Continental Shelf (ACS). In-situ data were obtained from the CTD (Conductivity, Temperature, and Depth), [...] Read more.
High spatial and temporal resolution hydrographic data collected by Southern Elephant Seals (Mirounga leonina, SESs) and satellite remote sensing data allow a detailed oceanographic description of the Argentine Continental Shelf (ACS). In-situ data were obtained from the CTD (Conductivity, Temperature, and Depth), accelerometer, and hydrophone sensors attached to five SESs that crossed the ACS between the 17th and 31st of October 2019. The analysis of the temperature (T) and salinity (S) along the trajectories allowed us to identify two different regions: north and south of 42°S. Satellite Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data suggests that north of 42°S, warm waters are coming from the San Matias Gulf (SMG). The high spatio-temporal resolution of the in-situ data shows regions with intense gradients along the T and S sections that were associated with a seasonal front that develops north of Península Valdés in winter due to the entrance of cold and fresh water to the SMG. The speed of the SESs is correlated with tidal currents in the coastal portion of the northern region, which is in good agreement with the macrotidal regime observed. A large number of Prey Catch Attempts (PCA), a measure obtained from the accelerometer sensor, indicates that SESs also feed in this region, contradicting suggestions from previous works. The analysis of wind intensity estimated from acoustic sensors allowed us to rule out the local wind as the cause of fast thermocline breakups observed along the SESs trajectories. Finally, we show that the maximum depth reached by the elephant seals can be used to detect errors in the bathymetry charts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oceans from Space V)
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Review

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20 pages, 3372 KiB  
Review
The Rising Concern for Sea Level Rise: Altimeter Record and Geo-Engineering Debate
by Jim Gower and Vittorio Barale
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(2), 262; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16020262 - 09 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1211
Abstract
The Oceans from Space V Symposium, held in Venice, Italy, on 24–27 October 2022, devoted special sessions to sea level rise, as described by a series of satellite altimeters, and to remediations of consequent calamities in vulnerable mediterranean seas. It emerged that various [...] Read more.
The Oceans from Space V Symposium, held in Venice, Italy, on 24–27 October 2022, devoted special sessions to sea level rise, as described by a series of satellite altimeters, and to remediations of consequent calamities in vulnerable mediterranean seas. It emerged that various aspects of climate change can be modelled in time as a Single Exponential Event (SEE), with a similar trend (a 54–year e–folding time) for CO2 concentration in the Earth’s atmosphere, global average sea surface temperature, and global average sea level. The sea level rise record, combining tide gauges data starting in 1850, as well as more recent altimeter data, for the last 30 years, is already 25 cm above historical values. If the curve continues to follow the exponential growth of the simple SEE model, it will reach about 40 cm by the year 2050, 1 m by 2100, and 2.5 m by 2150. As a result, dramatic impacts would be expected for most coastal areas in the next century. Decisive remediations, based on geo-engineering at the basin scale, are possible for semi-enclosed seas, such as the Mediterranean and Black Seas. Damming the Strait of Gibraltar would provide an alternative to the conclusion that coastal sites such as the City of Venice are inevitably doomed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oceans from Space V)
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22 pages, 11000 KiB  
Review
A Review of Ocean Color Algorithms to Detect Trichodesmium Oceanic Blooms and Quantify Chlorophyll Concentration in Shallow Coral Lagoons of South Pacific Archipelagos
by Cécile Dupouy, Andra Whiteside, Jing Tan, Guillaume Wattelez, Hiroshi Murakami, Rémi Andréoli, Jérôme Lefèvre, Rüdiger Röttgers, Awnesh Singh and Robert Frouin
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(21), 5194; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15215194 - 31 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1133
Abstract
The oceanic waters of the Southwest Tropical Pacific occupy a vast region including multiple Pacific Island Countries. The state of these waters is determinant for fisheries and the blue economy. Ocean color remote sensing is the main tool to survey the variability and [...] Read more.
The oceanic waters of the Southwest Tropical Pacific occupy a vast region including multiple Pacific Island Countries. The state of these waters is determinant for fisheries and the blue economy. Ocean color remote sensing is the main tool to survey the variability and long-term evolution of these large areas that are important for economic development but are affected by climate change. Unlike vast oligotrophic gyres, tropical waters are characterized by numerous archipelagos and islands, with deep and shallow lagoons subjected to the large impacts of the land. Strikingly large dendritic phytoplankton (Trichodesmium) blooms with high levels of chlorophyll, developing within archipelagos, as well as coastal enrichments from various origins may be observed. Algorithms to detect the presence of Trichodesmium have been developed or adapted, as well as algorithms to estimate the chlorophyll concentration ([Chl-a)]. Adapting existing [Chl-a] algorithms does not always yield high, i.e., sufficient, accuracy. A review of published regional bio-optical algorithms developed taking into account the specific phytoplankton composition and minimizing the adverse impacts of particles and the seabed bottom on [Chl-a] determination is presented, as well the bio-optical database that allowed their development. The interest of such algorithms for a variety of applications and scientific accomplishments is highlighted, with a view to further addressing the main biology and biogeochemistry questions, e.g., to determine the true impact of diazotrophs and assess lagoon [Chl-a] variability with the highest confidence. This work anticipates the use of future coarse and high-spatial-resolution and multi- and hyper-spectral satellite imagery in the Pacific. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oceans from Space V)
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19 pages, 9456 KiB  
Review
Satellite Altimetry for Ocean and Coastal Applications: A Review
by Margaret Srinivasan and Vardis Tsontos
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(16), 3939; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15163939 - 09 Aug 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2835
Abstract
More than 30 years of observations from an international suite of satellite altimeter missions continue to provide key data enabling research discoveries and a broad spectrum of operational and user-driven applications. These missions were designed to advance technologies and to answer scientific questions [...] Read more.
More than 30 years of observations from an international suite of satellite altimeter missions continue to provide key data enabling research discoveries and a broad spectrum of operational and user-driven applications. These missions were designed to advance technologies and to answer scientific questions about ocean circulation, ocean heat content, and the impact of climate change on these Earth systems. They are also a valuable resource for the operational needs of oceanographic and weather forecasting agencies that provide information to shipping and fishing vessels and offshore operations for route optimization and safety, as well as for other decision makers in coastal, water resources, and disaster management fields. This time series of precise measurements of ocean surface topography (OST)—the “hills and valleys” of the ocean surface—reveals changes in ocean dynamic topography, tracks sea level variations at global to regional scales, and provides key information about ocean trends reflecting climate change in our warming world. Advancing technologies in new satellite systems allows measurements at higher spatial resolution ever closer to coastlines, where the impacts of storms, waves, and sea level rise on coastal communities and infrastructure are manifest. We review some collaborative efforts of international space agencies, including NASA, CNES, NOAA, ESA, and EUMETSAT, which have contributed to a collection of use cases of satellite altimetry in operational and decision-support contexts. The extended time series of ocean surface topography measurements obtained from these satellite altimeter missions, along with advances in satellite technology that have allowed for higher resolution measurements nearer to coasts, has enabled a range of such applications. The resulting body of knowledge and data enables better assessments of storms, waves, and sea level rise impacts on coastal communities and infrastructure amongst other key contributions for societal benefit. Although not exhaustive, this review provides a broad overview with specific examples of the important role of satellite altimetry in ocean and coastal applications, thus justifying the significant resource contributions made by international space agencies in the development of these missions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oceans from Space V)
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