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GNSS Precise Positioning and Geoscience Application

A special issue of Remote Sensing (ISSN 2072-4292). This special issue belongs to the section "Satellite Missions for Earth and Planetary Exploration".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 January 2023) | Viewed by 25561

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
National Time Service Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi'an 710054, China
Interests: satellite navigation; geodetic surveying; Beidou precise positioning and timing; landslide monitoring; earthquake early warning

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Geology Engineering and Geomatics, Chang'an University, Xi'an, China
Interests: GNSS crustal deformation; GNSS fault movement monitoring; GNSS landslide monitoring; geological hazard mechanism based on GNSS
Darpartment of Earth and Space Sicences, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen 518055, China
Interests: GNSS data processing; earthquake source inversion; earthquake/tsunami warning
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The last few decades have seen extensive progress in the global navigation satellite system (GNSS), especially in precise product generation, bias modelling, precise positioning algorithm development, etc., improving the positioning accuracy, reliability, and timeliness substantially. Furthermore, the emergence of augmentation and multisensor integration overcame the GNSS’s intrinsic limitations, such as vulnerability and service blind areas; thus, in turn, enhancing its continuity and all-time availability. Subsequently, these tremendous achievements of the GNSS and beyond have provided a new perspective for many applications relying on high-precision and reliable positioning, from traditional civil engineering to geoscience applications, such as crustal deformation monitoring, source parameter inversion, geodynamic analysis and natural hazard mitigation, significantly extending our knowledge about the Earth. 

This Special Issue calls for research papers concerning GNSS high-precision positioning and application in geosciences. It invites topics associated with (but not limited to) new models and algorithms for GNSS product generation, bias processing, precise positioning, multisensor integrated navigation, GNSS augmentation and GNSS-based geoscience application (e.g., geological disaster monitoring and mechanism research). This Special Issue also welcomes novel developments regarding comprehensive positioning, navigation, timing, and other applications of the GNSS.

Prof. Dr. Rui Tu
Prof. Dr. Wei Qu
Dr. Kejie Chen
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • multi-GNSS
  • precise positioning
  • precise products
  • multisensor-integrated navigation
  • geoscience application
  • crustal deformation
  • landslide monitoring and stability analysis

Published Papers (18 papers)

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17 pages, 5880 KiB  
Article
Geocenter Motions Derived from BDS Observations: Effects of the Solar Radiation Pressure Model and Constellation Configuration
by Xingxing Li, Shi Huang, Yongqiang Yuan, Keke Zhang and Jiaqing Lou
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(5), 1243; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15051243 - 23 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1097
Abstract
As the first hybrid-constellation global navigation system, China’s BeiDou navigation satellite system (BDS) has been fully constructed since July 2020 and provides open services for worldwide users. Due to the natural sensitivity of satellite tracking techniques to geocenter motion, BDS has the capability [...] Read more.
As the first hybrid-constellation global navigation system, China’s BeiDou navigation satellite system (BDS) has been fully constructed since July 2020 and provides open services for worldwide users. Due to the natural sensitivity of satellite tracking techniques to geocenter motion, BDS has the capability to determine the geocenter coordinates (GCC). This study aims to improve the precision of geocenter coordinates derived from BDS. To that end, 3-year sets of daily geocenter coordinates have been determined with BDS observations. Different solar radiation pressure (SRP) models, including the empirical CODE orbit model (ECOM), the extended ECOM model (ECOM2), and the a priori box-wing along with the ECOM model (BW + ECOM), have been applied for the BDS geocenter estimation. We show that the BW + ECOM model is beneficial in recovering the geocenter motion. Compared to the ECOM, the BW + ECOM model appears to mitigate the draconitic signal of BDS, which reduces the annual amplitude of the GCC-Z by a factor of 2.9. On the other hand, the amplitude of the 3 cpy signal is also reduced by a factor of 2.9. Furthermore, we studied the impact of BDS constellation configuration on the geocenter estimation. The results indicate that the inclusion of IGSO satellites significantly mitigates the spurious signals in the spectra of the GCC-Z. The amplitudes of the annual signal and 3 cpy signal are reduced by (28%, 14%), (33%, 61%), and (31%, 9%) for ECOM, ECOM2, and BW + ECOM cases, respectively. Meanwhile, the amplitude of the 7-day signal related to the orbital period of MEO satellites is also reduced by 32–45%. Thus, the BW + ECOM model and the MEO+IGSO hybrid configuration are recommended for BDS to determine the geocenter coordinates. However, despite these improvements, a significant annual signal with an amplitude of 20.2 mm and a visible 3 cpy signal with an amplitude of 6.1 mm still exist when compared to the Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS Precise Positioning and Geoscience Application)
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18 pages, 35048 KiB  
Article
Potential Contributors to CME and Optimal Noise Model Analysis in the Chinese Region Based on Different HYDL Models
by Shunqiang Hu, Kejie Chen, Hai Zhu, Tan Wang, Qian Zhao and Zhenyu Yang
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(4), 945; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15040945 - 08 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1098
Abstract
Optimizing the noise model for global navigation satellite system (GNSS) vertical time series is vital to obtain reliable uplift (or subsidence) deformation velocity fields and assess the associated uncertainties. In this study, by thoroughly considering the effects of hydrological loading (HYDL) that dominates [...] Read more.
Optimizing the noise model for global navigation satellite system (GNSS) vertical time series is vital to obtain reliable uplift (or subsidence) deformation velocity fields and assess the associated uncertainties. In this study, by thoroughly considering the effects of hydrological loading (HYDL) that dominates the seasonal fluctuations and common mode error (CME), we analyzed the optimal noise characteristics of GNSS vertical time series at 39 stations spanning from January 2011 to August 2019 in the Chuandian region, southeast of the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau. Our results showed that the optimal noise models without HYDL correction were white noise plus flicker noise (WN + FN), white noise plus power law noise (WN + PL), and white noise plus Gauss–Markov noise (WN + GGM), which accounted for 87%, 10%, and 3% of GNSS stations, respectively. By contrast, the optimal noise models at all stations were WN + FN and WN + PL after correction by different HYDLs. The correlation between CME and HYDL provided by the School and Observatory of Earth Sciences (EOST), namely EOST_HYDL, was 0.63~0.8 and the value of RMS reduction was 18.9~40.3% after removing EOST_HYDL time series from the CME, with a mean value of 31.8%, there is a good correlation and consistency between CME and EOST_HYDL. The absolute value of vertical velocity and its uncertainty with and without EOST_HYDL correction varied from 0.11 to 0.55 mm/a and 0 to 0.23 mm/a, respectively, implying that the effect of HYDL should not be neglected when performing optimal noise model analysis for GNSS vertical time series in the Chuandian region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS Precise Positioning and Geoscience Application)
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16 pages, 3449 KiB  
Article
GNSS Horizontal Motion Field in the Beijing Plain in View of The Variation Characteristics of The 3D Deformation Field
by Jun Wang, Shunqiang Hu, Tan Wang, Hong Liang and Zhenyu Yang
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(3), 787; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15030787 - 30 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1372
Abstract
In view of the fact that there is no unified understanding of the GNSS horizontal velocity field in the Beijing Plain and the serious land subsidence in this area, we collected GNSS data from 2011 to 2021 and Sentinel 1A data from 2017 [...] Read more.
In view of the fact that there is no unified understanding of the GNSS horizontal velocity field in the Beijing Plain and the serious land subsidence in this area, we collected GNSS data from 2011 to 2021 and Sentinel 1A data from 2017 to 2021 and conducted high-precision GNSS data processing and PS-InSAR verification in order to determine the reason for the differences in the GNSS horizontal velocity field in the Beijing Plain. The results show that, under the stable Eurasian framework, the horizontal velocity of GNSS stations in the Beijing Plain is significantly inconsistent. The velocity of all GNSS stations ranged from −1.32 to 10.41 mm/yr in the E component and from −8.83 to 3.00 mm/yr in the N component. From 2011 to 2021, there was significant uneven land subsidence in the Beijing Plain, and the maximum land subsidence rate from 2017 to 2021 reached 107 mm/yr. In analyzing the observation data of the GNSS and InSAR, we conclude that the land subsidence in the Beijing Plain will indeed affect the GNSS horizontal velocity field in the subsidence area. Under the EURA_I08 reference framework, the horizontal deformation field in the Beijing Plain is mainly caused by the tectonic activity-derived overall SEE-direction movement, accompanied by the velocity field anomaly caused by local land subsidence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS Precise Positioning and Geoscience Application)
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21 pages, 14647 KiB  
Article
Back-Analysis of Slope GNSS Displacements Using Geographically Weighted Regression and Least Squares Algorithms
by Wujiao Dai, Yue Dai and Jiawei Xie
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(3), 759; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15030759 - 28 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1282
Abstract
Numerical simulation is a powerful technique for slope stability assessment and landslide hazard investigation. However, the physicomechanical parameters of the simulation results are susceptible to uncertainty. Displacement back-analysis is considered an effective method for the prediction of the geomechanical parameters of numerical models; [...] Read more.
Numerical simulation is a powerful technique for slope stability assessment and landslide hazard investigation. However, the physicomechanical parameters of the simulation results are susceptible to uncertainty. Displacement back-analysis is considered an effective method for the prediction of the geomechanical parameters of numerical models; therefore, it can be used to deal with the parameter uncertainty problem. In this study, to improve the interpretability of the back-analysis model, an analytical function relationship between slope displacements and physicomechanical parameters was established using geographically weighted regression. By combining the least-squares and linear-algebra algorithms, a displacement back-analysis method based on geographically weighted regression (DBA-GWR) was developed; in particular, the multi-objective displacement back-analysis was represented as an analytical problem. The developed method was subsequently used for a slope of the Guiwu Expressway in Guangxi, China. Simulation experiments and GNSS real-data experiments demonstrated that the GWR could achieve high-precision deformation modelling in the spatial domain with model-fitting precision in the order of mm. Compared with state-of-the-art methods, the precision of the simulated displacement with the proposed method was significantly improved, and equivalent physicomechanical parameters with higher accuracy were obtained. Based on the corrected numerical model, the most severely deformed profiles were forward-analysed, and the simulated deformation and distribution patterns were found to be in good agreement with the field investigation results. This approach is significant for the determination of geomechanical parameters and the accurate assessment of slope safety using monitoring data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS Precise Positioning and Geoscience Application)
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16 pages, 3431 KiB  
Article
A Concise Method for Calibrating the Offset of GPS Precise Satellite Orbit
by Hu Yang, Longjiang Tang, Huizhong Zhu, Aigong Xu and Bo Li
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15010008 - 20 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1130
Abstract
A set of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) satellite orbit and clock offset are an essential prerequisite for precise application. However, abrupt changes in accuracy at the boundaries are prevalent in products provided by international GNSS services, resulting in decreased orbit interpolation precision [...] Read more.
A set of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) satellite orbit and clock offset are an essential prerequisite for precise application. However, abrupt changes in accuracy at the boundaries are prevalent in products provided by international GNSS services, resulting in decreased orbit interpolation precision near the daily boundary. In addition, the effect of this phenomenon is reflected in the deterioration of accuracy and the fluctuations in subsequent applications. In this study, time-weighted and equal-weighted calibrated methods were utilized for adjacent Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite orbits and the orbit variations were then corrected for the clock offset to ensure their consistency. The calibration method is evaluated based on the accuracy and smoothness of post-processing kinematic precise point positioning (PPP) and low earth orbit (LEO) precise orbit determination (POD) near the day boundary. In a variety of scientific applications, the results indicate that the proposed calibration method can effectively reduce the excessive differences near the day boundary between adjacent days. Near the boundary, maximum improvements for post-processing kinematic PPP, dynamic LEO precision orbit, kinematic LEO precision orbit are 41.5%, 9.4%, and 20.5%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS Precise Positioning and Geoscience Application)
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19 pages, 9725 KiB  
Article
Analysis of BDS-3 Real-Time Satellite Clock Offset Estimated in Global and Asia-Pacific and the Corresponding PPP Performances
by Hu Wang, Pengyuan Li, Jiexian Wang, Hongyang Ma, Yangfei Hou and Yingying Ren
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(24), 6206; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14246206 - 07 Dec 2022
Viewed by 927
Abstract
The quality of satellite clock offset affects the performances of positioning, navigation and timing services, and thus it is essential to the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). This research focuses on the estimation of BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) real-time precise satellite clock [...] Read more.
The quality of satellite clock offset affects the performances of positioning, navigation and timing services, and thus it is essential to the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). This research focuses on the estimation of BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) real-time precise satellite clock offset by using GNSS stations located in the Global and Asia-Pacific region based on the mixed-difference model. The precision of the estimated BDS clock corrections is then analyzed with the classification of the orbit types, satellite generations, and atomic clock types. The results show that the precision of the BDS clock offset estimated in the Asia-Pacific for Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO), Inclined Geosynchronous Satellite Orbit (IGSO) and Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) satellites are 0.204 ns, 0.077 ns and 0.085 ns, respectively, as compared to those of clock offsets estimated in globally distributed stations. The average precision of the BDS-3 satellites clock offset estimated in global region is 0.074 ns, which is much better than the 0.130 ns of BDS-2. Furthermore, analyzing the characteristics of the corresponding atomic clocks can explain the performance of the estimated satellite clock offset, and the stability and accuracy of various parameters of the Passive Hydrogen Maser (PHM) atomic clocks are better than those of Rubidium (Rb) atomic clocks. In the positioning domain, the real-time clocks estimated in the global/Asia-Pacific have been applied to BDS kinematic Precise Point Positioning (PPP) in different regions. The Root Mean Square (RMS) of positioning results in global real-time kinematic PPP is within 4 cm in the horizontal direction and about 6 cm in the vertical direction. Hence, the BDS real-time clock offset can supply the centimeter-level positioning demand around the world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS Precise Positioning and Geoscience Application)
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17 pages, 5862 KiB  
Article
Studies and Analysis of Combining BDS-3/GNSS Ultra-Rapid Orbit Products from Different IGS Analysis Centers
by Yangfei Hou, Hu Wang, Jiexian Wang, Hongyang Ma, Yingying Ren, Pengyuan Li and Yafeng Wang
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(23), 6122; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14236122 - 02 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1076
Abstract
The third generation of China’s BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS-3) began to provide global service at the end of 2018, and the completion of BDS was announced in July 2020, which includes GEO (Geostationary Earth Orbit), IGSO (Inclined Geosynchronous orbit), and MEO (Medium [...] Read more.
The third generation of China’s BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS-3) began to provide global service at the end of 2018, and the completion of BDS was announced in July 2020, which includes GEO (Geostationary Earth Orbit), IGSO (Inclined Geosynchronous orbit), and MEO (Medium Earth Orbit) satellites. The resulting BDS orbits vary due to the inconsistent alignment strategies used by different analysis centers. Therefore, it is necessary to study the method of determining the BDS-3 orbit products combined from different analysis centers. In this research, the accuracy of the combined orbits for BDS-3 and other GNSS systems is evaluated and analyzed. To verify the reliability of the orbit combination method proposed in this paper, the GPS orbit is first selected for verification. Compared to the analysis centers, the mean Signal in Space User Ranging Error (SISURE) for GPS combined orbits is significantly reduced, and the mean SISURE of combined orbits for Block IIF, Block IIR, and Block III is 4.15 mm, 5.43 mm, and 5.63 mm, respectively. This demonstrates the effectiveness of the orbit combination method in this research. Besides, the accuracy of the combined orbits is improved by the ERP correction, and the mean RMS of the without Earth rotation Parameters (ERP) correction orbits and with ERP correction orbits is 4.78 mm and 4.53 mm, respectively. This demonstrates that orbit consistency corrections should be considered when performing orbit combinations. Compared to the GFZ orbits, the accuracy of the combined orbits has improved for GPS, GLONASS, GALILEO, and BDS is 8.2%, 9.9%, 9.9%, and 5.5%, respectively. It shows that the orbit combination method improves the orbital accuracy compared to the individual analysis center orbits. The mean RMS of the combined orbits for GPS, GLONASS, GALILEO, BDS MEO, and BDS IGSO is 1.7 cm, 2.61 cm, 2.52 cm, 2.59 cm, and 4.90 cm, respectively. The results demonstrate that the accuracy of the combined orbit for the BDS-3 MEO satellite is already similar to other systems; an orbit combination also available for the BDS-3 satellite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS Precise Positioning and Geoscience Application)
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18 pages, 12578 KiB  
Article
Attitude Determination with GPS L1/Galileo E1 Observations from Common-Clock Receiver: A Comparison of Four Different Models
by Mingkui Wu, Jiahang Li, Shuai Luo and Wanke Liu
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(21), 5438; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14215438 - 29 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1078
Abstract
The development of the commercial multi global navigation satellite system (GNSS) dual (multi)-antenna common-clock receiver that uses time-synchronization technology has brought new opportunities for high-precision GNSS-based attitude determination. In this article, for the first time, we present a performance comparison of global positioning [...] Read more.
The development of the commercial multi global navigation satellite system (GNSS) dual (multi)-antenna common-clock receiver that uses time-synchronization technology has brought new opportunities for high-precision GNSS-based attitude determination. In this article, for the first time, we present a performance comparison of global positioning system (GPS) L1/Galileo navigation satellite system (Galileo) E1 attitude determination with a common-clock receiver using four different models, i.e., the loosely combined single-differenced (SD-LC) model, the tightly combined single-differenced (SD-TC) model, the loosely combined double-differenced (DD-LC) model, and the tightly combined double-differenced (DD-TC) model. We first introduce the SD-LC, SD-TC, DD-LC, and DD-TC relative positioning models with GPS L1/Galileo E1 observations from a common-clock receiver. Then, we present a performance comparison of the four models in both single-epoch and multi-epoch modes using static data collected with a Trimble BD992 common-clock receiver in terms of the ambiguity dilution of precision (ADOP), the ambiguity resolution (AR) success and failure rates, and the positioning and attitude determination accuracy. In the case of the single-epoch mode, the experimental results revealed that the results of the single-differenced (SD) models were identical to those of double-differenced (DD) models, i.e., the results of SD-LC and SD-TC models were identical to DD-LC and DD-TC models, respectively. Moreover, compared with the loosely combined model (SD-LC/DD-LC), the tightly combined model (SD-TC/DD-TC) delivered a much higher AR success rate and a lower AR failure rate, especially under a high elevation cutoff angle. The AR success rate increased by approximately 35.1% under a 40° elevation cutoff angle, while the AR failure rate decreased by approximately 4.3%. In the case of the multi-epoch mode, the experimental results confirmed the advantages of the tightly combined model over the loosely combined model as well as the SD model over the DD model. Compared with the DD-LC and SD-LC models, the AR success rates of the DD-TC and SD-TC models were improved by approximately 16.7% and 0.6% under a 45° elevation cutoff angle, respectively. The AR failure rates were reduced by approximately 12.4% and 0.3%, respectively. Moreover, compared with the DD-LC and DD-TC models, the AR success rates of the SD-LC and SD-TC models under a 45° elevation cutoff angle were improved by approximately 24.0% and 7.9%, respectively, and the AR failure rates were reduced by approximately 19.9% and 7.8%, respectively. Meanwhile, compared with the DD model, the SD model delivered comparable yaw accuracy and remarkably better pitch accuracy. The pitch accuracy was improved by approximately 65.2–75.0%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS Precise Positioning and Geoscience Application)
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22 pages, 4266 KiB  
Article
Comprehensive Analysis of PPP-B2b Service and Its Impact on BDS-3/GPS Real-Time PPP Time Transfer
by Jian Tang, Daqian Lyu, Fangling Zeng, Yulong Ge and Runzhi Zhang
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(21), 5366; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14215366 - 26 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1395
Abstract
2020 saw the official completion of the BDS-3 and the start of the PPP-B2b signal-based real-time precise point positioning (PPP) service to users in China and the neighboring areas. In this work, the quality of PPP-B2b products is first evaluated and compared with [...] Read more.
2020 saw the official completion of the BDS-3 and the start of the PPP-B2b signal-based real-time precise point positioning (PPP) service to users in China and the neighboring areas. In this work, the quality of PPP-B2b products is first evaluated and compared with real-time products from the CNES and the differential code bias (DCB) from the Chinese Academy of Science (CAS). Then, a detailed performance evaluation of the PPP time transfer based on the PPP-B2b service (B2b-RTPPP) is conducted. Three solutions, namely, GPS-only (G), BDS-3-only (C), and GPS + BDS-3 (GC) B2b-RTPPP solutions, are compared and assessed. The results suggest that for the PPP-B2b products, BDS-3 satellites have better orbit and clock offset quality than GPS satellites, while the opposite is true for CNES products. The quality of the PPP-B2b orbit and clock offset is poorer than those of the CNES. The PPP-B2b DCB shows excellent agreement with the CAS DCB. The accuracy of the B2b-RTPPP solutions is sub-nanosecond level. The accuracy of B2b-RTPPP time transfer with DCB correction is approximately improved by 64% compared with that without DCB correction. The GC B2b-RTPPP solution has the greatest frequency stability, while G B2b-RTPPP solution has the poorest. Considering that the receiver may be blocked, the B2b-RTPPP time transfer performance is also evaluated at different cut-off elevation angles. As the angle increases, the B2b-RTPPP time transfer performance decreases. Additionally, the short-term frequency stability remains constant at different cut-off elevation angles, but deteriorates in the long term, especially when the angle is 40°. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS Precise Positioning and Geoscience Application)
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16 pages, 21778 KiB  
Article
Research on Blunder Detection Methods of Pseudorange Observation in GNSS Observation Domain
by Xiaping Ma, Qing Wang, Kegen Yu, Xiaoxing He and Lidu Zhao
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(21), 5286; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14215286 - 22 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1228
Abstract
Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signal quality, type of receiver equipment, and external environment can cause GNSS observations to be anomalous, and these anomalies are sometimes reflected in GNSS pseudorange observations rather than phase observations. To better detect blunders in pseudorange observations, this [...] Read more.
Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signal quality, type of receiver equipment, and external environment can cause GNSS observations to be anomalous, and these anomalies are sometimes reflected in GNSS pseudorange observations rather than phase observations. To better detect blunders in pseudorange observations, this paper proposes three pseudorange blunder detection methods under the same frequency and different code types (case1), and the same code type and different frequencies (case2), of pseudorange observations, which are the Code Observation Difference Method (CODM), the Inter-satellite Code Observation Difference Method (ICODM), and the Inter-epoch and Inter-satellite Code Observation Difference Method (IICODM). The corresponding thresholds for the constructed test statistics of the three detection methods were derived based on the Bessel formula. Performance analysis of the three detection methods was performed under case1 based on C2 and P2 code observation data of Global Positioning System (GPS) at 137 Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) stations, and case2 based on BDS B1I and B3I frequency observation data of BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) at 232 MGEX stations, on 29 July 2022. The results show that the statistical information value of the three methods in case1 was significantly smaller than that in case2. In the first case, the maximum values of test statistics, RMSE and threshold mean values were 0.526, 0.752 and 2.243 m, respectively, while the corresponding values in case2 were 7.066, 4.490 and 13.480 m respectively. The reason for this is that the data quality of global GPS is higher than that of BDS and the differential observation equation eliminates or weakens more errors with the same frequency and different types of code pseudorange observations. Under the same conditions, compared with ICODM and IICODM, CODM has high computational efficiency and a simple mathematical model. It is recommended to use CODM first for pseudorange blunder detection in the GNSS observation domain. According to the RMSE of 3 times as the limit, it is recommended that the threshold be set to 5 m under case1 for GPS and 15 m under case2 for BDS, which is half the existing reference value. Finally, the blunder detection methods proposed can improve positioning performance through actual data verification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS Precise Positioning and Geoscience Application)
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21 pages, 13207 KiB  
Article
BDS-3/GPS/Galileo OSB Estimation and PPP-AR Positioning Analysis of Different Positioning Models
by Bo Li, Jinzhong Mi, Huizhong Zhu, Shouzhou Gu, Yantian Xu, Hu Wang, Lijun Yang, Yibiao Chen and Yuqi Pang
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(17), 4207; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14174207 - 26 Aug 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1738
Abstract
With the completion of the BeiDou Global Navigation Satellite System (BDS-3), the multi-system precise point positioning ambiguity resolution (PPP-AR) has been realized. The satellite phase fractional cycle bias (FCB) is a key to the PPP-AR. Compared to the combined ionosphere-free (IF) model, the [...] Read more.
With the completion of the BeiDou Global Navigation Satellite System (BDS-3), the multi-system precise point positioning ambiguity resolution (PPP-AR) has been realized. The satellite phase fractional cycle bias (FCB) is a key to the PPP-AR. Compared to the combined ionosphere-free (IF) model, the undifferenced and uncombined (UDUC) model retains all the information from the observations and can be easily extended to arbitrary frequencies. However, the FCB is difficult to apply directly to the UDUC model. An observable-specific signal bias (OSB) can interact directly with the original observations, providing complete flexibility for PPP-AR for multi-frequency multi-GNSS. In this study, the OSB product generation for the GPS (G), Galileo (E), and BDS-3 (C) systems is performed using 117 globally distributed multi-GNSS experiment (MGEX) stations, and their performances are evaluated. Then, the PPP-AR comparison and analysis of the two positioning models of the UDUC and IF are conducted. The results show that the stability of OSB products of the three systems is better than 0.05 ns. For the precise point positioning (PPP) ambiguity fixed solution, with comparable positioning accuracy and convergence time to the products of both the Wuhan University (WUM) and the Centre National d’Etudes Spatials (CNES) institutions, an average fixed-ambiguity rate is over 90%. Compared to the PPP float solution, the PPP-AR has the most significant improvement in positioning accuracy in the E-direction. The average improvements in the positioning accuracy under the IF and UDUC models in the static and kinematic modes are higher than 45% and 40%, respectively. The convergence times of the IF and UDUC models are improved on average by 48% and 60% in the static mode and by 40% and 55% in the kinematic mode, respectively. Among the IF and UDUC positioning models, the former has slightly better positioning accuracy and convergence time than the latter for the PPP float solution. However, both models have comparable positioning accuracy and convergence time after the PPP-AR. The GCE multi-system combination is superior to other system combinations. The average convergence time for the static PPP fixed solution is 8.5 min, and the average convergence time for the kinematic PPP fixed solution is 16.4 min. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS Precise Positioning and Geoscience Application)
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16 pages, 3413 KiB  
Article
Effect of Stochastic Modeling for Inter-Frequency Biases of Receiver on BDS-3 Five-Frequency Undifferenced and Uncombined Precise Point Positioning
by Yi Liu, Wei Zhou, Bing Ji, Deying Yu, Shaofeng Bian, Shouzhou Gu and Deyan Li
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(15), 3595; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14153595 - 27 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1222
Abstract
The third generation of the Beidou navigation satellite system (BDS-3) broadcasts navigation signals of five frequencies. Focusing on the deep integration of five-frequency signals, we applied the joint BDS-3 five-frequency undifferenced and uncombined precise point positioning (UC-PPP) to analyze the receiver inter-frequency biases [...] Read more.
The third generation of the Beidou navigation satellite system (BDS-3) broadcasts navigation signals of five frequencies. Focusing on the deep integration of five-frequency signals, we applied the joint BDS-3 five-frequency undifferenced and uncombined precise point positioning (UC-PPP) to analyze the receiver inter-frequency biases (IFB). Firstly, 12 Multi-GNSS Experiment tracking (MGEX) stations are selected to investigate the time-varying characteristics of receiver IFB and, according to random characteristics, three random modeling schemes are proposed. Secondly, the effects of three stochastic modeling methods on zenith tropospheric delay, ionospheric delay, floating ambiguity, and quality control are analyzed. Finally, the effects of three IFB stochastic modeling methods on positioning performance are evaluated. The results showed that the amplitude in the IFB for B2b is 5.139 m, B2a is 1.964 m, and B1C is 0.950 m by measuring one week’s observation data. The IFB stochastic modeling method based on random walks can shorten the PPP convergence time by 4~12%, diminish the false alarm of quality control, and improve the positioning accuracy. The random walk model is recommended to simulate the variation of IFB, which can not only overcome the disadvantage of the time constant model being unable to accurately describe the time-varying characteristics of the IFB, but also avoid reducing the strength of the kinematic PPP positioning model due to the large process noise of the white noise model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS Precise Positioning and Geoscience Application)
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21 pages, 7241 KiB  
Article
GNSS/Accelerometer Adaptive Coupled Landslide Deformation Monitoring Technology
by Ce Jing, Guanwen Huang, Qin Zhang, Xin Li, Zhengwei Bai and Yuan Du
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(15), 3537; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14153537 - 23 Jul 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1838
Abstract
Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) positioning technology has become the most effective method for real-time three-dimensional landslide monitoring. However, the GNSS observation signal is easily affected by the presence of a complex landslide environment with high occlusion and strong interference, in which case [...] Read more.
Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) positioning technology has become the most effective method for real-time three-dimensional landslide monitoring. However, the GNSS observation signal is easily affected by the presence of a complex landslide environment with high occlusion and strong interference, in which case its accuracy and reliability cannot meet the requirements of landslide deformation monitoring. Although the accelerometers have strong autonomous working capacities and can complement the GNSS landslide monitoring technology, regular GNSS/accelerometer coupled deformation monitoring technology relies on high-quality GNSS measurement information in order to obtain high-precision accelerometer-reckoned results, derived by accurately estimating the baseline shift error (BSE). When the GNSS signal suffers severe interference, the GNSS monitoring error will be partially absorbed by the BSE component after Kalman filtering, resulting in the divergence of the deformation solution. In this study, an abnormal observation variance inflation model was used to process the simulated landslide monitoring data (GNSS and accelerometer raw observation) for three typical scenes—GNSS signal normally locked, signal partially lost, and short-term interruption. The results were as follows: (1) When the GNSS signal was normally locked, the accuracy was comparable to that of the coupled solution employing an accelerometer (the Root Mean Square (RMS) values in the East (E), North (N) and Upward (U) directions were 0.11 cm, 0.33 cm, and 0.30 cm, respectively). (2) When the GNSS signal was partially lost, the accelerometer could effectively suppress the low-precision float solution of the GNSS, but here, the accuracy of the coupled solution would also decrease with the duration of the floats (the RMS values were E—1.21 cm, N—0.31 cm, and U: 0.58—cm, respectively, when the floats lasted for 10 s, and increased to E—3.09 cm, N—0.39 cm, and U—1.14 cm when they lasted for 20 s, wherein E was the main simulated sliding direction). (3) When the GNSS signal was interrupted for a short time, the accuracy of the coupled solution gradually decreased during continuous interruption, and decreased more quickly during the sliding period of the landslide (when the interruption persisted for 10 s, the RMS values in the simulated landslide stability period were E—0.61 cm, N—0.24 cm, and U—0.25 cm, respectively, while in the simulated landslide sliding period they reached E—4.10 cm, N—6.84 cm, and U—2.30 cm). However, raw observations of the accelerometer could still effectively be used to assist in identifying the real state of the landslide, thereby providing auxiliary information pertinent to early landslide disaster warning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS Precise Positioning and Geoscience Application)
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16 pages, 8097 KiB  
Article
Performance Analysis of BDS–5G Combined Precise Point Positioning
by Fangxin Li, Rui Tu, Ju Hong, Shixuan Zhang, Mingyue Liu and Xiaochun Lu
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(13), 3006; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14133006 - 23 Jun 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1577
Abstract
Precise point positioning (PPP) technology is one of the core technologies in the field of GNSS high-precision positioning. It is used widely because it can realize centimeter-level positioning in outdoor environments by using only a single receiver. However, its convergence is time-consuming, particularly [...] Read more.
Precise point positioning (PPP) technology is one of the core technologies in the field of GNSS high-precision positioning. It is used widely because it can realize centimeter-level positioning in outdoor environments by using only a single receiver. However, its convergence is time-consuming, particularly in urban areas where satellite occlusion is more severe. A combined BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) and fifth generation mobile communication technology (5G) PPP observation model is proposed, in which the two kinds of observations are combined and solved at the original observation level. The impact of different numbers and geometries of 5G base stations on the convergence time of PPP is analyzed from both static and dynamic perspectives. The results confirm that PPP technology combining BDS and 5G can effectively accelerate convergence while improving the accuracy of positioning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS Precise Positioning and Geoscience Application)
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19 pages, 5976 KiB  
Article
Spatiotemporal Filtering for Continuous GPS Coordinate Time Series in Mainland China by Using Independent Component Analysis
by Wei Zhou, Kaihua Ding, Peng Liu, Guanghong Lan and Zutao Ming
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(12), 2904; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14122904 - 17 Jun 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1346
Abstract
Continuous Global Positioning Systems (GPS) coordinate time series with a high spatiotemporal resolution, and provide a great opportunity to study their noise models and common mode errors (CMEs), thus making it possible to detect and analyse spatiotemporal characteristics of tectonic and non-tectonic signals [...] Read more.
Continuous Global Positioning Systems (GPS) coordinate time series with a high spatiotemporal resolution, and provide a great opportunity to study their noise models and common mode errors (CMEs), thus making it possible to detect and analyse spatiotemporal characteristics of tectonic and non-tectonic signals in time series, and further to estimate a reliable and accurate velocity field of crustal movement in a region by removing CMEs and using the optimal noise model. In this paper, we used GPS coordinate time series from the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONOC) with an approximate decadal period from 2010 to 2020, to construct optimal noise models by fitting them with several noise combinations according to the Akaike information criterion (AIC). We further adopted independent component analysis (ICA) to extract CMEs and analysed their spatiotemporal characteristics, and then evaluated their effects on noise models and velocity uncertainties, and finally estimated a decennial velocity field of crustal movement with a higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by applying the CME filtering and considering the optimal noise model in Mainland China. Our results show that optimal noise models are dominated by white noise (WN) plus flicker noise (FN) for both east and north components, and WN plus power law noise (PN) with spectral index close to −1 for up component, respectively. ICA filtering can remove the highly spatially correlated CMEs and decrease the mean RMSEs of the residual time series by about 40–60%, providing a more accurate velocity field with a higher SNR in Mainland China, accordingly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS Precise Positioning and Geoscience Application)
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20 pages, 6055 KiB  
Article
Assessment of IRNSS-Only Data Processing: Availability, Single-Frequency SPP and Short-Baseline RTK
by Lin Pan, Gen Pei, Wenkun Yu and Zhehao Zhang
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(10), 2462; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14102462 - 20 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1554
Abstract
The Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) currently can provide independent positioning services with eight in-orbit satellites. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of IRNSS-only data processing, including the availability of satellite constellation, the performance of single-frequency single point positioning (SPP), and the [...] Read more.
The Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) currently can provide independent positioning services with eight in-orbit satellites. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of IRNSS-only data processing, including the availability of satellite constellation, the performance of single-frequency single point positioning (SPP), and the performance of single-frequency short-baseline real-time kinematic (RTK) positioning. Regarding the availability of IRNSS-only case in its primary service areas, the average number of visible satellites is 6–8, and the average Position Dilution of Precision (PDOP) value falls between 3.3 and 6.2, under a service rate of nearly 100.0%. The datasets from 14 stations located in the IRNSS service areas spanning a week are used for position determination. The results show that under the IRNSS single-system case, the positioning accuracy of the SPP is 6.031, 6.015, and 9.668 m in the east, north, and up directions, respectively, and the mean positioning bias of short-baseline RTK is 5.4, −21.1, and −0.2 mm with a standard deviation (STD) error of 7.8, 19.2, and 29.0 mm in the three directions, respectively. For comparative analysis, the results of the GPS single-system and GPS/IRNSS dual-system combination cases are also presented. The positioning performance of IRNSS is inferior to that of GPS, and the performance improvement of GPS/IRNSS dual-system integrated solutions over GPS single-system solutions is not significant. Furthermore, based on the GPS/IRNSS dual-system solutions, the inter-system bias estimates from SPP, the code observation residuals from SPP, and the carrier phase observation residuals from short-baseline RTK are characterized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS Precise Positioning and Geoscience Application)
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15 pages, 2207 KiB  
Technical Note
Performance Assessment of Multi-GNSS Real-Time Products from Various Analysis Centers
by Chao Yu, Yize Zhang, Junping Chen, Qian Chen, Kexin Xu and Bin Wang
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(1), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15010140 - 27 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1450
Abstract
The performance of real-time precise point positioning (PPP) relies primarily on the availability and quality of orbit and clock corrections. In this research, we collected data streams from 12 real-time mount points of IGS Real-Time Service (RTS) or analysis centers for a one-month [...] Read more.
The performance of real-time precise point positioning (PPP) relies primarily on the availability and quality of orbit and clock corrections. In this research, we collected data streams from 12 real-time mount points of IGS Real-Time Service (RTS) or analysis centers for a one-month period and conducted a performance assessment, including product latency and data availability, accuracy of orbit, clock and positioning performance. The epoch availability of GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and BDS was more than 98.5%, 95.79%, 94.20% and 85.9%, respectively. In addition, the orbit and clock errors of different real-time corrections was investigated. Then, PPP in static and kinematic for 16 IGS stations was conducted. The results show the real-time PPP for different products has a longer convergence time and a slightly worse accuracy than those of the post-processing PPP. For static PPP over 24 h, the real-time products of WHU had the best performance, with a mean RMSE of 1.0 cm in the horizontal and vertical directions and a median convergence time of 12.0 min. The products of CAS had the faster convergence speed due to the shortest product latency. Regarding real-time kinematic PPP for GPS only in an hourly batch, the real-time products of WHU and ESA performed best with a mean RMSE of 10.8 cm and 9.5 cm in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. Additionally, the PPP for different real-time products with the multi-GNSS combination obtained higher accuracy than those with GPS only in post-processing or real-time mode, and the PPP with the GPS/GLONASS/Galileo/BDS combination had the fastest convergence speed and best positioning performance. The hourly based kinematic PPP results of CAS, DLR, GFZ and WHU with the GREC combination had positioning errors smaller than 5.2 cm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS Precise Positioning and Geoscience Application)
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16 pages, 2262 KiB  
Technical Note
Inter-Satellite Single-Difference Ionospheric Delay Interpolation Model for PPP-RTK and Its Positioning Performance Verification
by Ju Hong, Rui Tu, Shixuan Zhang, Fangxin Li, Mingyue Liu and Xiaochun Lu
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(17), 4153; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14174153 - 24 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1058
Abstract
In PPP-RTK, obtaining accurate atmospheric delay information for the user through interpolation is one of the keys to achieving high-precision real-time positioning. The ionospheric delay that is extracted by a reference network based on uncalibrated phase delay (UPD) products is often difficult to [...] Read more.
In PPP-RTK, obtaining accurate atmospheric delay information for the user through interpolation is one of the keys to achieving high-precision real-time positioning. The ionospheric delay that is extracted by a reference network based on uncalibrated phase delay (UPD) products is often difficult to separate from errors such as receiver code hardware delay and UPD reference error. Inter-satellite single-difference (SD) ionospheric delay information is typically provided to the user. This paper proposes an interpolation model that uses the atmospheric delay coefficient to represent the SD ionospheric delay, based on the mean position of the ionospheric pierce point (IPP) of each satellite pair and the center position of the network, which is called the differenced surface model (DSM). We chose four scenarios to compare the interpolation accuracy of the proposed model with the inverse distance-based linear interpolation method (DIM) and USM based on the difference between the longitude and latitude of the reference and ionospheric pierce point (IPP) of every satellite (here, we call it USM for short). The four scenarios involve a medium-scale reference network with an average distance to the reference station of 41 km, a large-scale reference network with an average distance to the reference station of 98 km, and out-of-network users, and a network with a common minimum of three reference stations. The results show that the root mean square (RMS) of the SD residuals of ionospheric delay for DSM were 1.4, 3.2, 2.2, and 1.4 cm, respectively, for the four scenarios that were considered, which are slightly better delay values than those that were achieved using DIM and USM. For the scenario with three reference stations, the interpolation accuracies of DIM and DSM were no different from those for four reference stations, indicating that the server can still try to provide ionospheric correction service under the condition of fewer reference stations. In contrast, USM could not provide service because it lacked the sufficient number of reference stations. DSM was used as the ionospheric delay interpolation model to analyze GPS and Galileo dual-system PPP-RTK positioning performance. In addition, the atmospheric parameter constraint method of users was used in PPP-RTK in reference networks of different scales. For the 41-km and 98-km reference networks, the time to first fix (TTFF) were 14.5 s and 33.1 s, respectively, and the mean RMS values for the east (E), north (N), and up (U) directions were 0.80, 0.93, and 2.72 cm, respectively, and 1.0, 1.1, and 4.0 cm, respectively, for a period of 5 min after convergence. The fixing rate and positioning accuracy of DSM during the 5-min period were better than those of DIM when the same empirical model was used to determine the mean square error of atmospheric delay. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS Precise Positioning and Geoscience Application)
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