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Application of Remote Sensing for the Study of Coastal and Shelf Seas Dynamics

A special issue of Remote Sensing (ISSN 2072-4292). This special issue belongs to the section "Ocean Remote Sensing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 February 2024) | Viewed by 4058

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Applied Mathematics, Polytechnic School, University of Alicante, 03690 Sant Vicent del Raspeig, Spain
Interests: ocean dynamics;air–sea interaction; extreme events; ocean state indicators; machine learning; Lagrangian dynamics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
CSIC-UIB - Instituto Mediterraneo de Estudios Avanzados (IMEDEA), Esporlas, Spain
Interests: remote sensing; Lagrangian dynamics; interaction physics-biology; ocean circulation

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Guest Editor
CSIC-UIB - Instituto Mediterraneo de Estudios Avanzados (IMEDEA), Esporlas, Spain
Interests: ocean dynamics; remote sensing; ocean circulation; operational oceanography; ocean waves; Lagrangian dynamics

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Guest Editor
Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies (IMEDEA), C/ Miquel Marques 21, 07190 Esporles, Spain
Interests: mesoscale and submesoscale; ocean dynamics; in situ and remote sensing observations; biophysical interactions; machine-learning techniques; Lagrangian analysis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
MIO - Institut Méditerranéen d'Océanologie, Université de Toulon | USTV, UMR 7294, 83130 La Garde, France
Interests: coastal dynamics; wave-current interaction; air-sea interaction; Lagrangian dynamics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Coastal zones and shelf seas are highly dynamic and complex areas featuring diverse physical, biogeochemical, and geological environments, that are subjected to numerous human and ecological drivers. Being a transitional space under anthropic activities, they respond to multiple forces at several spatial and temporal scales, creating scientific challenges that can only be solved if approached from a multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary point of view. The current and future questions that have to be addressed include the understanding of the physical, chemical, and biological processes that identify the idiosyncratic nature of the coasts by characterizing the short- and long-term changes of these systems and the specific role of anthropogenic climate change in the process. The main scientific priorities for the upcoming decades are related to the use of the coast as a highly vulnerable resource, maintaining its ecological richness, and preserving its functions. Among these questions, three priorities emerge that embrace most of the research that is currently being done in coastal studies: (i) what are the rates and impacts of sea level rise and global change on coastal morphology?, (ii) how are the coast and estuarine areas affected by natural and anthropic changes? and (iii) what is the role of biodiversity in coastal seas on the resilience of the system? Nearshore monitoring is essential to improve the current understanding of how hydrodynamics interact with morphodynamic processes, a crucial aspect in the context of climate change. Measurement techniques must accommodate the wide range of spatio-temporal scales involved in these processes (e.g., from seconds for turbulence to centennials for climate change in the temporal scale).

This Special Issue invites high-quality and innovative scientific papers using remote sensing observations to study the dynamics of coastal and shelf seas. We welcome studies dealing with modeling approaches, multiplatform observations, and uncertainties assessment (i.e., forecast error, ensemble spread, probability distribution, threshold exceedance, etc.), emphasizing multidisciplinary interactions.

Applied topics

  • Ocean mesoscale and submesoscale dynamics;   
  • Sea level rise;      
  • Fisheries and ecosystems modeling;
  • Coastal impacts and modeling of extreme events;
  • Air–sea interaction processes;
  • Real time coastal observing and monitoring systems.

We are looking forward to your submissions.

Dr. Juan M. Sayol
Dr. Ismael Hernández-Carrasco
Dr. Alejandro Orfila
Dr. Bàrbara Barceló-Llull
Dr. Alejandro Cáceres-Euse
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Remote Sensing is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • remote sensing
  • coastal impacts
  • air–sea interaction
  • ocean currents
  • sea level variability
  • global warming
  • ecosystem dynamics
  • coastal ocean monitoring
  • ocean waves
  • (sub)mesoscale dynamics

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

23 pages, 38535 KiB  
Article
Mapping Annual Tidal Flat Loss and Gain in the Micro-Tidal Area Integrating Dual Full-Time Series Spectral Indices
by Jiayi Luo, Wenting Cao, Xuecao Li, Yuyu Zhou, Shuangyan He, Zhaoyuan Zhang, Dongling Li and Huaguo Zhang
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(8), 1402; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16081402 - 16 Apr 2024
Viewed by 357
Abstract
Tracking long-term tidal flat dynamics is crucial for coastal restoration decision making. Accurately capturing the loss and gain of tidal flats due to human-induced disturbances is challenging in the micro-tidal areas. In this study, we developed an automated method for mapping the annual [...] Read more.
Tracking long-term tidal flat dynamics is crucial for coastal restoration decision making. Accurately capturing the loss and gain of tidal flats due to human-induced disturbances is challenging in the micro-tidal areas. In this study, we developed an automated method for mapping the annual tidal flat changes in the micro-tidal areas under intense human activities, by integrating spectral harmonization, time series segmentation from dual spectral indices, and the tide-independent hierarchical classification strategy. Our method has two key novelties. First, we adopt flexible temporal segments for each pixel based on the dual full-time series spectral indices, instead of solely using a fixed period window, to help obtain more reliable inundation frequency features. Second, a tide-independent hierarchical classification strategy based on the inundation features and the Otsu algorithm capture the tidal flat changes well. Our method performed well in Guangdong, Hong Kong, and Macao (GHKM), a typical area with micro-tidal range and intense human activities, with overall accuracies of 89% and 92% for conversion types and turning years, respectively. The tidal flats in GHKM decreased by 24% from 1986 to 2021, resulting from the loss of 504.45 km2, partially offset by an accretion of 179.88 km2. Further, 70.9% of the total loss was in the Great Bay Area, concentrated in 1991–1998 and 2001–2016. The historical trajectories of tidal flat loss were driven by various policies implemented by the national, provincial, and local governments. Our method is promising for extension to other micro-tidal areas to provide more scientific support for coastal resource management and restoration. Full article
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19 pages, 10533 KiB  
Article
Interannual Variations in the Summer Coastal Upwelling in the Northeastern South China Sea
by Wuyang Chen, Yifeng Tong, Wei Li, Yang Ding, Junmin Li, Wenhua Wang and Ping Shi
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(7), 1282; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16071282 - 05 Apr 2024
Viewed by 341
Abstract
This study scrutinizes interannual (2003–2023) variations in coastal upwelling along the Guangdong Province during summers (June–August) in the northeastern South China Sea (NESCS) by comprehensively applying the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) remote sensing sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll concentration (CHL) data and [...] Read more.
This study scrutinizes interannual (2003–2023) variations in coastal upwelling along the Guangdong Province during summers (June–August) in the northeastern South China Sea (NESCS) by comprehensively applying the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) remote sensing sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll concentration (CHL) data and the model reanalysis product. The results show that SST and upwelling intensity in the sea area have significant (p < 0.05) rising trends in the last 21 years. The CHL shows an upward but insignificant trend, which is affected simultaneously by the rise in SST and the enhancement of upwelling. Further analysis reveals that the interannual variations in upwelling are robustly related to the wind fields’ variations in the coastal region. A clockwise/counter-clockwise anomaly in the wind field centered on the NESCS facilitates alongshore/onshore winds near the Guangdong coast, which can strengthen/weaken coastal upwelling. Based on the correlation between wind field variations and large-scale climate factors, long-term variations in the upwelling intensity can be primarily predicted by the Oceanic Niño Index. Full article
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18 pages, 5783 KiB  
Article
Performance Assessment of a High-Frequency Radar Network for Detecting Surface Currents in the Pearl River Estuary
by Langfeng Zhu, Tianyi Lu, Fan Yang, Chunlei Wei and Jun Wei
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(1), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16010198 - 03 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 771
Abstract
The performance of a high-frequency (HF) radar network situated within the Pearl River Estuary from 17 July to 13 August 2022 is described via a comparison with seven acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs). The radar network consists of six OSMAR-S100 compact HF radars, [...] Read more.
The performance of a high-frequency (HF) radar network situated within the Pearl River Estuary from 17 July to 13 August 2022 is described via a comparison with seven acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs). The radar network consists of six OSMAR-S100 compact HF radars, with a transmitting frequency of 13–16 MHz and a direction-finding technique. Both the radial currents and vector velocities showed good agreement with the ADCP results (coefficient of determination r2: 0.42–0.78; RMS difference of radials: 11–21.6 cm s1; bearing offset Δθ: 4.8°16.1°; complex correlation coefficient γ: 0.62–0.96; and phase angle α: −24.3°17.8°). For these radars, the Δθ values are not constant but vary with azimuthal angles. The relative positions between the HF radar and ADCPs, as well as factors such as the presence of island terrain obstructing the signal, significantly influence the errors. The results of spectral analysis also demonstrate a high level of consistency and the capability of HF radar to capture diurnal and semidiurnal tidal frequencies. The tidal characteristics and the Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) results measured by the HF radars also resemble the ADCPs and align with the characteristics of the estuarine current field. Full article
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19 pages, 12966 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Ocean Processes on Fine-Scale Changes in the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass Boundary Area Structure Based on Acoustic Observations
by Lingyun Nie, Jianchao Li, Hao Wu, Wenchao Zhang, Yongjun Tian, Yang Liu, Peng Sun, Zhenjiang Ye, Shuyang Ma and Qinfeng Gao
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(17), 4272; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15174272 - 31 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1019
Abstract
The boundary of Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass (YSCWM) is a key ocean frontal structure influencing the regional ecosystem. Complex oceanic processes such as tidal currents, upwelling, and internal waves influence fine-scale hydrological structures, comprehensively resulting in a significantly highly productive area for [...] Read more.
The boundary of Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass (YSCWM) is a key ocean frontal structure influencing the regional ecosystem. Complex oceanic processes such as tidal currents, upwelling, and internal waves influence fine-scale hydrological structures, comprehensively resulting in a significantly highly productive area for plankton and fisheries. However, detailed research requires inaccessible high-resolution data. To investigate the fine-scale and high-frequency effects of oceanic processes on the local hydrological and ecological environment, we conducted comprehensive cruise acoustic observations and intensive station surveys of the hydrological environment around the YSCWM boundary in summer 2021 and 2022, and found that: (1) fine-scale hydrological structures across the YSCWM boundary were directly captured through this specific intensive station observation design; (2) clear zooplankton diel vertical migration (DVM) phenomena match well with the thermocline variation, showing that acoustics are effective indicators that reflect the water mass layering structure in summer in the YS; and (3) the shear excited by internal waves during propagation and flood tides enhances the upward and downward mixing of the water mass near the thermocline, thus thickening and weakening the layer, an effect that will be more pronounced when both are present at the same time, with ebb tide having the opposite effect. Topographically influenced tidal upwelling also causes significant vertical fluctuations in isotherms. This represents a new way of studying the fine-scale hydrodynamic–hydrologic–ecological aspects of key regions through acoustic remote sensing. Full article
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22 pages, 4890 KiB  
Article
Modulation of the Marine Environment in the Natal Bight
by Mark R. Jury
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(5), 1434; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15051434 - 03 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1016
Abstract
Modulation of the marine environment in the Natal Bight (~29.1°S, 31.6°E) was studied using daily high-resolution climate reanalysis products and monthly satellite green- and red-band reflectance in the period 2002–2022. The KwaZulu-Natal shelf edge is characterized by a narrow band of upwelling next [...] Read more.
Modulation of the marine environment in the Natal Bight (~29.1°S, 31.6°E) was studied using daily high-resolution climate reanalysis products and monthly satellite green- and red-band reflectance in the period 2002–2022. The KwaZulu-Natal shelf edge is characterized by a narrow band of upwelling next to the warm Agulhas Current. Strong, reversing longshore winds ~7 m/s and meandering poleward flow ~1 m/s pulse the system, but along the leeward coast that forms the Natal Bight, environmental conditions are buffered by a weak cyclonic gyre. Wind and current shear create a shadow zone that aggregates plankton, recycles nutrients, and sustains marine resources. The seasonal cycle is of high amplitude: the surface heat balance reaches +70 W/m2 in December, followed by river discharges ~3 M m3/yr of fresh nutrient-rich water that peak in February. This induces a buoyant surface layer that inhibits wind wave turbulence during summer. By contrast, winter (June–August) cooling −95 W/m2 and frequent cyclonic storminess deepen the mixed layer from 25 to 65 m, enabling wind wave turbulence to reach the seafloor (Tugela Bank). Red-band reflectance increases 3-fold from summer to winter and is significantly correlated with net heat balance −0.54, daily wave heights > 2.5 m +0.51, mixed layer depth +0.47, sea surface temp −0.41, and wind vorticity −0.39. Daily longshore winds from the northeast and southwest were, unexpectedly, most amplified in spring (August–October). The seasonality exhibits sequential effects that supports year-round marine nutrification in the Natal Bight. Intra-seasonal fluctuations were related to meandering of the Agulhas Current and changes in longshore winds and shelf waves that impart significant pulsing of near-shore currents at 4–9-day periods. Although the cyclonic gyre in the Natal Bight spins up and down, SST variance was found to be relatively low in its center, where external influences are buffered. Considering linear trends for winds and runoff and surface temperature over the period 1950–2021, we found that northeasterlies increased, runoff decreased, and inshore sea surface temperatures have warmed slowly relative to the adjacent land surface temperature. New insights derive from the use of monthly satellite red-band reflectance and daily 10 km climate reanalysis fields to understand how air–land–sea fluxes modulate the marine environment in the Natal Bight. Full article
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