Editor’s Choice Articles

Editor’s Choice articles are based on recommendations by the scientific editors of MDPI journals from around the world. Editors select a small number of articles recently published in the journal that they believe will be particularly interesting to readers, or important in the respective research area. The aim is to provide a snapshot of some of the most exciting work published in the various research areas of the journal.

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19 pages, 787 KiB  
Review
Chemically Activated Glass-Ionomer Cements as Bioactive Materials in Dentistry: A Review
by John Makanjuola and Sanjukta Deb
Prosthesis 2023, 5(1), 327-345; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis5010024 - 17 Mar 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4753
Abstract
The prospect of repair, regeneration, and remineralisation of the tooth tissue is currently transitioning from the exploratory stages to successful clinical applications with materials such as dentine substitutes that offer bioactive stimulation. Glass-ionomer or polyalkenoate cements are widely used in oral healthcare, especially [...] Read more.
The prospect of repair, regeneration, and remineralisation of the tooth tissue is currently transitioning from the exploratory stages to successful clinical applications with materials such as dentine substitutes that offer bioactive stimulation. Glass-ionomer or polyalkenoate cements are widely used in oral healthcare, especially due to their ability to adhere to the tooth structure and fluoride-releasing capacity. Since glass-ionomer cements exhibit an inherent ability to adhere to tooth tissue, they have been the subject of modifications to enhance bioactivity, biomineralisation, and their physical properties. The scope of this review is to assess systematically the modifications of glass-ionomer cements towards bioactive stimulation such as remineralisation, integration with tissues, and enhancement of antibacterial properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Materials for Dental and Maxillofacial Repair)
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17 pages, 4704 KiB  
Article
Bioengineering Applied to Oral Implantology, a New Protocol: “Digital Guided Surgery”
by Luca Fiorillo, Agron Meto and Marco Cicciù
Prosthesis 2023, 5(1), 234-250; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis5010018 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2117
Abstract
Rehabilitative dentistry has made enormous progress in recent years, not only due to the advent of new implant-prosthetic methods, but also thanks to new information technologies that support the doctor. This study aims to present a new implant protocol that involves the application [...] Read more.
Rehabilitative dentistry has made enormous progress in recent years, not only due to the advent of new implant-prosthetic methods, but also thanks to new information technologies that support the doctor. This study aims to present a new implant protocol that involves the application of bioengineering methods. With the application of the finite element analysis, it is possible to evaluate the distribution of the forces of a fixture and possible implant rehabilitation on each patient, even before performing the surgery. This protocol provides for the combination of radiographic images and three-dimensional files to obtain predictable results on possible rehabilitation, guiding its planning in the best possible way. Surely, the evolution of machines and computers will enable the surgeon to carry out and maintain these protocols in a chair-side manner, and to carry out safe and predictable rehabilitations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Oral Implantology: Current Aspects and Future Perspectives)
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15 pages, 14776 KiB  
Article
Evolving 3D-Printing Strategies for Structural and Cosmetic Components in Upper Limb Prosthesis
by Albert Manero, John Sparkman, Matt Dombrowski, Peter Smith, Pavan Senthil, Spencer Smith, Viviana Rivera and Albert Chi
Prosthesis 2023, 5(1), 167-181; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis5010013 - 3 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 7612
Abstract
The evolution of prosthetic limbs continues to develop, with novel manufacturing techniques being evaluated, including additive manufacturing. Additive manufacturing (AM), or 3D-printing, holds promise for enabling personalized and tailored medical device options. The requirements for personalized medicine, coupled with the limitations of small-batch [...] Read more.
The evolution of prosthetic limbs continues to develop, with novel manufacturing techniques being evaluated, including additive manufacturing. Additive manufacturing (AM), or 3D-printing, holds promise for enabling personalized and tailored medical device options. The requirements for personalized medicine, coupled with the limitations of small-batch manufacturing, have made the technique viable for exploration. In this manuscript, an approach is presented for incorporating additive manufacturing for prostheses, both as a final part and in applications as an intermediate manufacturing step. As a result, through the use of these methods a multi-gesture capable electromyographic prosthesis was designed and manufactured, currently being evaluated in clinical trials for pediatric patients. This paper explored the results of this unique method of applying additive manufacturing techniques, and assessed how the blend of different manufacturing techniques improved performance and reduced device weight. Creating unique and aesthetic cosmetic coverings for the device was achieved through using additive manufacturing as an intermediate manufacturing component and, then, applying thermoforming. Cosmesis components saw a 33% reduction in weight from this change in manufacturing. The approach is explored to blend multiple manufacturing techniques to create cosmesis components and structural components for the prosthesis. The techniques serve the design intent to reduce reported challenges with upper limb prosthesis devices and to encourage device retention. Recommendations for manufacturing strategies are discussed, including the limitations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printing Strategies for Limb Prostheses)
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19 pages, 2380 KiB  
Review
Infection of Vascular Prostheses: A Comprehensive Review
by Davide Costa, Michele Andreucci, Nicola Ielapi, Giuseppe Filiberto Serraino, Pasquale Mastroroberto, Umberto Marcello Bracale and Raffaele Serra
Prosthesis 2023, 5(1), 148-166; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis5010012 - 2 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 5487
Abstract
Vascular graft or endograft infection (VGEI) is a complex disease that complicates vascular-surgery and endovascular-surgery procedures and determines high morbidity and mortality. This review article provides the most updated general evidence on the pathogenesis, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of VGEI. Several microorganisms are [...] Read more.
Vascular graft or endograft infection (VGEI) is a complex disease that complicates vascular-surgery and endovascular-surgery procedures and determines high morbidity and mortality. This review article provides the most updated general evidence on the pathogenesis, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of VGEI. Several microorganisms are involved in VGEI development, but the most frequent one, responsible for over 75% of infections, is Staphylococcus aureus. Specific clinical, surgical, radiologic, and laboratory criteria are pivotal for the diagnosis of VGEI. Surgery and antimicrobial therapy are cornerstones in treatment for most patients with VGEI. For patients unfit for surgery, alternative treatment is available to improve the clinical course of VGEI. Full article
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22 pages, 48586 KiB  
Article
3D Printed Energy Return Elements for Upper Limb Sports Prosthetics
by Jung Wook Park, Ben Greenspan, Taylor Tabb, Eric Gallo and Andreea Danielescu
Prosthesis 2023, 5(1), 13-34; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis5010002 - 4 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3743
Abstract
Prosthetics are an extension of the human body and must provide functionality similar to that of a non-disabled individual to be effective. Sports prosthetics such as the Flex-Foot Cheetah from Össur have demonstrated the value of creating devices that both provide mechanical support [...] Read more.
Prosthetics are an extension of the human body and must provide functionality similar to that of a non-disabled individual to be effective. Sports prosthetics such as the Flex-Foot Cheetah from Össur have demonstrated the value of creating devices that both provide mechanical support and introduce passive energy return to mimic forces otherwise produced at joints. These energy return mechanisms have not yet been demonstrated for upper limb prosthetics but could improve their effectiveness and provide a greater range of motion and control. Using multi-material 3D printing technology, we extend energy return components to upper limb prosthetics by developing novel force-sensing springs and applying them to a basketball prosthetic. The 3D-printed springs compensate for the forces otherwise generated by wrist and finger flexion while measuring the mechanical deflection. We discuss design guidelines, methods for integrated 3D printed energy return within prosthetics, and broader applications in assistive technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printing Strategies for Limb Prostheses)
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15 pages, 6035 KiB  
Article
Conceptualization of an Anthropomorphic Replacement Hand with a Sensory Feedback System
by Lea Allmendinger, Simon Hazubski and Andreas Otte
Prosthesis 2022, 4(4), 695-709; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis4040055 - 30 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1678
Abstract
In this paper, a concept for an anthropomorphic replacement hand cast with silicone with an integrated sensory feedback system is presented. In order to construct the personalized replacement hand, a 3D scan of a healthy hand was used to create a 3D-printed mold [...] Read more.
In this paper, a concept for an anthropomorphic replacement hand cast with silicone with an integrated sensory feedback system is presented. In order to construct the personalized replacement hand, a 3D scan of a healthy hand was used to create a 3D-printed mold using computer-aided design (CAD). To allow for movement of the index and middle fingers, a motorized orthosis was used. Information about the applied force for grasping and the degree of flexion of the fingers is registered using two pressure sensors and one bending sensor in each movable finger. To integrate the sensors and additional cavities for increased flexibility, the fingers were cast in three parts, separately from the rest of the hand. A silicone adhesive (Silpuran 4200) was examined to combine the individual parts afterwards. For this, tests with different geometries were carried out. Furthermore, different test series for the secure integration of the sensors were performed, including measurements of the registered information of the sensors. Based on these findings, skin-toned individual fingers and a replacement hand with integrated sensors were created. Using Silpuran 4200, it was possible to integrate the needed cavities and to place the sensors securely into the hand while retaining full flexion using a motorized orthosis. The measurements during different loadings and while grasping various objects proved that it is possible to realize such a sensory feedback system in a replacement hand. As a result, it can be stated that the cost-effective realization of a personalized, anthropomorphic replacement hand with an integrated sensory feedback system is possible using 3D scanning and 3D printing. By integrating smaller sensors, the risk of damaging the sensors through movement could be decreased. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printing Strategies for Limb Prostheses)
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15 pages, 1438 KiB  
Review
Facial Scanners in Dentistry: An Overview
by Jason D. Lee, Olivia Nguyen, Yu-Chun Lin, Dianne Luu, Susie Kim, Ashley Amini and Sang J. Lee
Prosthesis 2022, 4(4), 664-678; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis4040053 - 15 Nov 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 7905
Abstract
Purpose: This narrative review aims to explore the current status of facial scanning technology in the dental field; outlining the history, mechanisms, and current evidence regarding its use and limitations within digital dentistry. Methods: Subtopics within facial scanner technology in dentistry were identified [...] Read more.
Purpose: This narrative review aims to explore the current status of facial scanning technology in the dental field; outlining the history, mechanisms, and current evidence regarding its use and limitations within digital dentistry. Methods: Subtopics within facial scanner technology in dentistry were identified and divided among four reviewers. Electronic searches of the Medline (PubMed) database were performed with the following search terms: facial scanner, dentistry, prosthodontics, virtual patient, sleep apnea, maxillofacial prosthetics, accuracy. For this review only studies or review papers evaluating facial scanning technology for dental or medical applications were included. A total of 44 articles were included. Due to the narrative nature of this review, no formal evidence-based quality assessment was performed and the search was limited to the English language. No further restrictions were applied. Results: The significance, applications, limitations, and future directions of facial scanning technology were reviewed. Specific subtopics include significant history of facial scanner use and development for dentistry, different types and mechanisms used in facial scanning technology, accuracy of scanning technology, use as a diagnostic tool, use in creating a virtual patient, virtual articulation, smile design, diagnosing and treating obstructive sleep apnea, limitations of scanning technology, and future directions with artificial intelligence. Conclusions: Despite limitations in scan quality and software operation, 3D facial scanners are rapid and non-invasive tools that can be utilized in multiple facets of dental care. Facial scanners can serve an invaluable role in the digital workflow by capturing facial records to facilitate interdisciplinary communication, virtual articulation, smile design, and obstructive sleep apnea diagnosis and treatment. Looking into the future, facial scanning technology has promising applications in the fields of craniofacial research, and prosthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Review Papers for Prosthesis)
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12 pages, 2850 KiB  
Article
Study of a Passive Orthosis for Reducing the Load Transfer in the Hip Joint
by Tiago Rodrigues, Jorge A. F. Ferreira and António Ramos
Prosthesis 2022, 4(4), 624-635; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis4040050 - 31 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1491
Abstract
There are several orthoses that allow for the assistance of movement on the lower limbs, mainly flexion–extension. However, there is still a lack of systems that allow, in addition to assisting movement, for transferring the load from weakened anatomical parts to physically healthy [...] Read more.
There are several orthoses that allow for the assistance of movement on the lower limbs, mainly flexion–extension. However, there is still a lack of systems that allow, in addition to assisting movement, for transferring the load from weakened anatomical parts to physically healthy joints. A model of a passive and light orthosis that is capable of transferring part of the load from the hip joint directly to the body of the femur was developed and tested. This helps to attenuate the longitudinal component of the force, thus reducing pain and the patient’s discomfort. Computer-aided design (CAD) models and numerical studies were conducted using an offline model of the hip forces, and a proof-of-concept prototype was also developed for experimental validation. The model uses a rigid ergonomic structure and an elastic energy-accumulating device, in this case, a spring, whose preload can be regulated for controlling the assistance’s level. The numeric simulations demonstrated the adequacy of the model for a spring pre-load of 20% of the force applied to the femoral head, reducing the load in the hip joint. The hypothesis of the present study, that the orthosis can reduce the reaction load on the hip joint, was validated by the computational model developed and by the preliminary experimental results obtained with the concept prototype. The approached model represents a promising starting point for subsequent studies and progression for the practical and clinical field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Orthopedics and Rehabilitation)
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16 pages, 7050 KiB  
Article
A Novel Approach to Guided Implant Surgery: A Technical Note
by Federico Franchini, Massimo Fuzzi, Renato Leone and Roberto Sorrentino
Prosthesis 2022, 4(4), 524-539; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis4040043 - 23 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2515
Abstract
Computer-guided software and kits have significantly improved the clinical applications of implant surgery. Nonetheless, some technical problems are still in evidence during clinical procedures because of cumbersome surgical tools that can limit access to implant sites, mainly in posterior areas of the mouth [...] Read more.
Computer-guided software and kits have significantly improved the clinical applications of implant surgery. Nonetheless, some technical problems are still in evidence during clinical procedures because of cumbersome surgical tools that can limit access to implant sites, mainly in posterior areas of the mouth in the presence of bulky anatomical structures and in patients with reduced mouth-opening capacity. The present paper aimed to present a novel approach to guided implant surgery, describing the technical characteristics of an innovative guided surgical kit made up of modified sleeves and modular surgical drills. The proposed guided surgical kit is based on a novel patented system of sleeves and modular burs, with an increased length of the metal sleeves and a reduced height of the drills. The innovative design of the proposed system would allow the clinician to position guided fixtures in all clinical situations; the reduced encumbrance would be particularly helpful to gain access to the posterior areas of both maxilla and mandible, which have limited inter-arch space, with an easy and user-friendly approach. The modular system could overcome anatomical limitations, such as reduced mouth-opening capacity, and permit clinicians to maintain the stability and integrity of the surgical templates, even in cases where there is very limited intermaxillary space. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Prosthodontics)
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13 pages, 6361 KiB  
Article
Effects of Hysteresis on the Dynamic Deformation of Artificial Polymeric Heart Valve
by Shahrul Hisyam Marwan and Mitsugu Todo
Prosthesis 2022, 4(4), 511-523; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis4040042 - 21 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1901
Abstract
The deformation behavior of an artificial heart valve was analyzed using the explicit dynamic finite element method. Time variations of the left ventricle and the aortic pressure were considered as the mechanical boundary conditions in order to reproduce the opening and closing movements [...] Read more.
The deformation behavior of an artificial heart valve was analyzed using the explicit dynamic finite element method. Time variations of the left ventricle and the aortic pressure were considered as the mechanical boundary conditions in order to reproduce the opening and closing movements of the valve under the full cardiac cycle. The valve was assumed to be made from a medical polymer and hence, a hyperelastic Mooney–Rivlin model was assigned as the material model. A simple formula of the damage mechanics was also introduced into the theoretical material model to express the hysteresis response under the unloading state. Effects of the hysteresis on the valve deformation were characterized by the delay of response and the enlargement of displacement. Most importantly, the elastic vibration observed in the pure elastic response under the full close state was dramatically reduced by the conversion of a part of elastic energy to the dissipated energy due to hysteresis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bioengineering and Biomaterials)
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12 pages, 15820 KiB  
Review
CAD/CAM Abutments versus Stock Abutments: An Update Review
by Simone Gallo, Maurizio Pascadopoli, Matteo Pellegrini, Federica Pulicari, Mattia Manfredini, Paolo Zampetti, Francesco Spadari, Carlo Maiorana and Andrea Scribante
Prosthesis 2022, 4(3), 468-479; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis4030038 - 16 Aug 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2309
Abstract
With the evolution of CAD/CAM technology, custom titanium and/or zirconia abutments are increasingly being used, leading to several comparisons in the literature, both mechanical and aesthetic, to evaluate performance differences between these two types of abutments. Therefore, the aim of this comprehensive review [...] Read more.
With the evolution of CAD/CAM technology, custom titanium and/or zirconia abutments are increasingly being used, leading to several comparisons in the literature, both mechanical and aesthetic, to evaluate performance differences between these two types of abutments. Therefore, the aim of this comprehensive review is to present the most recent data on the latest comparisons between CAD/CAM and stock abutment applications. The PICO model was used to perform this review, through a literature search of the PubMed (MEDLINE) and Scopus electronic databases. CAD/CAM abutments allow individualization of abutment parameters with respect to soft tissue, allow increased fracture toughness, predict the failure mode, show no change in the fracture toughness over time, reduce the prosthetic steps, and reduce the functional implant prosthesis score and pain perceived by patients in the early stages. The advantages associated with the use of stock abutments mainly concern the risk of corrosion, time spent, cost, and fit, evaluated in vitro, in the implant–abutment connection. Equal conditions are present regarding the mechanical characteristics during dynamic cycles, screw loss, radiographic fit, and degree of micromotion. Further randomized controlled clinical trials should be conducted to evaluate the advantages reported to date, following in vitro studies about titanium and/or zirconia stock abutments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Oral Implantology: Current Aspects and Future Perspectives)
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10 pages, 726 KiB  
Review
The Conometric Connection for the Implant-Supported Fixed Prosthesis: A Narrative Review
by Saturnino Marco Lupi, Claudia Todaro, Dario De Martis, Paola Blasi, Ruggero Rodriguez y Baena and Stefano Storelli
Prosthesis 2022, 4(3), 458-467; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis4030037 - 16 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2460
Abstract
Aim: The conometric concept was proposed as a possible connection between the abutment and the prosthetic coping. This research aimed to review the features and possible clinical uses of this connection in an implant-supported fixed prosthesis. Methods: An electronic search was conducted on [...] Read more.
Aim: The conometric concept was proposed as a possible connection between the abutment and the prosthetic coping. This research aimed to review the features and possible clinical uses of this connection in an implant-supported fixed prosthesis. Methods: An electronic search was conducted on an online database for the topic in object; articles published in international literature were considered and the research gave 17 results, and 6 parameters were analyzed. Results: This connection eliminated the possibility of cement residues in the subgingival region, reducing the risk of inflammation of peri-implant soft and hard tissues; not having to remove the cement residues, it is possible to place the margins in more apical portions, improving the aesthetics outcomes of the rehabilitations. It is also known that the retention by means of a screw causes a weakening of the restoration. The retentive force is adequate for fixed rehabilitation even after a high number of insertion–disengagement cycles; in vitro studies have also shown a high bacterial sealing. Implant rehabilitation using preformed components, such as conometric hoods, is helpful for CAD/CAM, so a digital workflow is possible. Several types of prosthesis were presented, all of which demonstrated adequate clinical performance in the follow-up observation. Conclusions: This type of connection seems to be suitable to support fixed implant rehabilitations, but long-term clinical studies are needed to validate this system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Review Papers for Prosthesis)
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20 pages, 1646 KiB  
Review
Contemporary Tools for the Cure against Pernicious Microorganisms: Micro-/Nanorobots
by Mustafa Sami Ozaydin, Lorin Doganturk, Fulden Ulucan-Karnak, Ozan Akdogan and Pelin Erkoc
Prosthesis 2022, 4(3), 424-443; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis4030034 - 5 Aug 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3546
Abstract
One of the most pressing concerns to global public health is the emergence of drug-resistant pathogenic microorganisms due to increased unconscious antibiotic usage. With the rising antibiotic resistance, existing antimicrobial agents lose their effectiveness over time. This indicates that newer and more effective [...] Read more.
One of the most pressing concerns to global public health is the emergence of drug-resistant pathogenic microorganisms due to increased unconscious antibiotic usage. With the rising antibiotic resistance, existing antimicrobial agents lose their effectiveness over time. This indicates that newer and more effective antimicrobial agents and methods should be investigated. Many studies have shown that micro-/nanorobots exhibit promise in the treatment of microbial infections with their great properties, such as the intrinsic antimicrobial activities owing to their oxidative stress induction and metal ion release capabilities, and effective and autonomous delivery of antibiotics to the target area. In addition, they have multiple simultaneous mechanisms of action against microbes, which makes them remarkable in antimicrobial activity. This review focuses on the antimicrobial micro-/nanorobots and their strategies to impede biofilm formation, following a brief introduction of the latest advancements in micro-/nanorobots, and their implementations against various bacteria, and other microorganisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antiviral and Antimicrobial Surface Design Strategies)
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20 pages, 4937 KiB  
Technical Note
Reimagining Prosthetic Control: A Novel Body-Powered Prosthetic System for Simultaneous Control and Actuation
by Vikranth H. Nagaraja, Jhonatan da Ponte Lopes and Jeroen H. M. Bergmann
Prosthesis 2022, 4(3), 394-413; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis4030032 - 29 Jul 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 13428
Abstract
Globally, the most popular upper-limb prostheses are powered by the human body. For body-powered (BP) upper-limb prostheses, control is provided by changing the tension of (Bowden) cables to open or close the terminal device. This technology has been around for centuries, and very [...] Read more.
Globally, the most popular upper-limb prostheses are powered by the human body. For body-powered (BP) upper-limb prostheses, control is provided by changing the tension of (Bowden) cables to open or close the terminal device. This technology has been around for centuries, and very few BP alternatives have been presented since. This paper introduces a new BP paradigm that can overcome certain limitations of the current cabled systems, such as a restricted operation space and user discomfort caused by the harness to which the cables are attached. A new breathing-powered system is introduced to give the user full control of the hand motion anywhere in space. Users can regulate their breathing, and this controllable airflow is then used to power a small Tesla turbine that can accurately control the prosthetic finger movements. The breathing-powered device provides a novel prosthetic option that can be used without limiting any of the user’s body movements. Here we prove that it is feasible to produce a functional breathing-powered prosthetic hand and show the models behind it along with a preliminary demonstration. This work creates a step-change in the potential BP options available to patients in the future. Full article
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21 pages, 37396 KiB  
Article
Prosthetic Sockets: Tensile Behavior of Vacuum Infiltrated Fused Deposition Modeling Sandwich Structure Composites
by Isaac A. Cabrera, Parker J. Hill, Win-Ying Zhao, Trinity C. Pike, Marc A. Meyers, Ramesh R. Rao and Albert Y. M. Lin
Prosthesis 2022, 4(3), 317-337; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis4030027 - 22 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3265
Abstract
The development of novel materials will enable a new generation of prosthetic devices to be built with additive manufacturing (AM). Vacuum infiltrated sandwich structure composites are a promising approach for building prosthetic sockets via AM. In this paper, we test the tensile properties [...] Read more.
The development of novel materials will enable a new generation of prosthetic devices to be built with additive manufacturing (AM). Vacuum infiltrated sandwich structure composites are a promising approach for building prosthetic sockets via AM. In this paper, we test the tensile properties of 18 different composite material configurations using ASTM D638. These composites were manufactured using a custom vacuum infiltration method and had varying filament materials, infiltrated matrix materials, and print directions. Several material-matrix-print composites showed higher ultimate tensile strengths and reduced anisotropy compared to full-infill control samples. However, the mechanical properties of these composites were limited by a large degree of porosity due to the manufacturing method. Still, the results were sufficiently promising to create a proof of concept prosthetic socket via the vacuum infiltration method. Future research should focus on reducing porosity defects and investigating additional material-matrix-print combinations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printing Strategies for Limb Prostheses)
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10 pages, 410 KiB  
Review
Prosthodontic Treatment in Patients with Temporomandibular Disorders and Orofacial Pain and/or Bruxism: A Review of the Literature
by Giuseppe Minervini, Luca Fiorillo, Diana Russo, Alessandro Lanza, Cesare D’Amico, Gabriele Cervino, Aida Meto and Fabrizio Di Francesco
Prosthesis 2022, 4(2), 253-262; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis4020025 - 7 Jun 2022
Cited by 43 | Viewed by 5741
Abstract
Temporomandibular disorders are a group of conditions affecting the temporomandibular joints, the jaw muscles, and related structures. Patients with temporomandibular signs and/or symptoms frequently present with indications for prosthetic treatment. The management of these patients aims to achieve patient comfort, occlusal stability, and [...] Read more.
Temporomandibular disorders are a group of conditions affecting the temporomandibular joints, the jaw muscles, and related structures. Patients with temporomandibular signs and/or symptoms frequently present with indications for prosthetic treatment. The management of these patients aims to achieve patient comfort, occlusal stability, and the complex restoration of the teeth. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the relationship between prosthodontics and temporomandibular disorders and/or bruxism with a focus on the cause-and-effect implications and the strategies for planning prosthetic treatments in patients with temporomandibular disorders and/or bruxism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Review Papers for Prosthesis)
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18 pages, 2001 KiB  
Review
Removable Partial Denture Frameworks in the Age of Digital Dentistry: A Review of the Literature
by Mohammed A. Akl and Charles G. Stendahl
Prosthesis 2022, 4(2), 184-201; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis4020019 - 20 Apr 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 12355
Abstract
Alloys of cobalt chromium have been used for decades to create frameworks for removable partial dentures. While cobalt chromium has multiple advantages, such as strength and light weight, the casting process is laborious and requires special care to ensure that human error is [...] Read more.
Alloys of cobalt chromium have been used for decades to create frameworks for removable partial dentures. While cobalt chromium has multiple advantages, such as strength and light weight, the casting process is laborious and requires special care to ensure that human error is minimized. Furthermore, the display of metal clasps in these frameworks may be considered a limitation at times, especially with esthetically demanding patients. The introduction of digital technology to manufacturing in dentistry has brought forward new methods of fabricating cobalt chromium frameworks, some of which eliminate the casting process. Moreover, the development of high-performance polymers for use as removable partial denture frameworks brings multiple advantages, but raises concerns over design guidelines and principles. This review examines alternatives to conventionally cast frameworks so that clinicians may make evidence-based decisions when choosing framework materials and fabrication methods in the rapidly advancing world of digital dentistry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Review Papers for Prosthesis)
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12 pages, 3527 KiB  
Article
Development and Evaluation of a Passive Mechanism for a Transfemoral Prosthetic Knee That Prevents Falls during Running Stance
by Mai Murabayashi, Takuya Mitani and Koh Inoue
Prosthesis 2022, 4(2), 172-183; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis4020018 - 14 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4159
Abstract
Existing prosthetic knees used by transfemoral amputees have function almost akin to non-friction hinge joints during the running stance phase. Therefore, transfemoral amputees who wish to run need sufficient strength in their hip extension muscles and appropriate prosthetic leg swing motion to avoid [...] Read more.
Existing prosthetic knees used by transfemoral amputees have function almost akin to non-friction hinge joints during the running stance phase. Therefore, transfemoral amputees who wish to run need sufficient strength in their hip extension muscles and appropriate prosthetic leg swing motion to avoid falling due to unintended prosthetic knee flexion. This requires much training and practice. The present study aimed to develop a passive mechanism for a transfemoral prosthetic knee to prevent unintended prosthetic knee flexion during the running stance phase. The proposed mechanism restricts only flexion during the prosthetic stance phase with a load on the prosthetic knee regardless of the joint angle of the prosthetic knee. The load on the prosthetic knee required to maintain locked flexion was analyzed. We developed a rough prototype and conducted an evaluation experiment with an intact participant attached to a simulated prosthetic limb and the prototype. The results of level walking showed that the proposed mechanism limits knee flexion, as designed. The results of the preliminary trial suggest that the proposed mechanism functions appropriately during running, where the load on the prosthetic knee is larger than that during walking. Full article
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9 pages, 1172 KiB  
Article
Clinical Results in Posterior-Stabilized Total Knee Arthroplasty with Cementless Tibial Component in Porous Tantalum: Comparison between Monoblock and Two Pegs vs. Modular and Three Pegs
by Giuseppe Solarino, Arianna Carlet, Lorenzo Moretti, Maria Paola Miolla, Guglielmo Ottaviani and Biagio Moretti
Prosthesis 2022, 4(2), 160-168; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis4020016 - 29 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2099
Abstract
Nowadays, total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is widely considered to be the gold standard for treatment of end-stage knee osteoarthritis. Although the optimal mode of fixation in TKA continues to be an important area of investigation, cementless fixation offers the possibility to gain biologic [...] Read more.
Nowadays, total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is widely considered to be the gold standard for treatment of end-stage knee osteoarthritis. Although the optimal mode of fixation in TKA continues to be an important area of investigation, cementless fixation offers the possibility to gain biologic fixation, preserve bone stock and mineral density, and potentially improve survivorship. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the clinical results of a posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty with cementless tibial component in porous tantalum, comparing two groups: Group A (30 patients), TKA with a monoblock component and two pegs, and Group B (22 patients), with a modular component and three pegs. Knee Society Score (KSS) and the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) were submitted to the patients, and radiographs were collected at the last follow-up. The mean follow-up was 26.32 (20–40) months. Significant differences were not detected between the postoperative KSS values in the two groups (p = 0.44). Evaluating KOOS outcomes, we found in Group A that the rating system showed a statistically significant improvement from a preoperative average rating of 51.4 (SD ± 15) to an average of 72.66 (SD ± 19) at final follow-up (p < 0.05). In Group B, the KOOS rating system showed a statistically significant improvement from a preoperative average rating of 48.3 (SD ± 18) to an average of 79.54 (SD ± 17) postoperatively (p < 0.05). Comparing KOOS final outcomes between groups, we found no statistically significant difference at the mean final follow-up (p = 0.20), with the exception of the sport-related section (p < 0.05). Radiological evaluation at the final follow-up did not show any sign of polyethylene wear, radiolucency, septic or aseptic loosening, or change in alignment in either group. The current study demonstrates an excellent survivorship of cementless tibial components in porous tantalum and the possibility of osseous integration, without significant differences between the two groups under investigation. Full article
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9 pages, 1335 KiB  
Article
Comparison of the Accuracy between Denture Bases Produced by Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing Methods: A Pilot Study
by Francesco Grande, Fabio Tesini, Mario Cesare Pozzan, Edoardo Mochi Zamperoli, Massimo Carossa and Santo Catapano
Prosthesis 2022, 4(2), 151-159; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis4020015 - 28 Mar 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3865
Abstract
Today, two different types of CAD-CAM fabrication methods for complete denture bases are available besides the conventional protocols: a subtractive milling process from a prepolymerized block of polymethylmethacrylate and an additive manufacturing process that built the denture base using a light-cured liquid in [...] Read more.
Today, two different types of CAD-CAM fabrication methods for complete denture bases are available besides the conventional protocols: a subtractive milling process from a prepolymerized block of polymethylmethacrylate and an additive manufacturing process that built the denture base using a light-cured liquid in a VAT-polymerization process. The aim of this study was to evaluate and to compare the accuracy and precision of denture prosthetic bases made with subtractive and additive manufacturing technologies and to compare them with a denture base with the conventional method in muffle. From the results obtained, 3D printing dentures show a statistically significant higher accuracy than milled prosthetic bases. Milled prosthetic bases have similar accuracy than conventional fabricated dentures. Full article
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15 pages, 7565 KiB  
Review
CAD/CAM Diagnostic Esthetic Functional Splint (DEFS) as a Removable Prototype to Evaluate the Final Prosthetic Rehabilitation: A Narrative Review
by Fernando Zarone, Roberto Sorrentino, Francesca Sorrentino, Maria Irene Di Mauro and Daniel Edelhoff
Prosthesis 2022, 4(1), 136-150; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis4010014 - 16 Mar 2022
Viewed by 3782
Abstract
The main objective of this narrative review was to provide an overview of DEFS (Diagnostic Esthetic Functional Splint), namely CAD/CAM manufactured, “snap-retained”, tooth-colored splints available by materials exhibiting a certain degree of elasticity (like polycarbonates or acetal resins) for restoring function, esthetics and [...] Read more.
The main objective of this narrative review was to provide an overview of DEFS (Diagnostic Esthetic Functional Splint), namely CAD/CAM manufactured, “snap-retained”, tooth-colored splints available by materials exhibiting a certain degree of elasticity (like polycarbonates or acetal resins) for restoring function, esthetics and occlusion in several clinical situations, before or as an intermediate alternative to undergoing the final treatment. The search strategy included all papers dealing with snap-retained prosthetic systems and was based on a literature review of papers available in electronic databases (Pubmed/Medline, Evidence-Based Dentistry, BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine, Dynamed, Embase, BMJ Clinical Evidence, Web of Science, Scientific reports); eligible papers were researched on Opengreyand a manual search was performed, as well. From the electronic databases emerged 13,199 records, many of which were duplicates. The grey literature and the manual research did not produce any eligible article. After duplicates removal, 7690 records were obtained. Titles, abstracts and keywords were analyzed. The studies concerning the topic of interest were examined by the reviewers and discussed. Although no evidence-based data were found in the literature, according to the authors’ clinical experience, the DEFS (Diagnostic Esthetic Functional Splint) is a very promising solution in multiple clinical situations, due to its diagnostic, therapeutical, functional and esthetic versatility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Review Papers for Prosthesis)
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11 pages, 1611 KiB  
Article
Gait Performance of Friction-Based Prosthetic Knee Joint Swing-Phase Controllers in Under-Resourced Settings
by Jan Andrysek, Alexandria Michelini, Arezoo Eshraghi, Sisary Kheng, Thearith Heang and Phearsa Thor
Prosthesis 2022, 4(1), 125-135; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis4010013 - 15 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3810
Abstract
Gait quality can influence walking ability and mobility outcomes making it an important part of prosthetic rehabilitation. Prosthetic knee joint designs can influence gait quality, and limited data exists to guide component selection in under-resourced settings. This study compared spatiotemporal and kinematic gait [...] Read more.
Gait quality can influence walking ability and mobility outcomes making it an important part of prosthetic rehabilitation. Prosthetic knee joint designs can influence gait quality, and limited data exists to guide component selection in under-resourced settings. This study compared spatiotemporal and kinematic gait parameters for two common types of friction-based swing-phase controlled prosthetic knee joints. Two-dimensional optical gait analysis was conducted as part of a cross-over study design involving 17 individuals with unilateral transfemoral amputations. Two prosthetic knee joints were compared. One utilized constant-friction (CF) and the other a variable cadence controller (VCC) for swing-phase control. Gait was analyzed at normal and fast walking speeds. Primary gait parameters included swing-phase time, step length, and knee flexion. Swing-phase time and peak knee flexion angles, as well as their related symmetry indices, were lower for the VCC compared to the CF (p < 0.01), by 11.1 to 94.1%. The VCC resulted in faster walking speeds by approximately 15% compared to the CF (p = 0.002). Friction-based swing-phase knee control mechanisms can facilitate an appropriate and cost-effective prosthetic knee joint solution in under-resourced settings. The findings suggest that friction-based mechanism can be designed to improve gait quality, and in turn overall walking performance. Full article
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11 pages, 284 KiB  
Review
On the Modeling of Transcatheter Therapies for the Aortic and Mitral Valves: A Review
by Chiara Catalano and Salvatore Pasta
Prosthesis 2022, 4(1), 102-112; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis4010011 - 7 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2421
Abstract
Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has become a milestone for the management of aortic stenosis in a growing number of patients who are unfavorable candidates for surgery. With the new generation of transcatheter heart valves (THV), the feasibility of transcatheter mitral valve replacement [...] Read more.
Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has become a milestone for the management of aortic stenosis in a growing number of patients who are unfavorable candidates for surgery. With the new generation of transcatheter heart valves (THV), the feasibility of transcatheter mitral valve replacement (TMVR) for degenerated mitral bioprostheses and failed annuloplasty rings has been demonstrated. In this setting, computational simulations are modernizing the preoperative planning of transcatheter heart valve interventions by predicting the outcome of the bioprosthesis interaction with the human host in a patient-specific fashion. However, computational modeling needs to carry out increasingly challenging levels including the verification and validation to obtain accurate and realistic predictions. This review aims to provide an overall assessment of the recent advances in computational modeling for TAVR and TMVR as well as gaps in the knowledge limiting model credibility and reliability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Review Papers for Prosthesis)
11 pages, 4920 KiB  
Review
Is the Number of Appointments for Complete Denture Fabrication Reduced with CAD-CAM? A Literature Review
by Aristeidis Villias, Hercules Karkazis, Stavros Yannikakis, Ioli Ioanna Artopoulou and Gregory Polyzois
Prosthesis 2022, 4(1), 91-101; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis4010010 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3978
Abstract
One of the key arguments in favor of digitally produced complete dentures (CDs) is the requirement for less patient visits in comparison to the conventional workflow. However, it is not yet clear if this argument is accurate; nor, if indeed the insertion of [...] Read more.
One of the key arguments in favor of digitally produced complete dentures (CDs) is the requirement for less patient visits in comparison to the conventional workflow. However, it is not yet clear if this argument is accurate; nor, if indeed the insertion of the complete dentures is achieved in fewer appointments, how many are required. The purpose of this literature review was to investigate the reported number of required patient visits for the production of digitally fabricated CDs. An electronic search was performed in PubMed/MEDLINE using three groups of keywords: “complete dentures”, “CAD/CAM”, and “Appointments” with their alternative forms. Out of the initial 157 results, 36 articles were automatically selected utilizing exclusion keywords. After consensus between the two examiners, eight articles were finally analyzed and presented in a table. The majority (75%) of the reports came from institutions, and the average number of appointments up to complete denture insertion was 4.1, not always including try-in dentures. In this study, it can be concluded that, with a digital workflow, the insertion appointment is reached in fewer visits than the conventional five-visit procedure which is commonly taught in dental schools. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Review Papers for Prosthesis)
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13 pages, 2141 KiB  
Article
Design and Initial Evaluation of a Low-Cost Microprocessor-Controlled Above-Knee Prosthesis: A Case Report of 2 Patients
by Lucas Galey and Roger V. Gonzalez
Prosthesis 2022, 4(1), 60-72; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis4010007 - 10 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 6616
Abstract
For prosthesis users, knee units can range from simple devices costing $2000 up to $45,000 for high-end, microprocessor-controlled systems. These higher-end electronic knees provide significant advantages in stability, gait, and metabolic rate compared to their passive or mechanical counterparts. However, the high cost [...] Read more.
For prosthesis users, knee units can range from simple devices costing $2000 up to $45,000 for high-end, microprocessor-controlled systems. These higher-end electronic knees provide significant advantages in stability, gait, and metabolic rate compared to their passive or mechanical counterparts. However, the high cost of such systems makes them inaccessible to most amputees. In this study, it was hypothesized that a microprocessor knee could be manufactured for less than $1000, with comparable stability and user experience to a high-end industry standard device. A prototype (E-Knee) was designed with a specific emphasis on stance stability, and was tested during patient gait trials. The gait trials used a repeated measures design to compare three knee devices (a simple passive knee, the prototype E-Knee, and a high-end knee). Ground reaction forces and a functionality questionnaire were used to compare devices. A microprocessor locking test was used to evaluate the prototype’s ability to prevent falls. Building on the LIMBS M3, a passive four-bar polycentric device, the E-Knee added sensing, computing, and controlling capabilities for a material cost of $507. Initial data from a two-subject trial served as proof-of-concept to validate the prototype and found that it improved gait by providing more stability than the M3 and had more gait-pattern similarities to the Ottobock C-Leg than to the M3. Patients reported no perceived differences in stability between the E-Knee and the C-Leg. Patient trials supported that the E-Knee prototype behaved more naturally than the low-end M3 device and had similar ground reaction forces to the C-Leg. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Orthopedics and Rehabilitation)
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12 pages, 1314 KiB  
Article
Real-World Testing of the Self Grasping Hand, a Novel Adjustable Passive Prosthesis: A Single Group Pilot Study
by Lisa O’Brien, Elena Montesano, Alix Chadwell, Laurence Kenney and Gerwin Smit
Prosthesis 2022, 4(1), 48-59; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis4010006 - 8 Feb 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3778
Abstract
(1) Background: This study investigated the feasibility of conducting a two-week “real-world” trial of the Self Grasping Hand (SGH), a novel 3D printed passive adjustable prosthesis for hand absence; (2) Methods: Single-group pilot study of nine adults with trans-radial limb absence; five used [...] Read more.
(1) Background: This study investigated the feasibility of conducting a two-week “real-world” trial of the Self Grasping Hand (SGH), a novel 3D printed passive adjustable prosthesis for hand absence; (2) Methods: Single-group pilot study of nine adults with trans-radial limb absence; five used body-powered split-hooks, and four had passive cosmetic hands as their usual prosthesis. Data from activity monitors were used to measure wear time and bilateral activity. At the end of the two-week trial, function and satisfaction were measured using the Orthotics and Prosthetics Users’ Survey Function Scale (OPUS) and the prosthesis satisfaction sub-scales of the Trinity Amputations and Prosthesis Experience Scale (TAPES). Semi-structured interviews captured consumer feedback and suggestions for improvement; (3) Results: Average SGH wear time over 2 weeks was 17.5 h (10% of total prosthesis wear time) for split-hook users and 83.5 h (63% of total prosthesis wear time) for cosmetic hand users. Mean satisfaction was 5.2/10, and mean function score was 47.9/100; (4) Two-week real-world consumer testing of the SGH is feasible using the methods described. Future SGH designs need to be more robust with easier grasp lock/unlock. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printing Strategies for Limb Prostheses)
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10 pages, 1753 KiB  
Article
First Detection of Methanogens in Orthopedic Prosthesis Infection: A Four-Case Founding Series
by Kenza Djemai, Frédérique Gouriet, Jean-Noël Argenson, Piseth Seng, Andreas Stein and Michel Drancourt
Prosthesis 2022, 4(1), 38-47; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis4010005 - 7 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2258
Abstract
Orthopedic prosthesis infection must be medically managed after appropriate microbiological documentation. While bacteria and fungi are acknowledged to be causative opportunistic pathogens in this situation, the potential role of methanogens in orthopedic prosthesis infections is still unknown. In a retrospective study, a total [...] Read more.
Orthopedic prosthesis infection must be medically managed after appropriate microbiological documentation. While bacteria and fungi are acknowledged to be causative opportunistic pathogens in this situation, the potential role of methanogens in orthopedic prosthesis infections is still unknown. In a retrospective study, a total of 100 joint and bone samples collected from 25 patients were screened by specific PCR assays for the detection of methanogens. PCR-positive samples were observed by autofluorescence, electron microscopy and tentatively cultured under specific culture conditions. Methanogens were detected by quantitative PCR in 4/100 samples, in the presence of negative controls. Sequencing identified Methanobrevibacter oralis in two cases, Methanobrevibacter smithii in one case and Methanobrevibacter wolinii in one case. Microscopic methods confirmed molecular findings and bacterial culture yielded two strains of Staphylococcus aureus, one strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis and one strain of Proteus mirabilis. These unprecedented data highlight the presence of methanogens in joint and bone samples of patients also diagnosed with bacterial orthopedic prosthesis infection, questioning the role of methanogens as additional opportunistic co-pathogens in this situation. Full article
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13 pages, 4917 KiB  
Article
Prosthetic Surgical Templates and Dental Implant Site Time Preparation: An In Vitro Study
by Łukasz Zadrożny, Marta Czajkowska, Marco Tallarico, Leopold Wagner, Jarosław Markowski, Eitan Mijiritsky and Marco Cicciù
Prosthesis 2022, 4(1), 25-37; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis4010004 - 30 Jan 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4103
Abstract
Numerous types of prosthodontics surgical guides, with and without metallic sleeves, have been found to be useful in clinical studies. The aim of this in vitro research was to compare the time required to complete the surgical procedure with two differently designed surgical [...] Read more.
Numerous types of prosthodontics surgical guides, with and without metallic sleeves, have been found to be useful in clinical studies. The aim of this in vitro research was to compare the time required to complete the surgical procedure with two differently designed surgical prosthetic templates. Ten identical prototype models of mandible based on a CBCT and optical scan of a partially edentulous patient with missing teeth numbers 37, 46, and 47 were prepared and then printed. Five of these models were used for implant site preparation with a surgical guide without metal sleeves and dedicated surgical kit, and the other five models were used for the same procedure performed with a surgical guide with metal sleeves and a dedicated surgical kit. The time of implant site preparation was measured and recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using Student’s t-test for independent samples. Differences between groups were found to be statistically significant (t = −9.94; df = 28; p = 0.0000) with a lower value in favor of the surgical templates without metallic sleeves. Different types of prosthodontics surgical guides, with or without metallic sleeves, seemed to be an important factor which can significantly impact the time of implant site preparation and, therefore, the overall surgical procedure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Advanced Materials in Prosthodontics)
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13 pages, 6728 KiB  
Article
Conceptualization of a Sensory Feedback System in an Anthropomorphic Replacement Hand
by Simon Hazubski, Derya Bamerni and Andreas Otte
Prosthesis 2021, 3(4), 415-427; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis3040037 - 7 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2819
Abstract
(1) Background: This paper presents a conceptual design for an anthropomorphic replacement hand made of silicone that integrates a sensory feedback system. In combination with a motorized orthosis, it allows performing movements and registering information on the flexion and the pressure of the [...] Read more.
(1) Background: This paper presents a conceptual design for an anthropomorphic replacement hand made of silicone that integrates a sensory feedback system. In combination with a motorized orthosis, it allows performing movements and registering information on the flexion and the pressure of the fingers. (2) Methods: To create the replacement hand, a three-dimensional (3D) scanner was used to scan the hand of the test person. With computer-aided design (CAD), a mold was created from the hand, then 3D-printed. Bending and force sensors were attached to the mold before silicone casting to implement the sensory feedback system. To achieve a functional and anthropomorphic appearance of the replacement hand, a material analysis was carried out. In two different test series, the properties of the used silicones were analyzed regarding their mechanical properties and the manufacturing process. (3) Results: Individual fingers and an entire hand with integrated sensors were realized, which demonstrated in several tests that sensory feedback in such an anthropomorphic replacement hand can be realized. Nevertheless, the choice of silicone material remains an open challenge, as there is a trade-off between the hardness of the material and the maximum mechanical force of the orthosis. (4) Conclusion: Apart from manufacturing-related issues, it is possible to cost-effectively create a personalized, anthropomorphic replacement hand, including sensory feedback, by using 3D scanning and 3D printing techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Orthopedics and Rehabilitation)
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9 pages, 4392 KiB  
Article
Endodontic Irrigants and Their Activation Efficacy on Cleansing Post-Space Root Canal Walls
by Manuela Marchese, Pontoriero I. K. Denise, Edoardo Ferrari Cagidiaco, Alfredo Iandolo, Simone Grandini and Marco Ferrari
Prosthesis 2021, 3(4), 406-414; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis3040036 - 1 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2163
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of activated irrigants (EDTA e NaOCL) during the cleansing of root walls, of the smear layer, of the debris, and gutta-percha after the preparation of the restorative space. Twenty single and multi-rooted ( [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of activated irrigants (EDTA e NaOCL) during the cleansing of root walls, of the smear layer, of the debris, and gutta-percha after the preparation of the restorative space. Twenty single and multi-rooted (n = 20) have been collected. All samples were prepared by the same operator, using Nickel-titanium rotating instruments (Mtwo) through the Simultaneous Shaping Technique. The continuous-wave of condensation technique of obturation was used. To all specimens, the restorative space has been made, leaving 5 mm of apical gutta-percha, and postoperative periapical X-rays were performed. The samples were randomly divided into two groups: Group (A): cleansing of the root walls with ultrasonic activation of the irrigants (NEWTRON P5 XS; Satelec Acteon); Group (B): radicular walls wash without ultrasonic activation of endodontic irrigants (NaOCl 5.25% and EDTA 17%). Both dental sample groups were cut longitudinally with a low-speed saw (Isomet); the samples were observed by using a scanning electron microscope (Jeol, Jsm-6060LV) in order to evaluate: (1) the amount of debris/smear layer; (2) the mount of obstruction of dentinal tubules found in the two groups; and (3) evaluation of the presence of gutta-percha. Then, the other five samples each group (with and without ultrasonic activation) were prepared following the same protocol. Then, a universal bonding system (G-Praemio Bond, GC) and a layer of a flowable resin composite (Gaenial Flow, GC) were light-cured and used on top of the prepared root canal walls. The samples were cut in two pieces along the long axis of the root. Then, half sample teeth were kept in an acidic solution (37% HCl) for 48 h in order to completely dissolve dental structures and to have a direct view of resin tags formation under SEM. The other half was prepared to observe the adhesive interface under SEM. The amount of debris was not satisfactory in 9 out of 10 cases in Group B, while in Group A, which has been treated with ultrasounds, the result was either good or great in most of the samples. For the sample group treated with ultrasound, the tubules were evaluated as perfectly clean in 9 out of 10 cases, instead, the results are unsatisfactory for 9 out of 10 cases of group B not treated with ultrasound. Differences between Group A and B were statistically significant. With respect to the presence of debris and tubules obstruction treatment with ultrasonic activation, it offers with no doubt better results. When ultrasonic activation is used in combination with endodontic irrigants, a clean dentin substrate is be obtained for the adhesion of restorative materials, but in order to confirm the findings of this study, further in vivo trials are needed. Full article
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6 pages, 2050 KiB  
Case Report
Prosthetic Rehabilitation of an Unusually Self-Obturated Cleft Palate Defect in an Adult Edentulous Patient Living in a Remote Rural Area. A Clinical Report
by Ioli Ioanna Artopoulou, Andromachi Salia and Gregory Polyzois
Prosthesis 2021, 3(4), 388-393; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis3040034 - 16 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3074
Abstract
Patients with unrepaired cleft palate defects still exist within remote rural areas. The prosthodontic rehabilitation of an adult edentulous cleft patient could be very demanding for treating maxillofacial prosthodontist, since most of them are edentulous, challenging the retention and the stability of the [...] Read more.
Patients with unrepaired cleft palate defects still exist within remote rural areas. The prosthodontic rehabilitation of an adult edentulous cleft patient could be very demanding for treating maxillofacial prosthodontist, since most of them are edentulous, challenging the retention and the stability of the maxillary prosthesis. It is therefore highly important that cleft palate patients seek dental and prosthodontic care as early in their life as possible. In this report, an unusual case of a patient self-obturated cleft palate defect is presented. The patient’s self-made prosthesis was replaced by an appropriately fabricated pharyngeal obturator prosthesis in order to improve speech and swallowing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Prosthodontics)
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14 pages, 50255 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Fatigue Life for Dental Implants Using FEM Analysis
by Babak Ziaie and S. Mohammad Reza Khalili
Prosthesis 2021, 3(4), 300-313; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis3040028 - 23 Sep 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3648
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to numerically analyze a 3D model of an implant under fatigue loads. A bone and a V shape implant were modeled using SolidWorks2008 software. In order to obtain an exact model, the bone was assumed as a [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to numerically analyze a 3D model of an implant under fatigue loads. A bone and a V shape implant were modeled using SolidWorks2008 software. In order to obtain an exact model, the bone was assumed as a linear orthotropic material. Mechanical loads were applied in terms of fastening torque to the abutment and mastication force applied at the top of the crown. The abutment was tightened into the implant by applying a 35 N.cm torque causing tensile stress within the abutment screw as a preload that is harmful not only for the fatigue life of the abutment, but also for the stability of the implant-abutment interface. A 700 N force at an angle of 30 degrees to the vertical direction was applied to the crown. The mechanical analysis results showed that the abutment is the critical component of the implant system in terms of fatigue failure. This is due to the fact that the tensile preloads originated from the fastening torque. The results were presented in terms of fatigue life in the abutment. Fatigue life of the abutment and implant were calculated based on the Goodman, Soderberg, Smith–Watson–Topper (SWT), and Marrow theories. According to the results of the fatigue life prediction, abutment screws may fail after about 3 × 105 cycles. The predicted results by the Goodman theory are at a very good accordance with the clinical data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Prosthodontics)
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20 pages, 6645 KiB  
Article
Characterising Residual Limb Morphology and Prosthetic Socket Design Based on Expert Clinician Practice
by Alexander Dickinson, Laura Diment, Robin Morris, Emily Pearson, Dominic Hannett and Joshua Steer
Prosthesis 2021, 3(4), 280-299; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis3040027 - 23 Sep 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 10825
Abstract
Functional, comfortable prosthetic limbs depend on personalised sockets, currently designed using an iterative, expert-led process, which can be expensive and inconvenient. Computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) offers enhanced repeatability, but far more use could be made from clinicians’ extensive digital design records. Knowledge-based [...] Read more.
Functional, comfortable prosthetic limbs depend on personalised sockets, currently designed using an iterative, expert-led process, which can be expensive and inconvenient. Computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) offers enhanced repeatability, but far more use could be made from clinicians’ extensive digital design records. Knowledge-based socket design using smart templates could collate successful design features and tailor them to a new patient. Based on 67 residual limb scans and corresponding sockets, this paper develops a method of objectively analysing personalised design approaches by expert prosthetists, using machine learning: principal component analysis (PCA) to extract key categories in anatomic and surgical variation, and k-means clustering to identify local ‘rectification’ design features. Rectification patterns representing Total Surface Bearing and Patella Tendon Bearing design philosophies are identified automatically by PCA, which reveals trends in socket design choice for different limb shapes that match clinical guidelines. Expert design practice is quantified by measuring the size of local rectifications identified by k-means clustering. Implementing smart templates based on these trends requires clinical assessment by prosthetists and does not substitute training. This study provides methods for population-based socket design analysis, and example data, which will support developments in CAD/CAM clinical practice and accuracy of biomechanics research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Orthopedics and Rehabilitation)
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13 pages, 6326 KiB  
Review
Implant Fracture: A Narrative Literature Review
by Marco Tallarico, Silvio Mario Meloni, Chang-Joo Park, Łukasz Zadrożny, Roberto Scrascia and Marco Cicciù
Prosthesis 2021, 3(4), 267-279; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis3040026 - 22 Sep 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 5756
Abstract
Implants fracture is a rare but possible complication that leads to implants failure after prostheses delivery. Mechanical properties play a key role in the failure of dental implant systems. The aim of this narrative review was to evaluate the existing evidence in identifying [...] Read more.
Implants fracture is a rare but possible complication that leads to implants failure after prostheses delivery. Mechanical properties play a key role in the failure of dental implant systems. The aim of this narrative review was to evaluate the existing evidence in identifying etiology risk factors for implants fracture. The focused question was to evaluate whether there was any possible factors influencing the fracture of dental implants. A literature search of papers written in English, published from 1967 to July 2021, and reporting incidence of implants fracture in human with at least 15 participants (and one year of follow-up) was conducted using PubMed database including MeSH and free text terms and filters. Selected manuscripts were analyzed and discussed. The outcomes were the incidence of implants failure due to a fracture and the associated risk factors. A total of 96 articles were initially selected, but only eight articles were included according to the search criteria (two systematic reviews and six retrospective evaluation). Incidence of implants fracture ranged from 0.2 to 2.3%, with a mean value of 0.52%. Poor implant planning, including implant design and diameter, and occlusal overloading, were the most common variables associated with implants fracture. Implant removal is the only possible treatment and hence prevention, including stability of the marginal bone loss, is mandatory. Full article
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7 pages, 492 KiB  
Communication
Medical Device Regulation from a Health Service Provider’s Perspective
by Man Ting Kwong, David Stell and Emmanuel Akinluyi
Prosthesis 2021, 3(3), 261-266; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis3030025 - 14 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3583
Abstract
Unfamiliarity with medical device regulations can sometimes be a barrier to deploying technology in a clinical setting for researchers and innovators. Health service providers recognise that innovation can happen within smaller organisations, where regulatory support may be limited. This article sets out to [...] Read more.
Unfamiliarity with medical device regulations can sometimes be a barrier to deploying technology in a clinical setting for researchers and innovators. Health service providers recognise that innovation can happen within smaller organisations, where regulatory support may be limited. This article sets out to increase transparency and outline key considerations on medical device regulations from a UK healthcare provider’s perspective. The framework used by Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust (GSTFT) for assessing research devices is presented to give an overview of the routes that R&D medical devices take to enter a clinical setting. Furthermore, current trends on research studies involving medical devices were extracted from the GSTFT internal R&D database and presented as the following categories (i) commercial vs. non-commercial, (ii) assessment type and (iii) software vs. non-software. New medical devices legislation will be introduced within the UK in July 2023. It is anticipated regulating software as a medical device may become more challenging for healthcare providers and device manufacturers alike. It is therefore important for different stakeholders involved to work together to ensure this does not become a barrier to innovation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regulatory Data Science for Medical Devices)
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17 pages, 4713 KiB  
Article
Optimization of the Manufacturing Process by Molding Cobalt-Chrome Alloys in Assembled Dental Frameworks
by Willi Andrei Uriciuc, Adina Bianca Boșca, Anida Maria Babtan, Claudia Nicoleta Feurden, Anca Ionel, Horațiu Vermeșan, Cătălin Ovidiu Popa and Aranka Ilea
Prosthesis 2021, 3(3), 245-260; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis3030024 - 10 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2844
Abstract
In oral rehabilitation, the treatment of partial edentulism (PEd) is performed by removable partial dentures (RPD) or assembled prosthetic works (APW) composed of several components, fixed to the prosthetic field (Pa) and a removable one (Pb), in order to facilitate the daily hygiene [...] Read more.
In oral rehabilitation, the treatment of partial edentulism (PEd) is performed by removable partial dentures (RPD) or assembled prosthetic works (APW) composed of several components, fixed to the prosthetic field (Pa) and a removable one (Pb), in order to facilitate the daily hygiene but also the damping of the occlusal forces applied in mastication. Cobalt-Chromium alloys are materials used to manufacture modern prosthetic assembles. In order for this study to be relevant, it was necessary to standardize the design of the framework (Pa) in terms of shape and volume so that the experiment could be reproducible for the five Co-Cr alloys: 0-A (Co-Cr-Mo), 5-A and 10-A (Co-Cr-Mo-W), 15-A and 16.4-A (Co-Cr-W-Fe) and for the three fabrication methods of dental assembled prosthetic frameworks: refractory duplicate method (RD) resulting removable framework (Pb), direct construction method (DC) resulting removable framework (Pb-) and casting over metal method (CoM) resulting removable framework (Pb+). The time allocated to the adaptation process (AP), mechanical processing and sandblasting, in order to assemble the two components was between 43–70 min, even though the assembly between the Pa-framework and the complementary framework (Pb+) was not necessary, CoM-method hs been provide the elimination of AP step. By applying the arithmetic simple rule of three, the percentages for each of the three methods used were calculated, the values of the difference were obtained. The CoM method improves the joining precision between the components of the removable assembly of prosthetic frameworks by 91.7% compared to the RD method and by 80.62% compared to the DC method. According to the efficiency of the methods used in the precision of joining between frameworks components, their order is: casting over metal, direct construction and refractory duplicate method. Full article
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8 pages, 254 KiB  
Review
Evaluating the Presence of Software-as-a-Medical-Device in the Australian Therapeutic Goods Register
by Aaron Ceross and Jeroen Bergmann
Prosthesis 2021, 3(3), 221-228; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis3030022 - 24 Aug 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3356
Abstract
In recent years, medical device regulatory bodies have recognised software-as-a-medical-device (SaMD) as a distinct subgroup of devices. The field of SaMD has been rapidly evolving and encompasses a range of different digital solutions. Many organisations have now started to look into digital healthcare, [...] Read more.
In recent years, medical device regulatory bodies have recognised software-as-a-medical-device (SaMD) as a distinct subgroup of devices. The field of SaMD has been rapidly evolving and encompasses a range of different digital solutions. Many organisations have now started to look into digital healthcare, as a way to solve key global challenges. However, there remains uncertainty regarding how many of these SaMD products are entering the market and to what extent these systems achieve a desired level of general safety once they are in the market. In this study, we utilise data collected from publicly available databases. The data are evaluated for trends and a descriptive analysis is performed of the recall and adverse events associated specifically with SaMD. We find that there is a significant positive trend (p < 0.05) of SaMD registrations, although the number of SaMD registrations remains relative low compared to non-SaMD. This rise in SaMD registrations coincides with increasing levels of recalls and adverse events. More importantly, it becomes apparent that adverse events notification is not yet fit for purpose with regards to SaMD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regulatory Data Science for Medical Devices)
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12 pages, 6289 KiB  
Case Report
Tissue Recession around a Dental Implant in Anterior Maxilla: How to Manage Soft Tissue When Things Go Wrong?
by Umberto Uccioli, Alberto Fonzar, Stefania Lanzuolo, Silvio Mario Meloni, Aurea Immacolata Lumbau, Marco Cicciù and Marco Tallarico
Prosthesis 2021, 3(3), 209-220; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis3030021 - 23 Aug 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4372
Abstract
Dental implants represent the gold standard for the treatment of single edentulism, even in anterior areas. Today, the basic criteria for implant success has changed from mobility, pain, radiolucency, and peri-implant bone loss (>1.5 mm) to prosthetic level success, aesthetics, soft tissue parameters, [...] Read more.
Dental implants represent the gold standard for the treatment of single edentulism, even in anterior areas. Today, the basic criteria for implant success has changed from mobility, pain, radiolucency, and peri-implant bone loss (>1.5 mm) to prosthetic level success, aesthetics, soft tissue parameters, as well as patient satisfaction. This case report documents a combination of surgical and prosthetic procedures for the treatment of gingival recessions in the anterior maxilla, appearing after tooth extraction, socket preservation, and staged guided implant placement. Prosthetic management of the temporary restoration, orthodontic treatment, and a connective tissue graft were performed. The decision-making process and step-by-step execution of the treatments are presented to describe the entire clinical and surgical management of the reported case. Finally, good aesthetic outcomes, patient satisfaction, and recovery of the soft tissue recession were observed with the combination of these techniques. Full article
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9 pages, 813 KiB  
Review
Potential and Limitations of Feedback-Supported Gait Retraining in Users of Lower Limb Prostheses
by Kaitlyn Marie Rayl and Goeran Fiedler
Prosthesis 2021, 3(2), 181-189; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis3020018 - 21 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3474
Abstract
The outcomes of prosthetic rehabilitation after lower limb loss are, in large part, affected by the effectiveness of the provided gait retraining. The noted prevalence of adverse long-term effects, such as further joint and muscle degeneration, suggests that traditional rehabilitation programs have limitations. [...] Read more.
The outcomes of prosthetic rehabilitation after lower limb loss are, in large part, affected by the effectiveness of the provided gait retraining. The noted prevalence of adverse long-term effects, such as further joint and muscle degeneration, suggests that traditional rehabilitation programs have limitations. Recent advances in technology and in the understanding of motor learning promise the potential for better gait retraining interventions. This article reviews current literature on systems and methodologies of improving gait parameters in those with lower limb prostheses via exercise programs and various biofeedback systems. A total of 13 articles were included in the qualitative analysis. Findings indicate that many of the investigated systems are able to effectively analyze and change gait in the target population, but there remain considerable gaps in the knowledge. It has been noted that feedback modalities and dosage must be customized based on patient characteristics and rehabilitation goals, yet there is currently not enough published evidence to inform such customization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Orthopedics and Rehabilitation)
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16 pages, 2577 KiB  
Article
A Parametric Study on a Dental Implant Geometry Influence on Bone Remodelling through a Numerical Algorithm
by Dario Santonocito, Fabiana Nicita and Giacomo Risitano
Prosthesis 2021, 3(2), 157-172; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis3020016 - 4 Jun 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3621
Abstract
To ensure the long-term success of a dental implant, it is imperative to understand how chewing loads are transferred through the implant prosthetic components to the surrounding bone tissue. The stress distribution depends on several factors, such as load type, bone–implant interface, shape [...] Read more.
To ensure the long-term success of a dental implant, it is imperative to understand how chewing loads are transferred through the implant prosthetic components to the surrounding bone tissue. The stress distribution depends on several factors, such as load type, bone–implant interface, shape and materials of the fixture and quality and quantity of the bone. These aspects are of fundamental importance to ensure implant stability and to evaluate the remodelling capacity of the bone tissue to adapt to its biomechanical environment. A bone remodelling algorithm was formulated by the authors and implemented by means of finite element simulations on four different implants with several design characteristics. Internal bone microstructure and density, apposition/resorption of tissue and implant stability were evaluated over a period of 12 months, showing the influence of the geometry on bone tissue evolution over time. Bone remodelling algorithms may be a useful aid for clinicians to prevent possible implant failures and define an adequate implant prosthetic rehabilitation for each patient. In this work, for the first time, external bone remodelling was numerically predicted over time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tissue and Immunological Features of the Human/Prosthesis Interface)
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20 pages, 1825 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Orthopedic Prosthesis Socket Management after Transfemoral Amputation by Expert Survey
by Alina Carabello, Julia Schellnock, Stefan Schleifenbaum, Ann-Kathrin Hömme, Thomas Felderhoff, Benjamin Sefa Menküc and Welf-Guntram Drossel
Prosthesis 2021, 3(2), 137-156; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis3020015 - 12 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3164
Abstract
Prosthesis treatment requires the close interaction of different actors. In fitting prostheses to patients, special attention is given to the manufacturing of the socket. The continuous development of the technologies involved in the fitting and optimization of prostheses is shown in the literature. [...] Read more.
Prosthesis treatment requires the close interaction of different actors. In fitting prostheses to patients, special attention is given to the manufacturing of the socket. The continuous development of the technologies involved in the fitting and optimization of prostheses is shown in the literature. The assessment of orthopedic technicians and their influence in the process is thus far largely unexplored. Ten orthopedic technicians were interviewed about the socket fitting process after transfemoral amputation. The research goal was to clarify the socket treatment process with regards to the German context. The results showed that the orthopedic technicians focussing on the patient during the fitting process. This study underlines the importance of interaction and empathy. Volume fluctuations are decisive within the treatment process and are interactively influenced by various factors. Furthermore, the research emphasizes the need for appropriate assistive technologies and the potential for the further development of existing systems. Full article
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9 pages, 1038 KiB  
Perspective
Co-Creation Facilitates Translational Research on Upper Limb Prosthetics
by Hannah Jones, Sigrid Dupan, Maxford Coutinho, Sarah Day, Deirdre Desmond, Margaret Donovan-Hall, Matthew Dyson, Thea Ekins-Coward, Laurence Kenney, Agamemnon Krasoulis, Doug McIntosh, Kaveh Memarzadeh, Edward Small, Gemma Wheeler, Hancong Wu and Kianoush Nazarpour
Prosthesis 2021, 3(2), 110-118; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis3020012 - 2 Apr 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 5140
Abstract
People who either use an upper limb prosthesis and/or have used services provided by a prosthetic rehabilitation centre, hereafter called users, are yet to benefit from the fast-paced growth in academic knowledge within the field of upper limb prosthetics. Crucially over the past [...] Read more.
People who either use an upper limb prosthesis and/or have used services provided by a prosthetic rehabilitation centre, hereafter called users, are yet to benefit from the fast-paced growth in academic knowledge within the field of upper limb prosthetics. Crucially over the past decade, research has acknowledged the limitations of conducting laboratory-based studies for clinical translation. This has led to an increase, albeit rather small, in trials that gather real-world user data. Multi-stakeholder collaboration is critical within such trials, especially between researchers, users, and clinicians, as well as policy makers, charity representatives, and industry specialists. This paper presents a co-creation model that enables researchers to collaborate with multiple stakeholders, including users, throughout the duration of a study. This approach can lead to a transition in defining the roles of stakeholders, such as users, from participants to co-researchers. This presents a scenario whereby the boundaries between research and participation become blurred and ethical considerations may become complex. However, the time and resources that are required to conduct co-creation within academia can lead to greater impact and benefit the people that the research aims to serve. Full article
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10 pages, 228 KiB  
Perspective
Bioactivity—Symphony or Cacophony? A Personal View of a Tangled Field
by Brian W Darvell
Prosthesis 2021, 3(1), 75-84; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis3010008 - 2 Mar 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2861
Abstract
In the pursuit of better treatments, the concept of a chemically-active material, responding to local conditions by causing reactions, or reacting to produce substances that are deemed beneficial, seems laudable. Ultimately, the goal appears to be to recruit natural biological processes such that [...] Read more.
In the pursuit of better treatments, the concept of a chemically-active material, responding to local conditions by causing reactions, or reacting to produce substances that are deemed beneficial, seems laudable. Ultimately, the goal appears to be to recruit natural biological processes such that a natural ‘repair’ is effected. This goal seems to be the reason for prefixing “bio-” to many terms with a view to advertising the desire, yet without presenting evidence that it has occurred, or indeed that it is capable of occurring, relying instead on non-biological processes to justify the claims. The dogma is such that all work where local ‘responsive’ chemistry is involved must receive the label “bioactive” to legitimize and promote. Nevertheless, the primary evidence adduced is flawed, and the claim must fail. A rethink to restore scientific sense and confidence in the endeavour is essential if real progress is to be made. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Materials for Dental and Maxillofacial Repair)
28 pages, 5357 KiB  
Review
Nanotechnology-Based Antimicrobial and Antiviral Surface Coating Strategies
by Pelin Erkoc and Fulden Ulucan-Karnak
Prosthesis 2021, 3(1), 25-52; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis3010005 - 1 Feb 2021
Cited by 84 | Viewed by 14791
Abstract
Biocontamination of medical devices and implants is a growing issue that causes medical complications and increased expenses. In the fight against biocontamination, developing synthetic surfaces, which reduce the adhesion of microbes and provide biocidal activity or combinatory effects, has emerged as a major [...] Read more.
Biocontamination of medical devices and implants is a growing issue that causes medical complications and increased expenses. In the fight against biocontamination, developing synthetic surfaces, which reduce the adhesion of microbes and provide biocidal activity or combinatory effects, has emerged as a major global strategy. Advances in nanotechnology and biological sciences have made it possible to design smart surfaces for decreasing infections. Nevertheless, the clinical performance of these surfaces is highly depending on the choice of material. This review focuses on the antimicrobial surfaces with functional material coatings, such as cationic polymers, metal coatings and antifouling micro-/nanostructures. One of the highlights of the review is providing insights into the virus-inactivating surface development, which might particularly be useful for controlling the currently confronted pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The nanotechnology-based strategies presented here might be beneficial to produce materials that reduce or prevent the transmission of airborne viral droplets, once applied to biomedical devices and protective equipment of medical workers. Overall, this review compiles existing studies in this broad field by focusing on the recent related developments, draws attention to the possible activity mechanisms, discusses the key challenges and provides future recommendations for developing new, efficient antimicrobial and antiviral surface coatings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antiviral and Antimicrobial Surface Design Strategies)
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9 pages, 11987 KiB  
Article
3D Multi-Material Printing of an Anthropomorphic, Personalized Replacement Hand for Use in Neuroprosthetics Using 3D Scanning and Computer-Aided Design: First Proof-of-Technical-Concept Study
by Jana Baron, Simon Hazubski and Andreas Otte
Prosthesis 2020, 2(4), 362-370; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis2040034 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3817
Abstract
Background: This paper presents a novel approach for a hand prosthesis consisting of a flexible, anthropomorphic, 3D-printed replacement hand combined with a commercially available motorized orthosis that allows gripping. Methods: A 3D light scanner was used to produce a personalized replacement [...] Read more.
Background: This paper presents a novel approach for a hand prosthesis consisting of a flexible, anthropomorphic, 3D-printed replacement hand combined with a commercially available motorized orthosis that allows gripping. Methods: A 3D light scanner was used to produce a personalized replacement hand. The wrist of the replacement hand was printed of rigid material; the rest of the hand was printed of flexible material. A standard arm liner was used to enable the user’s arm stump to be connected to the replacement hand. With computer-aided design, two different concepts were developed for the scanned hand model: In the first concept, the replacement hand was attached to the arm liner with a screw. The second concept involved attaching with a commercially available fastening system; furthermore, a skeleton was designed that was located within the flexible part of the replacement hand. Results: 3D-multi-material printing of the two different hands was unproblematic and inexpensive. The printed hands had approximately the weight of the real hand. When testing the replacement hands with the orthosis it was possible to prove a convincing everyday functionality. For example, it was possible to grip and lift a 1-L water bottle. In addition, a pen could be held, making writing possible. Conclusions: This first proof-of-concept study encourages further testing with users. Full article
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9 pages, 4307 KiB  
Review
3D Computer-Aided Design Reconstructions and 3D Multi-Material Polymer Replica Printings of the First “Iron Hand” of Franconian Knight Gottfried (Götz) von Berlichingen (1480–1562): An Overview
by Andreas Otte
Prosthesis 2020, 2(4), 304-312; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis2040027 - 12 Oct 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3635
Abstract
Knight Götz von Berlichingen (1480–1562) lost his right hand distal to the wrist due to a cannon ball splinter injury in 1504 in the Landshut War of Succession at the age of 24. Early on, Götz commissioned a gunsmith to build the first [...] Read more.
Knight Götz von Berlichingen (1480–1562) lost his right hand distal to the wrist due to a cannon ball splinter injury in 1504 in the Landshut War of Succession at the age of 24. Early on, Götz commissioned a gunsmith to build the first “Iron Hand,” in which the artificial thumb and two finger blocks could be moved in their basic joints by a spring mechanism and released by a push button. Some years later, probably around 1530, a second “Iron Hand” was built, in which the fingers could be moved passively in all joints. In this review, the 3D computer-aided design (CAD) reconstructions and 3D multi-material polymer replica printings of the first “Iron hand“, which were developed in the last few years at Offenburg University, are presented. Even by today’s standards, the first “Iron Hand”—as could be shown in the replicas—demonstrates sophisticated mechanics and well thought-out functionality and still offers inspiration and food for discussion when it comes to the question of an artificial prosthetic replacement for a hand. It is also outlined how some of the ideas of this mechanical passive prosthesis can be translated into a modern motorized active prosthetic hand by using simple, commercially available electronic components. Full article
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20 pages, 3952 KiB  
Article
Iodoform-Blended Portland Cement for Dentistry
by Qiu Li, Andrew D. Deacon and Nichola J. Coleman
Prosthesis 2020, 2(4), 277-296; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis2040025 - 7 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3452
Abstract
Portland cement-based formulations blended with radiopacifying agents are popular endodontic materials for various root filling and pulp capping applications. Iodoform (CHI3) is an alternative candidate radiopacifier whose impact on the setting, bioactivity, antimicrobial properties and cytotoxicity of white Portland cement were [...] Read more.
Portland cement-based formulations blended with radiopacifying agents are popular endodontic materials for various root filling and pulp capping applications. Iodoform (CHI3) is an alternative candidate radiopacifier whose impact on the setting, bioactivity, antimicrobial properties and cytotoxicity of white Portland cement were evaluated in this study. Isothermal conduction calorimetry and 29Si magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MAS NMR) showed that 20 wt% iodoform had no significant impact on the kinetics of cement hydration with respect to the formation of the major calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel product (throughout the 28-day observation). Conversely, transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that iodine was incorporated into the ettringite (Ca₆Al₂(SO₄)₃(OH)₁₂·26H₂O) product phase. Both iodoform-blended and pure Portland cements exhibited comparable biocompatibility with MG63 human osteosarcoma cells and similar bioactivity with respect to the formation of a hydroxyapatite layer upon immersion in simulated body fluid. By virtue of their high alkalinity, both cements inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. However, in all cases, iodoform enhanced the antimicrobial effect and significantly reduced the minimum bactericidal concentration of the cement. In conclusion, iodoform offers antimicrobial advantages in Portland cement-based formulations where oral biofilm formation threatens the success of root filling materials and dentine substitutes. The reactivity with the calcium aluminosulfate components of the hydrating cement matrix warrants further research to understand the long-term stability of the cement matrix in the presence of iodoform. Full article
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7 pages, 2839 KiB  
Article
3D Printing beyond Dentistry during COVID 19 Epidemic: A Technical Note for Producing Connectors to Breathing Devices
by Leonardo Cavallo, Antonia Marcianò, Marco Cicciù and Giacomo Oteri
Prosthesis 2020, 2(2), 46-52; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis2020005 - 7 Apr 2020
Cited by 77 | Viewed by 7787
Abstract
(1) Background: To mitigate the shortage of respiratory devices during the Covid-19 epidemic, dental professional volunteers can contribute to create printed plastic valves, adapting the dental digital workflow and converting snorkeling masks in emergency CPAP (continuous positive airways pressure) devices. The objective of [...] Read more.
(1) Background: To mitigate the shortage of respiratory devices during the Covid-19 epidemic, dental professional volunteers can contribute to create printed plastic valves, adapting the dental digital workflow and converting snorkeling masks in emergency CPAP (continuous positive airways pressure) devices. The objective of this report was to provide the specific settings to optimize printing with the 3D printers of the dental industry. (2) Methods: In order to provide comprehensive technical notes to volunteer dental professionals interested in printing Charlotte and Dave connectors to breathing devices, the entire digital workflow is reported. (3) Results: The present paper introduces an alternative use of the dental Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) machinery, and reports on the fabrication of a 3D printed connection prototypes suitable for connection to face masks, thereby demonstrating the feasibility of this application. (4) Conclusions: This call for action was addressed to dentists and dental laboratories who are willing to making available their experience, facilities and machinery for the benefit of patients, even way beyond dentistry. Full article
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13 pages, 1987 KiB  
Article
Kinetics of Lower Limb Prosthesis: Automated Detection of Vertical Loading Rate
by Laurent Frossard, Michael W. M. Jones, Ian Stewart, Peter A. Leggat, Michael Schuetz and Christian Langton
Prosthesis 2019, 1(1), 16-28; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis1010004 - 29 Oct 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4247
Abstract
Vertical loading rate could be associated with residuum and whole body injuries affecting individuals fitted with transtibial prostheses. The objective of this study was to outline one out of five automated methods of extraction of vertical loading rate that stacked up the best [...] Read more.
Vertical loading rate could be associated with residuum and whole body injuries affecting individuals fitted with transtibial prostheses. The objective of this study was to outline one out of five automated methods of extraction of vertical loading rate that stacked up the best against manual detection, which is considered the gold standard during pseudo-prosthetic gait. The load applied on the long axis of the leg of three males was recorded using a transducer fitted between a prosthetic foot and physiotherapy boot while walking on a treadmill for circa 30 min. The automated method of extraction of vertical loading rate, combining the lowest absolute average and range of 95% CI difference compared to the manual method, was deemed the most accurate and precise. The average slope of the loading rate detected manually over 150 strides was 5.56 ± 1.33 kN/s, while the other slopes ranged from 4.43 ± 0.98 kN/s to 6.52 ± 1.64 kN/s depending on the automated detection method. An original method proposed here, relying on progressive loading gradient-based automated extraction, produced the closest results (6%) to manual selection. This work contributes to continuous efforts made by providers of prosthetic and rehabilitation care to generate evidence informing reflective clinical decision-making. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Orthopedics and Rehabilitation)
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