Recycling of Waste Oils: Technology and Application

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental and Green Processes".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2020) | Viewed by 55451

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Department of Chemical, Physics, Mathematics and Natural Science, University of Sassari, Via Vienna 2, I-07100 Sassari, Italy
Interests: piezoceramics; structural characterization; wet chemistry; processing
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The Politecnico di Milano, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering G. Natta, Via Luigi Mancinelli 7, I-20131 Milan, Italy
Interests: chemical fingerprints; multivariate analysis; design of experiments; and quality assessment
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are currently facing important challenges in many aspects of our life, from food demand to energy production and from exploitability of resources to climate change. We can observe as general trend in modern industry in the reconversion of existing processes and the design of new ones on the basis of the circular economy concept. In such a vision, wastes upon production can be considered raw materials for other processes. In order to produce sensible advances toward a global circular economy, the scientific research and the consequent technological advances must be directed on the concept of recycling of byproducts in a sustainable way. In such a panorama, waste oils represent a major challenge. In fact, they are produced worldwide in huge amounts and they are responsible for many environmental issues if not properly disposed of. At the same time, their chemical composition, constituting a mixture of fatty acids, makes them an important raw material for many industrial processes. For all these reasons, the recycling of waste oils is currently mandatory in many countries and is matter of discussion in many others.

This Special Issue entitled “Recycling of Waste Oils: Technology and Application” is aimed to cover the current advances on waste oils recycling in terms of technological solutions, sustainability aspects, and application of waste oils as raw material. Topics include but are not limited to:

- Waste oils production and disposal.

- Vegetal used oils recycling.

- Mineral oils recycling.

- Technological advances in waste oil recycling.

- Economic, marketing, and legislative aspects related with waste oils’ life cycle.

Dr. Alberto Mannu
Dr. Sebastiano Garroni
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Waste oil processing
  • Waste oil recycling
  • Waste oil application
  • Waste oil characterization
  • Materials from waste oils
  • Materials for waste oil recycling
  • Lubricants
  • Biofuels
  • Bioplastics

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Editorial

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2 pages, 171 KiB  
Editorial
Recycling of Waste Oils: Technology and Application
by Alberto Mannu and Sebastiano Garroni
Processes 2021, 9(12), 2145; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9122145 - 28 Nov 2021
Viewed by 1181
Abstract
Reducing the impact of human activity on the environment and, in general, on Earth, represents the most challenging target of the next years [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycling of Waste Oils: Technology and Application)

Research

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10 pages, 1307 KiB  
Communication
Comparison of Dimethylformamide with Dimethylsulfoxide for Quality Improvement of Distillate Recovered from Waste Plastic Pyrolysis Oil
by Su Jin Kim
Processes 2020, 8(9), 1024; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8091024 - 21 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3723
Abstract
As a part of improving the quality of the distillate (distilling temperature 120–350 °C) recovered from waste plastic pyrolysis oil (WPPO) by simple distillation, the enrichment of paraffin components present in the distillate was compared by the equilibrium extraction of dimethylformamide (DMF) and [...] Read more.
As a part of improving the quality of the distillate (distilling temperature 120–350 °C) recovered from waste plastic pyrolysis oil (WPPO) by simple distillation, the enrichment of paraffin components present in the distillate was compared by the equilibrium extraction of dimethylformamide (DMF) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Regardless of the solvent used, the concentration increase rate of the paraffin component in the raffinate relative to the raw material was reduced by increasing the mass fraction of water in the solvent in an initial state. On the other hand, it increased by increasing the mass ratio of the solvent to the raw material in an initial state. The enrichment performance of paraffin component in raffinate recovered by DMF was higher than that by DMSO under the same experimental conditions. Furthermore, the two solvents were compared by adding color and the waxing phenomena of recovered raffinate to assess the enrichment performance of paraffin components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycling of Waste Oils: Technology and Application)
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12 pages, 935 KiB  
Article
European Union Legislation Overview about Used Vegetable Oils Recycling: The Spanish and Italian Case Studies
by Jesus Ibanez, Sonia Martel Martín, Salvatore Baldino, Cristina Prandi and Alberto Mannu
Processes 2020, 8(7), 798; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8070798 - 08 Jul 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 5392
Abstract
The employment of used vegetable oils (UVOs) as raw materials in key sectors as energy production or bio-lubricant synthesis represents one of the most relevant priorities in the European Union (EU) normative context. In many countries, the development of new production processes based [...] Read more.
The employment of used vegetable oils (UVOs) as raw materials in key sectors as energy production or bio-lubricant synthesis represents one of the most relevant priorities in the European Union (EU) normative context. In many countries, the development of new production processes based on the circular economy model, as well as the definition of future energy and production targets, involve the utilization of wastes as raw material. In this context, the main currently applied EU regulations are presented and discussed. As in the EU, the general legislative process consists of the definition in each State Member of specific legislation, which transposes the EU indications. Two relevant countries are herein considered: Italy and Spain. Through the analysis of the conditions required in both countries for UVOs’ collection, disposal, storage, and recycling, a wide panorama of the current situation is provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycling of Waste Oils: Technology and Application)
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11 pages, 1690 KiB  
Article
Prickly Pear Seed Oil by Shelf-Grown Cactus Fruits: Waste or Maste?
by Vassilios K. Karabagias, Ioannis K. Karabagias, Ilias Gatzias and Anastasia V. Badeka
Processes 2020, 8(2), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8020132 - 21 Jan 2020
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 6828
Abstract
The chemical composition and properties of seed oils have attracted researchers nowadays. By this meaning, the physicochemical and bioactivity profile of prickly pear seed oil (PPSO) (a product of prickly pear fruits waste) were investigated. Seeds of shelf-grown cactus fruits (Opuntia ficus [...] Read more.
The chemical composition and properties of seed oils have attracted researchers nowadays. By this meaning, the physicochemical and bioactivity profile of prickly pear seed oil (PPSO) (a product of prickly pear fruits waste) were investigated. Seeds of shelf-grown cactus fruits (Opuntia ficus indica L.) were subjected to analysis. Moisture content (gravimetric analysis), seed content (gravimetric analysis), oil yield (Soxhlet extraction/gravimetric analysis), volatile compounds (HS-SPME/GC-MS), fatty acids profile (GC-FID), in vitro antioxidant activity (DPPH assay), and total phenolic content (Folin-Cioacalteu assay) were determined. Results showed that prickly pear seeds had a moisture content of 6.0 ± 0.1 g/100 g, whereas the oil yield ranged between 5.4 ± 0.5 g/100 g. Furthermore, the PPSO had a rich aroma because of acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons, ketones, and other compounds, with the major volatiles being 2-propenal, acetic acid, pentanal, 1-pentanol, hexanal, 2-hexenal, heptanal, 2-heptenal (Z), octanal, 2-octenal, nonanal, 2,4-decadienal (E,E), and trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal. Among the fatty acids, butyric, palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids were the dominant. Finally, the pure PPSO had a high in vitro antioxidant activity (84 ± 0.010%) and total phenolic content (551 ± 0.300 mg of gallic acid equivalents/L). PPSO may be then used as a beneficial by-product, in different food systems as a flavoring, antioxidant, and nutritional agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycling of Waste Oils: Technology and Application)
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18 pages, 7664 KiB  
Article
Interception Characteristics and Pollution Mechanism of the Filter Medium in Polymer-Flooding Produced Water Filtration Process
by Xingwang Wang, Xiaoxuan Xu, Wei Dang, Zhiwei Tang, Changchao Hu and Bei Wei
Processes 2019, 7(12), 927; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7120927 - 05 Dec 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3366
Abstract
Polymer flooding enhances oil recovery, but during the application of this technology, it also creates a large amount of polymer-contained produced water that poses a threat to the environment. The current processing is mainly focused on being able to meet the re-injection requirements. [...] Read more.
Polymer flooding enhances oil recovery, but during the application of this technology, it also creates a large amount of polymer-contained produced water that poses a threat to the environment. The current processing is mainly focused on being able to meet the re-injection requirements. However, many processes face the challenges of purifying effect, facilities pollution, and economical justification in the field practice. In the present work, to fully understand the structure and principle of the oil field filter tank, and based on geometric similarity and similar flow, a set of self-designed filtration simulation devices is used to study the treatment of polymer-contained produced water in order to facilitate the satisfaction of the water injection requirements for medium- and low-permeability reservoirs. The results show that, due to the existence of polymers in oil field produced water, a stable colloidal system is formed on the surface of the filter medium, which reduces the adsorption of oil droplets and suspended solids by the filter medium. The existence of the polymers also increases the viscosity of water, promotes the emulsification of oil pollution, and increases the difficulty of filtration and separation. As filtration progresses, the adsorption of the polymers by the filter medium bed reaches saturation, and the polymers and oil pollution contents in the filtered water increase gradually. The concentration and particle size of the suspended solids eventually exceed the permissible standards for filtered water quality; this is mainly due to the unreasonable size of the particle in relation to the filter medium gradation and the competitive adsorption between the polymers and the suspended solids on the surface of the filter medium. The oil concentration of the filtered water also exceeds the allowable standards and results from the polymers replace the oil droplets in the pores and on the surfaces of the filter medium. Moreover, the suspended particles of the biomass, composed of dead bacteria, hyphae, and spores, have strong attachment and carrying ability with respect to oil droplets, which cause the suspended solids in the filtered water to exceed the permissible standards and oil droplets to be retained in the filtered effluent at the same time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycling of Waste Oils: Technology and Application)
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Review

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15 pages, 1896 KiB  
Review
NMR Determination of Free Fatty Acids in Vegetable Oils
by Maria Enrica Di Pietro, Alberto Mannu and Andrea Mele
Processes 2020, 8(4), 410; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8040410 - 31 Mar 2020
Cited by 76 | Viewed by 30094
Abstract
The identification and quantification of free fatty acids (FFA) in edible and non-edible vegetable oils, including waste cooking oils, is a crucial index to assess their quality and drives their use in different application fields. NMR spectroscopy represents an alternative tool to conventional [...] Read more.
The identification and quantification of free fatty acids (FFA) in edible and non-edible vegetable oils, including waste cooking oils, is a crucial index to assess their quality and drives their use in different application fields. NMR spectroscopy represents an alternative tool to conventional methods for the determination of FFA content, providing us with interesting advantages. Here the approaches reported in the literature based on 1H, 13C and 31P NMR are illustrated and compared, highlighting the pros and cons of the suggested strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycling of Waste Oils: Technology and Application)
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13 pages, 664 KiB  
Review
Available Technologies and Materials for Waste Cooking Oil Recycling
by Alberto Mannu, Sebastiano Garroni, Jesus Ibanez Porras and Andrea Mele
Processes 2020, 8(3), 366; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8030366 - 22 Mar 2020
Cited by 77 | Viewed by 16649
Abstract
Recently, the interest in converting waste cooking oils (WCOs) to raw materials has grown exponentially. The driving force of such a trend is mainly represented by the increasing number of WCO applications, combined with the definition, in many countries, of new regulations on [...] Read more.
Recently, the interest in converting waste cooking oils (WCOs) to raw materials has grown exponentially. The driving force of such a trend is mainly represented by the increasing number of WCO applications, combined with the definition, in many countries, of new regulations on waste management. From an industrial perspective, the simple chemical composition of WCOs make them suitable as valuable chemical building blocks, in fuel, materials, and lubricant productions. The sustainability of such applications is sprightly related to proper recycling procedures. In this context, the development of new recycling processes, as well as the optimization of the existing ones, represents a priority for applied chemistry, chemical engineering, and material science. With the aim of providing useful updates to the scientific community involved in vegetable oil processing, the current available technologies for WCO recycling are herein reported, described, and discussed. In detail, two main types of WCO treatments will be considered: chemical transformations, to exploit the chemical functional groups present in the waste for the synthesis of added value products, and physical treatments as extraction, filtration, and distillation procedures. The first part, regarding chemical synthesis, will be connected mostly to the production of fuels. The second part, concerning physical treatments, will focus on bio-lubricant production. Moreover, during the description of filtering procedures, a special focus will be given to the development and applicability of new materials and technologies for WCO treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycling of Waste Oils: Technology and Application)
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