Recent Advances in Functional Materials Manufacturing and Processing

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Processes".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 April 2024) | Viewed by 8360
We are also glad to welcome the selected papers on related topics from Global Summit and Expo on Materials Science and Nanoscience (GSEMSN-2021, https://www.thescientistt.com/materials-science-nanoscience/).

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Chemical Engineering Department, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, UK
Interests: interface of materials science and electrochemical engineering

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Special Issue on “Recent Advances in Functional Materials Manufacturing and Processing” is being coordinated with the International Conference on Materials Science and Nanoscience (GSEMSN-2021), which will be held in Lisbon, Portugal on 6–8 September 2021. This conference has been organized by The Scientistt. The GSEMSN-2021 will bring researchers and industry practitioners together to share new ideas, research results, and development experiences towards sustainable materials.

Topics of interest for submission include but are not limited to the following:

  • Materials for advanced energy storage batteries
  • Materials for fuel cells, solar energy and other energy conversion applications
  • Materials for fuel conversion, such as H2 production, CO2 reduction, NH3 synthesis, etc
  • Biomaterials and biomedical polymers
  • Thermodynamics and performance with materials applications
  • Sustainability of materials
  • Novel materials manufacturing and processing techniques

Dr. Qiong Cai
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Processes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • energy storage
  • fuel cells
  • polymeric materials and compounds
  • thermodynamics
  • sustainability
  • biomaterials
  • biomedical polymers

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 7375 KiB  
Article
A Finite-Element-Analysis-Based Feasibility Study for Optimizing Pantograph Performance Using Aluminum Metal Matrix Composites
by Masengo Ilunga and Abhishek Agarwal
Processes 2024, 12(3), 445; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12030445 - 22 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 726
Abstract
A pantograph is a key component on the tops of trains that allows them to efficiently tap electricity from power lines and propel them. This study investigates the possibility of using metal matrix composites (MMCs), specifically aluminum MMCs, as a material for making [...] Read more.
A pantograph is a key component on the tops of trains that allows them to efficiently tap electricity from power lines and propel them. This study investigates the possibility of using metal matrix composites (MMCs), specifically aluminum MMCs, as a material for making pantograph parts regarding the dynamics of the train’s movement and external meteorological conditions. In this study, a computer-aided design (CAD) model is created using PTC Creo design software and moves to detailed finite element analysis (FEA) simulations executed by the ANSYS software suite. These simulations are important in examining how the dynamic performance of pantographs can vary. The incorporation of Al MMC materials into the structure of the pantograph resulted in significant improvements in structural robustness, with equal stress reduced by up to 0.18%. Similarly, aluminum MMC materials reduced the strain energy by 0.063 millijoules. The outcomes not only give a new perspective to the implementation of modern materials but also provide a breakthrough concept to improve efficiency and increase the service life of pantographs. This study marks a significant milestone in the theoretical development of essential train systems, furnishing eminent perspectives toward the tactical development of transportation infrastructure by suggesting new avenues for the smooth incorporation of smart materials in railway transportation, which would contribute to a more sustainable and reliable future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Functional Materials Manufacturing and Processing)
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14 pages, 1637 KiB  
Article
An Alternative Way to Produce High-Density Graphite from Carbonaceous Raw Materials
by Radu Mirea
Processes 2023, 11(12), 3318; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11123318 - 28 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1161
Abstract
In this study, graphite, the most stable form of carbon, was examined for its hexagonal crystalline structure with specific dimensions (ao = 2.46 Ǻ; co = 6.70 Ǻ). Its framework comprises parallel carbon atom planes, forming regular hexagons (side length 1.415 [...] Read more.
In this study, graphite, the most stable form of carbon, was examined for its hexagonal crystalline structure with specific dimensions (ao = 2.46 Ǻ; co = 6.70 Ǻ). Its framework comprises parallel carbon atom planes, forming regular hexagons (side length 1.415 Ǻ) and 120° angles between adjacent atoms. Two structural variations exist: hexagonal symmetry (1-2-1-2-1-2 planes) and rhomboidal symmetry (1-2-3-1-2-3 planes). The aim of this research was to produce high-density graphite utilizing carbonaceous raw materials. Graphite-based materials often exhibit high porosity, necessitating additional treatment. In this study, we successfully obtained mesophase tar pitch (yield: 45%), a pivotal raw material, and high-density graphite. The resulting graphite underwent characterization for physical properties (apparent and real density, porosity, and compression strength), demonstrating conformity with the existing literature data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Functional Materials Manufacturing and Processing)
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13 pages, 4910 KiB  
Article
Omega Phase Formation and Mechanical Properties of Ti–1.5 wt.% Mo and Ti–15 wt.% Mo Alloys after High-Pressure Torsion
by Alena S. Gornakova, Anna Korneva, Alexander I. Tyurin, Natalia S. Afonikova, Askar R. Kilmametov and Boris B. Straumal
Processes 2023, 11(1), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11010221 - 10 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1365
Abstract
The paper analyzes the effect of severe plastic deformation by the high-pressure torsion (HPT) on phase transformations, in particular, on the formation of the ω-phase, and on mechanical properties, such as hardness and Young’s modulus, in Ti alloys with 1.5 and 15 wt.% [...] Read more.
The paper analyzes the effect of severe plastic deformation by the high-pressure torsion (HPT) on phase transformations, in particular, on the formation of the ω-phase, and on mechanical properties, such as hardness and Young’s modulus, in Ti alloys with 1.5 and 15 wt.% Mo. Both alloys were pre-annealed at 1000 °C for 24 h and quenched. The microstructure of the initial Ti–1.5 wt.% Mo alloy consisted of the α-phase and α’-martensite, and the initial Ti–15 wt.% Mo alloy contained polycrystalline β solid solution. The hardness tests of the samples were carried out under the load of 10 and 200 mN. The annealed alloys were subjected to HPT, and the micro- and nanohardness of both deformed samples increased up to ~1 GPa compared to their initial state. It turned out that the values of hardness (H) and Young’s modulus (E) depend on the applied load on the indenter: the higher the applied load, the lower H and higher E. It was also found that the HPT leads to the 30% increase in E for an alloy with 1.5 wt.% Mo and to the 9% decrease in E for the alloy with 15 wt.% Mo. Such a difference in the behavior of the Young’s modulus is associated with phase transformations caused by the HPT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Functional Materials Manufacturing and Processing)
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7 pages, 2534 KiB  
Article
Performance Improvement of Micro-Abrasive Jet Blasting Process for Al 6061
by Dae-Kyu Kwon and Jae-Hak Lee
Processes 2022, 10(11), 2247; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10112247 - 1 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1245
Abstract
Aluminum 6061 is a precipitation-hardened alloy, containing magnesium and silicon as its major alloying element, and it is widely used in industries due to its remarkable mechanical properties and weld ability. Several types of machining manners are researched for aluminum 6061 alloys, and [...] Read more.
Aluminum 6061 is a precipitation-hardened alloy, containing magnesium and silicon as its major alloying element, and it is widely used in industries due to its remarkable mechanical properties and weld ability. Several types of machining manners are researched for aluminum 6061 alloys, and micro-abrasive jet blasting (μ-AJM) is one of the most developed processes for improving surface roughness. When operating μ-AJM on aluminum alloys, sufficient consideration of environmental variables such as particle types, nozzle diameter, pressure, standoff distance, and injection time is a prerequisite for the appropriate degree of roughness. To find the optimal conditions, a statistical method of analysis of variables was used to investigate the maximum value for depth, diameter, width, etc., of the blasting surface. According to experimental results, multiple factors have a great influence on the condition of surface roughness. The blasting processes were conducted as square and cylindrical experiments, and the parameters for optimal conditions have been derived from a surface roughness measurement system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Functional Materials Manufacturing and Processing)
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18 pages, 6499 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Sodium Tetrafluoroborate on the Properties of Conversion Coatings Formed on the AZ91D Magnesium Alloy by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation
by Łukasz Florczak, Ginter Nawrat, Kazimierz Darowicki, Jacek Ryl, Jan Sieniawski, Małgorzata Wierzbińska, Krzysztof Raga and Andrzej Sobkowiak
Processes 2022, 10(10), 2089; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10102089 - 15 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1465
Abstract
Magnesium and its alloys are widely used in many areas because of their light weight, excellent dimensional stability, and high strength-to-weight ratio. However, the material exhibits poor wear and corrosion resistance, which limits its use. Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) is an effective surface [...] Read more.
Magnesium and its alloys are widely used in many areas because of their light weight, excellent dimensional stability, and high strength-to-weight ratio. However, the material exhibits poor wear and corrosion resistance, which limits its use. Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) is an effective surface modification method for producing ceramic oxide layers on Mg and their alloys. The influence of the additions of sodium tetrafluoroborate (NaBF4) and sodium fluoride (NaF) into alkaline-silicate electrolyte on the properties of the conversion layers formed in the magnesium AZ91D alloy has been investigated. Surface morphology and chemical composition were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The anticorrosive properties of the layers were evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization (PDP) methods in simulated body fluid (SBF). The presence of NaBF4 or NaF in the electrolyte increases the corrosion resistance of the protective layer. However, the best anticorrosive properties show the layers obtained in the presence of NaBF4. This is probably caused by the incorporation of boron and fluorine in the form of Mg (BF4)2 mainly in the barrier layer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Functional Materials Manufacturing and Processing)
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Review

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22 pages, 9821 KiB  
Review
Review of Two-Dimensional MXenes (Ti3C2Tx) Materials in Photocatalytic Applications
by Haidong Yu, Haibing Jiang, Shuji Zhang, Xin Feng, Song Yin and Wenzhi Zhao
Processes 2023, 11(5), 1413; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11051413 - 6 May 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1699
Abstract
MXenes (Ti3C2Tx) have gotten a lot of interest since their discovery in 2011 because of their distinctive two-dimensional layered structure, high conductivity, and rich surface functional groups. According to the findings, MXenes (Ti3C2T [...] Read more.
MXenes (Ti3C2Tx) have gotten a lot of interest since their discovery in 2011 because of their distinctive two-dimensional layered structure, high conductivity, and rich surface functional groups. According to the findings, MXenes (Ti3C2Tx) may block photogenerated electron-hole recombination in the photocatalytic system and offer many activation reaction sites, enhancing the photocatalytic performance and demonstrating tremendous promise in the field of photocatalysis. This review discusses current Ti3C2Tx-based photocatalyst preparation techniques, such as ultrasonic mixing, electrostatic self-assembly, hydrothermal preparation, and calcination techniques. We also summarised the advancements in photocatalytic CO2 reduction, photocatalytic nitrogen fixation, photocatalytic hydrogen evolution, and Ti3C2Tx-based photocatalysts in photocatalytic degradation of pollutants. Lastly, the challenges and prospects of Ti3C2Tx in photocatalysis are discussed based on the practical application of Ti3C2Tx. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Functional Materials Manufacturing and Processing)
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