Processes in 2023

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2023) | Viewed by 16080

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences in Sosnowiec, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, Jagiellońska 4, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland
Interests: liquid chromatography; spectrophotometry; densitometry; organic compounds analysis; QSAR; QSRR; QSPR; pharmaceutical analysis; purity of pharmaceutical preparations
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Process Engineering and Chemical Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Gdansk University of Technology, 80-233 Gdansk, Poland
Interests: air biofiltration; biotrickling filtration; energetic valorization of biomass; ion flotation; precipitate flotation; phytoremediation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
“Ilie Murgulescu” Institute of Physical Chemistry, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei St., 060021 Bucharest, Romania
Interests: physical chemistry, physico-chemical characterization of materials; drug delivery; pharmaceuticals development; thermal analysis; kinetics; biopolymers, cyclodextrin inclusion complexes; hydrogels; biomaterials for biomedical applications; oxide materials design/synthesis and the thermoreactivity of precursor-oxide transformations; green chemistry; thermal properties; physicochemical characterization; nanomaterials for biomedicine; nanomaterials for energy applications; catalysis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are pleased to announce this Special Issue, entitled “Processes in 2023”, which is part of the MDPI journal New Year Special Issue Series. This Special Issue will be a collection of high-quality reviews and original research articles from Editors-in-Chief, Editorial Board Members, Guest Editors, Topical Advisory Panel Members, Reviewer Board Members, Authors, and Reviewers from Processes.

We cordially invite you to submit your work performed across all areas of process/system research and present your latest discoveries in classical and advanced processes fields such as chemistry, biology, materials, energy, environment, food, pharmaceuticals, manufacturing, automation control, catalysis, separation, particles and related technical and engineering areas.

Topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Chemical processes and systems;
  • Environmental and green processes;
  • Energy systems;
  • Process control and supervision;
  • Biological processes and systems;
  • Catalysis enhanced processes;
  • Separation processes;
  • Materials processes;
  • Food processes;
  • Pharmaceutical processes;
  • Automation control systems;
  • Manufacturing processes and systems;
  • Sustainable processes;
  • Particle processes;
  • Advanced digital and other processes.

We encourage the submission of articles where the lead authors are Editors-in-Chief, Editorial Board Members, Guest Editors, Topical Advisory Panel Members, Reviewer Board Members, Authors, and Reviewers from Processes, or that are completely authored by from Editors-in-Chief, Editorial Board Members, Guest Editors, Topical Advisory Panel Members, Reviewer Board Members, Authors, and Reviewers from Processes.

Prof. Dr. Alina Pyka-Pająk
Dr. Piotr Rybarczyk
Dr. Adina Magdalena Musuc
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Processes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • processes and systems
  • materials
  • catalysis
  • environmental and green processes process control
  • automation controls
  • food
  • pharmaceuticals
  • treatment
  • manufacturing

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

17 pages, 3317 KiB  
Article
Sensitive and Cost-Effective TLC-Densitometric Method for Determination of Metronidazole and Tinidazole in Tablets
by Alina Pyka-Pająk
Processes 2024, 12(4), 643; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12040643 - 24 Mar 2024
Viewed by 435
Abstract
A sensitive, easy-to-use, fast, and cost-effective TLC-densitometric method was developed for the separation of metronidazole, secnidazole, ornidazole, tinidazole, and 2-methyl-5-nitroimidazole and for the determination of metronidazole and tinidazole in Metronidazole Polpharma and Tinidazolum Polpharma tablets. Analyses were performed on chromatographic plates precoated with [...] Read more.
A sensitive, easy-to-use, fast, and cost-effective TLC-densitometric method was developed for the separation of metronidazole, secnidazole, ornidazole, tinidazole, and 2-methyl-5-nitroimidazole and for the determination of metronidazole and tinidazole in Metronidazole Polpharma and Tinidazolum Polpharma tablets. Analyses were performed on chromatographic plates precoated with silica gel 60F254 using chloroform + methanol + diethylamine in a volume ratio of 9:1:1 as the optimal mobile phase. The method has been validated. The intraday and interday precision values for the three different concentrations ranged from 0.99% to 1.48% and 0.89% to 1.76%, and the precision values ranged from 1.13% to 2.48% and 0.95% to 2.49% for metronidazole and tinidazole, respectively. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.036 and 0.066 µg/spot for metronidazole and tinidazole, respectively. The mean recovery was 103.1% and 100.6% for metronidazole and tinidazole, respectively. The content of metronidazole and tinidazole in tablets in relation to the content declared by the manufacturer was 101.3% and 99.8%, respectively. The obtained results were verified using the pharmacopeial method. The presented method is fast, sensitive, precise, selective, accurate, and robust. It allows for the analysis of several samples on one chromatography plate at the same time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processes in 2023)
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18 pages, 2878 KiB  
Article
Thermodynamic Analysis and Economic Assessment of Organic Rankine Cycle Integrated with Thermoelectric Generator Onboard Container Ship
by Ahmed G. Elkafas
Processes 2024, 12(2), 355; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12020355 - 08 Feb 2024
Viewed by 558
Abstract
In July 2023, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) presented an updated strategy for decarbonizing maritime transport and achieving net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. It is therefore imperative to explore innovative solutions to achieve a blue economy and maximize energy efficiency on-board ships. [...] Read more.
In July 2023, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) presented an updated strategy for decarbonizing maritime transport and achieving net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. It is therefore imperative to explore innovative solutions to achieve a blue economy and maximize energy efficiency on-board ships. For this reason, the current study aims to integrate the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) and thermoelectric generator (TEG) on board a container ship to generate electrical energy and reduce fuel consumption. The combined system will benefit from the waste heat of a marine diesel engine installed on board. The current study uses R245fa as the organic liquid and analyzes the effects of varying the evaporation pressure on the energetic and economic performance indicators by modeling the combined system in Engineering Equation Solver (EES) software. The results show that the energy efficiency of the ORC system increases from 12.3% at 3.5 bar to 17.3% at 8 bar. In comparison, the energy efficiency of the TEG unit is 6.9% at different evaporation pressures. In addition, the energy efficiency of the TEG-ORC system is 18.3% with an output of 1386 kW at 8 bar, which is an increase of 30.5% compared to the value at 3.5 bar. This generated power reduces fuel consumption by around 1580 ton/year. From an economic point of view, the energy production cost of the combined system is USD 618/kWh and USD 614/kWh at the lowest and maximum evaporation pressure, respectively. Fuel costs and CO2 tax expenditures could be reduced by up to USD 1.169 million/year and USD 0.47 million/year, respectively, through the combined TEG-ORC system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processes in 2023)
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22 pages, 3045 KiB  
Article
Alternative Options for Ebullated Bed Vacuum Residue Hydrocracker Naphtha Utilization
by Dicho Stratiev, Ivelina Shishkova, Mihail Ivanov, Rosen Dinkov, Vesislava Toteva, Daniela Angelova, Iliyan Kolev, Mariana Tavlieva and Dobromir Yordanov
Processes 2023, 11(12), 3410; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11123410 - 12 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 751
Abstract
The vacuum residue hydrocracker naphtha (VRHN) is a chemically unstable product that during storage changes its colour and forms sediments after two weeks. It cannot be directly exported from the refinery without improving its chemical stability. In this research, the hydrotreatment of H-Oil [...] Read more.
The vacuum residue hydrocracker naphtha (VRHN) is a chemically unstable product that during storage changes its colour and forms sediments after two weeks. It cannot be directly exported from the refinery without improving its chemical stability. In this research, the hydrotreatment of H-Oil naphtha with straight run naphtha in a commercial hydrotreater, its co-processing with fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) gasoline in a commercial Prime-G+ post-treater, and its co-processing with vacuum gas oil (VGO) in a commercial FCC unit were discussed. The hydrotreatment improves the chemical stability of H-Oil naphtha and reduces its sulphur content to 3 ppm. The Prime-G+ co-hydrotreating increases the H-Oil naphtha blending research octane number (RON) by 6 points and motor octane number (MON) by 9 points. The FCC co-cracking with VGO enhances the blending RON by 11.5 points and blending MON by 17.6 points. H-Oil naphtha conversion to gaseous products (C1–C4 hydrocarbons) in the commercial FCC unit was found to be 50%. The use of ZSM 5 containing catalyst additive during processing H-Oil naphtha showed to lead to FCC gasoline blending octane enhancement by 2 points. This enabled an increment of low octane number naphtha in the commodity premium near zero sulphur automotive gasoline by 2.4 vol.% and substantial improvement of refinery margin. The processing of H-Oil naphtha in the FCC unit leads also to energy saving as a result of an equivalent lift steam substitution in the FCC riser. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processes in 2023)
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14 pages, 3147 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Hollow Glass Microspheres on the Kinetics of Oxidation of Poly(ε-Caprolactone) Determined from Non-Isothermal Thermogravimetry and Chemiluminescence
by Anna Vykydalová, Zdenko Špitálský, Mária Kováčová and Jozef Rychlý
Processes 2023, 11(12), 3372; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11123372 - 05 Dec 2023
Viewed by 745
Abstract
The effect of hollow glass beads on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) oxidative degradation has been evaluated by the non-isothermal chemiluminescence (CL) method and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). The main goal of the research and this publication was to reduce the production costs associated with the materials [...] Read more.
The effect of hollow glass beads on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) oxidative degradation has been evaluated by the non-isothermal chemiluminescence (CL) method and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). The main goal of the research and this publication was to reduce the production costs associated with the materials for 3D printing, which would also have a low mass, excellent biocompatibility and suitable thermal properties. Experiments have clearly shown the dual effect of a filler and its extent in terms of poly(ε-caprolactone). The chosen methods demonstrate the superposition of both the pro-degradation and stabilization effects of hollow glass beads on the polymer. The former was evident above the load of 10 wt.% of filler. The non-isothermal TGA records were analyzed as being composed of three temperature-dependent processes of the first-order kinetics. A massive compensation effect between the so-called activation energy and the logarithm of pre-exponential factors for heating rates of 2.5, 5 and 10 °C/min has been shown to be typical for similar non-isothermal thermogravimetry evaluation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processes in 2023)
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25 pages, 10103 KiB  
Article
Modeling the First Hydrogen Direct Reduction Pilot Reactor for Ironmaking in the USA Using Finite Element Analysis and Its Validation Using Pilot Plant Trial Data
by Amogh Meshram, Yuri Korobeinikov, Daniela Dalle Nogare, Alberto Zugliano, Joe Govro, Ronald J. OMalley and Seetharaman Sridhar
Processes 2023, 11(12), 3346; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11123346 - 01 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1105
Abstract
Direct reduction of hematite pellets with hydrogen (H2) was used to produce directly reduced iron (DRI) in a pilot scale reactor at a pellet feed rate of 21.4 kg/h. At a steady state, operational parameters of the pilot plant (gas recycling [...] Read more.
Direct reduction of hematite pellets with hydrogen (H2) was used to produce directly reduced iron (DRI) in a pilot scale reactor at a pellet feed rate of 21.4 kg/h. At a steady state, operational parameters of the pilot plant (gas recycling rate and inlet temperature) along with key reactor output parameters, the pellet metallization, and the internal temperature profile of the reactor were reported for two scenarios with high recycle and low recycle rate of H2. Scenario 1, with a high recycle rate of 400 L/min H2 along with external heating of 870 °C, gave an average metallization of 91.8%, while Scenario 2, with low recycle rate of 100 L/min H2 and external heating of 850 °C gave a metallization of 67.8% due to the higher moles of H2 available for reduction and the external energy required for the endothermic reduction reaction in Scenario 1 as compared with Scenario 2. Finite element analysis was used to build a model of the shaft reactor, which was validated against the metallization and internal temperature profile data. The average metallization values predicted by the model were very close to the metallization values obtained from the pilot plant samples, with 90.9% average metallization for Scenario 1 and 65.6% average metallization for Scenario 2. The internal temperature profiles in the lower region of the reactor obtained from the model were very close to these pilot plant data, with a maximum difference of 52.7 °C and 67.6 °C for Scenarios 1 and 2, respectively. The pilot plant reactor model was used extensively in the commissioning of the pilot plant and to predict the startup outcomes for a given set of operating parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processes in 2023)
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10 pages, 2606 KiB  
Article
Design of the LIMELIGHT Test Rig for Component Testing for High-Temperature Thermal Energy Storage with Liquid Metals
by Klarissa Niedermeier, Martin Lux, Anisa Purwitasari, Alfons Weisenburger, Markus Daubner, Franziska Müller-Trefzer and Thomas Wetzel
Processes 2023, 11(10), 2975; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11102975 - 13 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1022
Abstract
Thermal energy storage systems for high temperatures >600 °C are currently mainly based on solid storage materials that are thermally charged and discharged by a gaseous heat transfer fluid. Usually, these systems benefit from low storage material costs but suffer from moderate heat [...] Read more.
Thermal energy storage systems for high temperatures >600 °C are currently mainly based on solid storage materials that are thermally charged and discharged by a gaseous heat transfer fluid. Usually, these systems benefit from low storage material costs but suffer from moderate heat transfer rates from the gas to the storage medium. Therefore, at the Karlsruhe Liquid Metal Laboratory, liquid metals are investigated as alternative heat transfer fluids for such heat storage systems, making use of the broad temperature range, in which the metals are in a liquid state, and their efficient heat transport capabilities. In this work, the design and construction of a high-temperature test rig using liquid lead is presented. The goal of the experiments is to demonstrate the operability of a pump, valves and measurement equipment at 700 °C in a challenging corrosive environment. Based on material pre-tests in stagnant lead at 700 °C, which are also shown in this study, aluminizing and pre-oxidation of the pipes and components are applied for enhanced corrosion protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processes in 2023)
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20 pages, 1845 KiB  
Article
Life Cycle Assessment of Bacterial, Algal, and Synthetic Approaches for Astaxanthin Production at a Laboratory Scale: Comparative Environmental Analysis and Sensitivity of Energy Sources
by Seyed Ahmad Aldaghi, Risvan Ubais, Ina Schmitt, Volker F. Wendisch, Mattia Costamagna and Massimo Perucca
Processes 2023, 11(10), 2911; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11102911 - 03 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1347
Abstract
Astaxanthin, a highly valuable natural pigment with potent antioxidant properties, is widely used in various industries, including food, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. The demand for astaxanthin has led to the development of multiple production methods, including algal, bacterial, and synthetic approaches. Understanding the environmental [...] Read more.
Astaxanthin, a highly valuable natural pigment with potent antioxidant properties, is widely used in various industries, including food, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. The demand for astaxanthin has led to the development of multiple production methods, including algal, bacterial, and synthetic approaches. Understanding the environmental implications of these production processes is crucial for sustainable decision-making in the astaxanthin industry. This research paper presents a comprehensive Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) comparing the environmental impacts of algal, bacterial, and synthetic astaxanthin production methods. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis is conducted, focusing on the source of energy used during production, and the shift from conventional to renewable energy sources is explored. The environmental importance of natural astaxanthin production is highlighted, considering the potential benefits of reducing dependence on synthetic production methods that rely on non-renewable resources. The results of the LCA, for the production of 1 g astaxanthin, reveal the relative environmental performance of each production process, identifying hotspots and potential areas for improvement. On average, the environmental impacts indicate that chemical synthesis is the best solution for the production of the pigment, followed by the bacterial extraction process and lastly by algae extraction. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis demonstrates the significant influence of energy sources on the overall environmental footprint. Shifting towards renewable energy sources presents an opportunity for mitigating environmental impacts and enhancing the sustainability of astaxanthin production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processes in 2023)
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20 pages, 3555 KiB  
Article
Effect of Palmitic Acid on Tertiary Structure of Glycated Human Serum Albumin
by Agnieszka Szkudlarek
Processes 2023, 11(9), 2746; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11092746 - 14 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 750
Abstract
Non-enzymatic glycation is a process, which can be best described as a significant posttranslational modification of various proteins. It emerges in hyperglycemic conditions and may have an impact on albumin stability as well as its activity and physical and chemical properties, essentially affecting [...] Read more.
Non-enzymatic glycation is a process, which can be best described as a significant posttranslational modification of various proteins. It emerges in hyperglycemic conditions and may have an impact on albumin stability as well as its activity and physical and chemical properties, essentially affecting all its physiological functions. The goal of this research was to answer the following questions: (i) how does the glycation of defatted human serum albumin by glucose–fructose syrup (GFS) alter its tertiary structure; (ii) does palmitic acid (PA), a component of palm oil, affect the in vitro glycation process and cause conformational changes of glycated albumin; and (iii) does PA inhibit the formation of Advanced Glycation End-Products (AGEs)? Therefore, in order to point out differences in the tertiary structure of macromolecules, the absorption and emission of fluorescence spectra and their second derivatives, excitation fluorescence and synchronous spectra, Red-Edge Excitation Shift (REES effect), and the degree of modification of sulfhydryl groups of defatted, non-glycated (HSA) and glycated human serum albumin (gHSA) with GFS and glycated with GFS and PA were investigated. In the present study, it has been confirmed that the glycation of albumin in the presence of GFS and PA causes changes in both HSA and gHSA tertiary structures, respectively. Moreover, palmitic acid, at ratios of 1.5:1 and 3:1 with glycated albumin, does not exhibit inhibition of AGEs formation. This study indicates the fact that the structural changes, especially those of glycated albumin, are important for treatment planning because the type of the interaction between the components and their primary transporter may be altered as the disease progresses or in the elderly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processes in 2023)
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22 pages, 9394 KiB  
Article
Multi-Response Optimization Analysis of the Milling Process of Asphalt Layer Based on the Numerical Evaluation of Cutting Regime Parameters
by Teodor Dumitru, Marius Gabriel Petrescu, Maria Tănase and Costin Nicolae Ilincă
Processes 2023, 11(8), 2401; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11082401 - 09 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 785
Abstract
The present study aimed to optimize the process parameters (milling depth and advanced speed) for an asphalt milling operation using a multi-response approach based on Taguchi design of experiments (DOE) and Grey Relational Analysis (GRA). Nine simulations tests were conducted using Discrete Element [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to optimize the process parameters (milling depth and advanced speed) for an asphalt milling operation using a multi-response approach based on Taguchi design of experiments (DOE) and Grey Relational Analysis (GRA). Nine simulations tests were conducted using Discrete Element Method (DEM) in order to determine the forces acting on the cutting tooth support and tip. The considered performance characteristics were cutting forces (smaller is better category) and chip section area (larger is better category). A Grey Relational Grade (GRG) was determined from GRA, allowing to identify the optimal parameter levels for the asphalt milling process with multiple performance characteristics. It was found that that the optimal milling parameters for multi-response analysis are a milling depth of 200 mm and an advanced speed of 30 mm/min. Furthermore, analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the most significant factor influencing the performance characteristics. The analysis results revealed that the dominant factor affecting the resultant cutting force was milling depth, while the main factor affecting chip section area was the advanced speed. Optimizing milling efficiency is essential in machining operations. A key factor in this direction is comprehending the interplay between chip removal and cutting forces. This understanding is fundamental for achieving increased productivity, cost-effectiveness, and extended tool lifespan during the milling process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processes in 2023)
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11 pages, 9753 KiB  
Article
Ultrasound-Mediated DNA Transformation of Bacteria
by Bei-Ping Wang, Yue-Mei Yuan, Sheng Yang, Yun Xu, Chun-Yan Liao and Fu-Xing Niu
Processes 2023, 11(7), 2163; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11072163 - 20 Jul 2023
Viewed by 977
Abstract
Ultrasound-mediated transformation has become a feasible means for plasmid transformation of microorganisms due to its simple operation, low influence from external factors, and low equipment requirements. This study investigated the effects of ultrasonic power, ultrasonic application time, microorganism growth phase, wash buffer, and [...] Read more.
Ultrasound-mediated transformation has become a feasible means for plasmid transformation of microorganisms due to its simple operation, low influence from external factors, and low equipment requirements. This study investigated the effects of ultrasonic power, ultrasonic application time, microorganism growth phase, wash buffer, and Mg2+/Ca2+ presence on transformation efficiency. Using stationary-phase Escherichia coli in 0.1 M phosphate-buffered saline, the optimal ultrasonic power was 130 W, the optimal ultrasonic time was 12 s (working, 1 s; pause, 2 s), and the maximum transformation efficiency reached 3.24 × 105 CFU/µg in the presence of Mg2+. Based on scanning electron microscopy, the mechanism underlying ultrasound-mediated transformation of microorganisms with an ultrasonic homogenizer involved the cavitation phenomenon, with reversible pore formation accompanied by cell expansion. This method was less dependent on cell types in comparison to other transformation methods, and it also achieved good transformation effect in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This is the first time that the phenomenon of ultrasound-mediated microbial (microbubble-free) transformation has been reported using scanning electron microscopy, which has important significance for the mechanism analysis of relevant subsequent studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processes in 2023)
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13 pages, 2509 KiB  
Article
Metabolic Characteristics of Hairy Root Clones of Scutellaria pycnoclada and Scutellaria baicalensis
by Aleksandra I. Solov’eva, Anna Y. Stepanova, Yury M. Panov and Evgeny A. Gladkov
Processes 2023, 11(7), 2102; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11072102 - 14 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 918
Abstract
Scutellaria baicalensis is the most studied species of the genus, while Scutellaria pycnoclada is a poorly studied endemic species. Ten lines of the hairy roots of S. pycnoclada were obtained using Agrobacterium rhizogenes A4. The hairy root cultures of S. pycnoclada and the [...] Read more.
Scutellaria baicalensis is the most studied species of the genus, while Scutellaria pycnoclada is a poorly studied endemic species. Ten lines of the hairy roots of S. pycnoclada were obtained using Agrobacterium rhizogenes A4. The hairy root cultures of S. pycnoclada and the previously obtained roots of S. baicalensis were cultured on liquid and agar Gamborg media. A total of 14 flavonoids were detected via HPLC MS/MS in S. pycnoclada, and 17 were detected in S. baicalensis. Among them were flavones characteristic of both the roots and the aboveground parts of the plants. S. pycnoclada had a lower diversity of methylated flavones than S. baicalensis. Moreover, tenaxin I was absent in all S. pycnoclada lines on agar medium. HPLC analysis revealed that the flavone content in the different hairy root lines was 1.4–12.7 times higher on liquid medium than on agar medium. S. baicalensis and S. pycnoclada differed significantly in the ratio of the main flavones. In S. baicalensis, baicalin (7.83 mg/g DW) and wogonoside (6.29 mg/g DW) dominated when cultured on liquid medium, and wogonin (2.08 mg/g DW) dominated when cultured on solid medium. In S. pycnoclada, baicalin predominated (52–88% of the total content). S. pycnoclada is assumed to have a different set of O-methyltransferases and less biosynthetic enzyme activity than S. baicalensis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processes in 2023)
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21 pages, 4102 KiB  
Article
Integrating TPM and Industry 4.0 to Increase the Availability of Industrial Assets: A Case Study on a Conveyor Belt
by David Mendes, Pedro D. Gaspar, Fernando Charrua-Santos and Helena Navas
Processes 2023, 11(7), 1956; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11071956 - 28 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1925
Abstract
As the global market becomes increasingly competitive and demanding, companies face the challenge of responding swiftly and efficiently to customer needs. To maintain a competitive advantage, organisations must optimise the usage of their assets. This study focuses on the critical role of maintenance [...] Read more.
As the global market becomes increasingly competitive and demanding, companies face the challenge of responding swiftly and efficiently to customer needs. To maintain a competitive advantage, organisations must optimise the usage of their assets. This study focuses on the critical role of maintenance management and presents a novel, cost-effective, and easily applicable model that integrates Industry 4.0 (I4.0) and Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) principles to enhance production processes. The proposed model incorporates a real-time monitoring system equipped with sensors, a gateway, and Internet of Things (IoT) services. These components enable data acquisition, transmission, storage, and visualisation through both mobile and fixed devices. The model’s effectiveness was validated through its implementation on a conveyor belt in a feed mill. The availability of the conveyor belt was around 89.5% before TPM implementation. After the implementation of TPM, it was possible to observe that the availability of the treadmill increased to 92.7% in a workweek of 105 h. On the other hand, it was possible to observe a considerable improvement in terms of the average time of each intervention, with a reduction of around 53%. Moreover, the model also facilitated improvements in the maintenance plan for the conveyor belt. Operators were trained to effortlessly comply with the new autonomous maintenance plan, enhancing operational efficiency. The joint application of I4.0 and TPM demonstrated significant advancements in maintenance management. The flexibility of the developed model allows for easy adaptation to monitor other condition parameters, enabling real-time decision-making for both the maintenance and production departments. This integrated approach holds the potential to drive process optimisation, ultimately contributing to improved productivity, cost-effectiveness, and competitiveness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processes in 2023)
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11 pages, 2938 KiB  
Article
Multivariate Parameter Determination of Multi-Component Isotherms for Chromatography Digital Twins
by Steffen Zobel-Roos, Florian Vetter, Daniel Scheps, Marcus Pfeiffer, Matthias Gunne, Oliver Boscheinen and Jochen Strube
Processes 2023, 11(5), 1480; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11051480 - 12 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1001
Abstract
Many fundamental decisions in the process design of a separation task are conducted in an early stage where, unfortunately, process simulation does not have the highest priority. Subsequently, during the setup of the digital twin, dedicated experiments are carried out in the design [...] Read more.
Many fundamental decisions in the process design of a separation task are conducted in an early stage where, unfortunately, process simulation does not have the highest priority. Subsequently, during the setup of the digital twin, dedicated experiments are carried out in the design space that was established earlier. These experiments are most often too complicated to conduct directly. This paper addresses the idea of a combined approach. The early-stage buffer screening and optimization experiments were planned with the Design of Experiments, carried out and then analyzed statistically to extract not only the best buffer composition but also the crucial model parameters, in this case the isotherm dependency on the buffer composition. This allowed the digital twin to predict the best buffer composition, and if the model-predicted control was applied to keep the process at the optimal productivity at a predetermined purity. The methodology was tested with an industrial peptide purification step. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processes in 2023)
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11 pages, 2975 KiB  
Article
Digital Twin Based Design and Experimental Validation of a Continuous Peptide Polishing Step
by Steffen Zobel-Roos, Florian Vetter, Daniel Scheps, Marcus Pfeiffer, Matthias Gunne, Oliver Boscheinen and Jochen Strube
Processes 2023, 11(5), 1401; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11051401 - 05 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1255
Abstract
Optimizing or debottlenecking existing production plants is a challenging task. In this case study, an existing reversed phased chromatography polishing step for peptide purification was optimized with the help of a digital twin. The existing batch chromatography was depicted digitally with the general [...] Read more.
Optimizing or debottlenecking existing production plants is a challenging task. In this case study, an existing reversed phased chromatography polishing step for peptide purification was optimized with the help of a digital twin. The existing batch chromatography was depicted digitally with the general rate model. Model parameter determination and model validation was done with dedicated experiments. The digital twin was then used to identify optimized process variants, especially continuous chromatography steps. MCSGP was found to achieve high purities and yield but at the cost of productivity due to column synchronization. An alternative Continuous Twin Column chromatography process (CTCC) was established that eliminates unnecessary waiting times. Ensuring the same or higher purity compared to the batch process, the continuous process achieved a yield increase of 31% and productivity increase of 27.6%. Experimental long runs confirmed these results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processes in 2023)
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