Phase Change, Interphase Coupling, and Multiphase Transport in Porous Structures

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 10 October 2024 | Viewed by 6963

Special Issue Editors

State Key Laboratory for Tunnel Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083, China
Interests: carbon dioxide geological storage; phase field simulation from transport in porous media; capillary imbibition
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Guest Editor
Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
Interests: multiphysics process in energy geomechanics
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Guest Editor
College of Petroleum Engineering, Xi’an Shiyou University, Xi’an 710065, China
Interests: integration of hydraulic fracturing and enhanced oil recovery; interwell-fracturing interference
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School of Petroleum, China University of Petroleum-Beijing at Karamay, Karamay 834000, China
Interests: hydraulic fracturing; fracture propagation simulation
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Multiphase flows and phase-change phenomena are often encountered in many engineering systems, such as CCUS (carbon capture, utilization and storage); the exploitation of oil, natural gas and other underground resources; the utilization of geothermal energy and hydrogen energy, etc. Multiphase flows refer to the interactive flow of distinct phases, and each phase discriminated by common interfaces in a channel represents a mass or volume of matter. Multiphase flows can occur in a single-component or multi-component systems. Possible phase combinations include:

  • Solid–liquid–gas, where solid particles and gas bubbles are mostly dispersed in the liquid;
  • Solid–gas, solid–liquid, and liquid–gas, where the volume fraction of one phase is relative to other results for different flow regimes;
  • Phase change and miscibility phenomena involved in a combination of the above.

Understanding the fundamentals and mechanisms of multiphase transport and phase-change phenomena is continuously needed to develop the relevant technology of engineering applications.

You may choose our Joint Special Issue in Materials.

Dr. Liu Yang
Dr. Haitao Zhang
Dr. Yanjun Zhang
Dr. Bo Wang
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • phase change
  • interphase coupling
  • multiphase transport

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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17 pages, 7250 KiB  
Article
Study on the Adaptability Evaluation of Micro-Dispersed-Gel-Strengthened-Alkali-Compound System and the Production Mechanism of Crude Oil
by Teng Wang, Tianjiang Wu, Yunlong Liu, Chen Cheng and Guang Zhao
Processes 2024, 12(5), 871; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12050871 - 26 Apr 2024
Viewed by 523
Abstract
A novel micro-dispersed-gel (MDG)-strengthened-alkali-compound flooding system was proposed for enhanced oil recovery in high-water-cut mature oilfields. Micro-dispersed gel has different adaptability and application schemes with sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide. The MDG-strengthened-alkali flooding system can reduce the interfacial tension to an ultra-low interfacial-tension [...] Read more.
A novel micro-dispersed-gel (MDG)-strengthened-alkali-compound flooding system was proposed for enhanced oil recovery in high-water-cut mature oilfields. Micro-dispersed gel has different adaptability and application schemes with sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide. The MDG-strengthened-alkali flooding system can reduce the interfacial tension to an ultra-low interfacial-tension level of 10−2 mN/m, which can reverse the wettability of rock surface. After 30 days aging, the MDG-strengthened-Na2CO3 flooding system has good viscosity retention of 74.5%, with an emulsion stability of 79.13%. The enhanced-oil-recovery ability of the MDG-strengthened-Na2CO3 (MDGSC) flooding system is 43.91%, which is slightly weaker than the 47.78% of the MDG-strengthened-NaOH (MDGSH) flooding system. The crude-oil-production mechanism of the two systems is different, but they all show excellent performance in enhanced oil recovery. The MDGSC flooding system mainly regulates and seals micro-fractures, forcing subsequent injected water to enter the low-permeability area, and it has the ability to wash the remaining oil in micro-fractures. The MDGSH flooding system mainly removes the remaining oil on the rock wall surface in the micro-fractures by efficient washing, and the MDG particles can also form weak plugging of the micro-fractures. The MDG-strengthened-alkali flooding system can be used as an alternative to enhance oil recovery in high-water-cut and highly heterogeneous mature oilfields. Full article
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22 pages, 22304 KiB  
Article
Study on Fracture Propagation Rules of Shale Refracturing Based on CT Technology
by Jialiang Zhang, Xiaoqiong Wang, Huajian Xiao, Hongkui Ge and Jixiang He
Processes 2024, 12(1), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12010131 - 3 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1129
Abstract
Reactivating oil and gas wells, increasing oil and gas production, and improving recovery provide more opportunities for energy supply especially in the extraction of unconventional oil and gas reservoirs. Due to changes caused by well completion and production in pore pressure around oil [...] Read more.
Reactivating oil and gas wells, increasing oil and gas production, and improving recovery provide more opportunities for energy supply especially in the extraction of unconventional oil and gas reservoirs. Due to changes caused by well completion and production in pore pressure around oil and gas wells, subsequently leading to changes in ground stress, and the presence of natural and induced fractures in the reservoir, the process of refracturing is highly complex. This complexity is particularly pronounced in shale oil reservoirs with developed weak layer structures. Through true triaxial hydraulic fracturing experiments on Jimsar shale and utilizing micro-CT to characterize fractures, this study investigates the mechanisms and patterns of refracturing. The research indicates: (1) natural fractures and the stress states in the rock are the primary influencing factors in the fracture propagation. Because natural fractures are widely developed in Jimsar shale, natural fractures are the main influencing factors of hydraulic fracturing, especially in refracturing, the existing fractures have a greater impact on the propagation of secondary fracturing fractures. (2) Successful sealing of existing fractures using temporary blocking agents is crucial for initiating new fractures in refracturing. Traditional methods of plugging the seam at the root of existing fractures are ineffective, whereas extensive injection of blocking agents, forming large “sheet-like” blocking bodies in old fractures, yields better sealing effects, promoting the initiation of new fractures. (3) Moderately increasing the pumping rate and viscosity of fracturing fluid is advantageous in forming “sheet-like” temporary blocking bodies, enhancing the complexity of the network of new fractures in refracturing. (4) When there is a high horizontal stress difference, after sealing old fractures, the secondary hydraulic fractures initiate parallel to and extend from the old fractures. In cases of low horizontal stress difference, the complexity of secondary hydraulic fractures increases. When the horizontal stress changes direction, the secondary hydraulic fractures also change direction. It is recommended to use high-viscosity fracturing fluid and moderately increase the pumping rate, injecting blocking agents to seal old fractures, thereby enhancing the complexity of the network of refracturing. These findings provide important technical guidance for improving the efficiency of shale oil reservoir development. Full article
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17 pages, 8926 KiB  
Article
The Characteristics of Fracturing Fluid Distribution after Fracturing and Shut-In Time Optimization in Unconventional Reservoirs Using NMR
by Xin Huang, Lei Wang, Nan Wang, Ming Li, Shuangliang Wu, Qun Ding, Shucan Xu, Zhilin Tuo and Wenqiang Yu
Processes 2023, 11(8), 2393; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11082393 - 9 Aug 2023
Viewed by 615
Abstract
Post-fracturing shut-in, as an important means of improving the energy efficiency of fracturing fluid, has been widely used in the development process of unconventional reservoirs. The determination of the shut-in duration is key to the effectiveness of shut-in measures. However, the distribution characteristics [...] Read more.
Post-fracturing shut-in, as an important means of improving the energy efficiency of fracturing fluid, has been widely used in the development process of unconventional reservoirs. The determination of the shut-in duration is key to the effectiveness of shut-in measures. However, the distribution characteristics of the fracturing fluid during the post-fracturing shut-in period in unconventional reservoirs, such as the Chang 7 reservoir, were not clear, and the shut-in duration needed further optimization. Therefore, this paper employed low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technology to study the distribution characteristics of the fracturing fluid during the post-fracturing shut-in period in unconventional reservoirs and optimized the shut-in duration. The study showed that the Chang 7 reservoir had a complex pore structure and relatively low porosity and permeability. During the shut-in process, the filtrate was distributed in pore throats with radii ranging from 0.0012 μm to 0.025 μm. Pore throats with radii ranging from 0.003 μm to 0.07 μm acted as dynamic pore throats in the process of imbibition displacement. When the shut-in duration for the Chang 7 segment was 7 days, the growth rate of the retained volume of fracturing fluid filtrate was the highest. When the shut-in duration was 10 days, there was no oil displacement in the medium and large pores, and the retained volume of filtrate was lower than that at 7 days shut-in, indicating that an optimal shut-in duration would be 7 days. This study can provide theoretical and technical support for the development of unconventional reservoirs. Full article
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15 pages, 2913 KiB  
Article
Enhanced Oil Recovery and CO2 Storage Performance in Continental Shale Oil Reservoirs Using CO2 Pre-Injection Fracturing
by An Zhang, Yalin Lei, Chenjun Zhang and Jiaping Tao
Processes 2023, 11(8), 2387; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11082387 - 8 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1191
Abstract
CO2 pre-injection fracturing is a promising technique for the recovery of continental shale oil. It has multiple advantages, such as oil recovery enhancement, CO2 geological storage and water consumption reduction. Compared with conventional CO2 huff and puff and flooding, CO [...] Read more.
CO2 pre-injection fracturing is a promising technique for the recovery of continental shale oil. It has multiple advantages, such as oil recovery enhancement, CO2 geological storage and water consumption reduction. Compared with conventional CO2 huff and puff and flooding, CO2 pre-injection features higher injection rates and pressures, leading to EOR and improved CO2 storage performance. Combining physical experiments and numerical simulation, this research systematically investigated the EOR and storage performance of CO2 pre-injection in continental shale reservoirs. The results showed that CO2 pre-injection greatly improved the oil recovery; after seven cycles of soaking, the average oil recovery factor was 39.27%, representing a relative increase of 31.6% compared with that of the conventional CO2 huff and puff. With the increasing pressure, the CO2 solubility grew in both the oil and water, and so did the CO2 adsorption in shale. Numerical simulation indicated that the average CO2 storage ratio of the production stage was 76.46%, which validated the effectiveness of CO2 pre-injection in terms of CO2 geological storage. Full article
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15 pages, 5963 KiB  
Article
Automatic Optimization of Multi-Well Multi-Stage Fracturing Treatments Combining Geomechanical Simulation, Reservoir Simulation and Intelligent Algorithm
by Bo Wang, Yan Fang, Lizhe Li and Zhe Liu
Processes 2023, 11(6), 1759; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11061759 - 9 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1031
Abstract
Shale reserves have become an ever-increasing component of the world’s energy map. The optimal design of multi-well multi-stage fracturing (MMF) treatments is essential to the economic development of such resources. However, optimizing MMF treatments is a complex process. It requires geomechanical simulation, reservoir [...] Read more.
Shale reserves have become an ever-increasing component of the world’s energy map. The optimal design of multi-well multi-stage fracturing (MMF) treatments is essential to the economic development of such resources. However, optimizing MMF treatments is a complex process. It requires geomechanical simulation, reservoir simulation, and automatic optimization. In this work, an integrated workflow is proposed to optimize MMF treatments in an unconventional reservoir, and the net present value (NPV) of reserves was treated as the objective function. The forward model consists of two submodels: a hydraulic fracturing model and a reservoir simulation model. The stochastic simplex approximation gradient (StoSAG) is used with the steepest ascent algorithm to maximize the NPV function. The computational results show that optimizing the fracture design can achieve a 20% higher NPV than that obtained with the field reference case. The drainage area of the optimal design is larger than that of the initial design. The maximum gas production rate increases from 23.75 MMSCF/day to 34.43 MMSCF/day and the maximum oil production rate increases from 497 STB/day to 692 STB/day. Therefore, new optimization paths can accelerate fracture design and help increase well production. This paper innovatively proposes a coupled workflow that can reduce the waste of manpower and improve the optimization results. Full article
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Review

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22 pages, 5114 KiB  
Review
A Scientometric Review on Imbibition in Unconventional Reservoir: A Decade of Review from 2010 to 2021
by Liu Yang, Duo Yang, Chen Liang, Yuxue Li, Manchao He, Junfei Jia and Jianying He
Processes 2023, 11(3), 845; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11030845 - 11 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1600
Abstract
Spontaneous imbibition is a phenomenon of fluid displacement under the action of capillary force, which is of great significance to reservoir protection, enhanced oil recovery, flow-back optimization, and fracturing fluid selection in unconventional oil and gas reservoirs. Remarkable progress has been made in [...] Read more.
Spontaneous imbibition is a phenomenon of fluid displacement under the action of capillary force, which is of great significance to reservoir protection, enhanced oil recovery, flow-back optimization, and fracturing fluid selection in unconventional oil and gas reservoirs. Remarkable progress has been made in the imbibition research of oil and gas, and the overall research situation of research needs to be analyzed more systematically. This paper aims to provide a scientometric review of imbibition studies in unconventional reservoirs from 2010 to 2021. A total of 1810 papers are collected from the Web of Science Core Correction database based on selected keywords and paper types. Using CiteSpace software, a quantitative scientific analysis is carried out on the main aspects of national cooperation, institutional cooperation, scholarly cooperation, keyword co-occurrence, journal co-citation, article co-citation, and keyword clustering. The principal research countries, institutions, scholars, keywords, published journals, influential articles, and main research clusters are obtained, and the cooperation relationship is analyzed from the centrality and number of publications. At the end of the paper, the existing knowledge areas are discussed based on the analysis of scientometric results. This study constructs a comprehensive research knowledge map of imbibition, providing relevant research with a more valuable and in-depth understanding of the field. Full article
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