Food Processing and Food Analysis: Principles, Techniques, and Applications

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Process Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (29 February 2024) | Viewed by 21181

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Food Science, Fu Jen Catholic University, No. 510, Zhongzheng Rd., Xinzhuang Dist., New Taipei City 242062, Taiwan
Interests: food proteomics; enzymology; enzyme inhibitors
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Guest Editor
Department of Animal Science, National Chiayi University, No. 300, Hsueh-Fu Rd., Chiayi City 60004, Taiwan
Interests: food science; Artificial Intelligence; materials chemistry

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Guest Editor
Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan
Interests: materials science; enzymology; bioresource technology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Proteins, carbohydrates, and fats are the most important elements in a person's diet. These components are commonly found in plant (such as soybean) and animal products (such as meat, milk, and egg). The raw materials from plant and animal sources can be converted into processed foods via food processing methods, which can extend the shelf life of foods and improve their nutritional quality. Much of this work focuses on food composition, formulations, manufacturing, quality, packaging, preservation, allergies, authentication, and fermentation. Food analysis of raw and processed foods can provide information about the chemical composition of foodstuffs. For over a decade, the study of processed foods has relied on food analysis to acquire information on chemical composition, processing, quality control, and food contamination, all of which are required to ensure compliance with food laws. Food analysis can also be used to monitor changes in the composition of raw materials and processed foods and to authenticate the safety and quality of food items. At a more fundamental level, the principles, techniques, and applications of food processing and food analysis have been used to investigate raw and processed foods.

For this Special Issue, "Food Processing and Food Analysis: Principles, Techniques, and Applications," high-quality research papers focusing on food processing and/or food analysis are welcome for submission. Topics of interest include the following:

  • Food processing and enzyme technologies for dairy, egg, meat, and cereals;
  • Food analysis for dairy, egg, meat, and cereals;
  • Evaluation of food authentication, quality, and safety;
  • Analysis and identification of food allergens.

Prof. Dr. Jung-Feng Hsieh
Dr. Chun-Chi Chen
Dr. Ken-Lin Chang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Processes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • food processing
  • food analysis
  • meat products
  • dairy products
  • egg products
  • plant-based foods
  • fermented foods
  • food authentication
  • food allergens

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 181 KiB  
Editorial
Special Issue: Food Processing and Food Analysis: Principles, Techniques, and Applications
by Jung-Feng Hsieh
Processes 2023, 11(8), 2475; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11082475 - 17 Aug 2023
Viewed by 630
Abstract
This Special Issue, entitled “Food Processing and Food Analysis: Principles, Techniques, and Applications”, explores perspectives and latest advances in the field of food science [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

13 pages, 1100 KiB  
Article
Phenolic Compounds, Fatty Acid Composition, and Antioxidant Activities of Some Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) Varieties: A Comprehensive Analysis
by Mehmet Zeki Koçak
Processes 2024, 12(4), 689; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12040689 - 29 Mar 2024
Viewed by 427
Abstract
Flaxseed, also known as flax or linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.), is one of the oldest crops. It is used for oil and fiber production. The species displays a broad range of biological activities due to its chemical compounds. It has a widespread [...] Read more.
Flaxseed, also known as flax or linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.), is one of the oldest crops. It is used for oil and fiber production. The species displays a broad range of biological activities due to its chemical compounds. It has a widespread geographical distribution, and a large number of its varieties have been evaluated for their biological efficacy and nutritional value. This study investigates fifteen varieties of the species, some of which are examined for the first time. In this regard, a series of chemical composition analyses and antioxidant assays were carried out. Accordingly, total phenolic content ranged between 613.6 (Michael) and 3164.6 (Atalanta) mg GAE/g, whilst total flavonoid content varied from 176.25 (BonnyDoon) to 689.20 (Mcduff) mg QE/g. Regarding the radical scavenging assays, the values obtained were significantly higher than those of the standard antioxidant (ascorbic acid). Furthermore, the extracts exhibited chelating activity for ferrous ions and a cupric reducing capacity that was comparable to that of the standard. The oil content values of the varieties ranged from 0.82 g/100 g (Michael) to 2.14 g/100 g (McGregor). The percentage of α-linolenic acid varied between 39.21% (McGregor) and 54.13% (Nareum). Full article
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14 pages, 856 KiB  
Article
Improving the Nutritional Value and Physical Properties of Gluten-Free Mushroom Soup by Substituting Rice Flour with Quinoa Seed Flour
by Badr Saed, Mohammed El-Waseif, Hatem Ali, Tawfiq Alsulami, Zhaojun Ban and Amr Farouk
Processes 2023, 11(12), 3287; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11123287 - 24 Nov 2023
Viewed by 803
Abstract
Gluten-free products were initially for people with gluten-related disorders but are now popular with regular consumers. Research is investigating the health benefits of other gluten-free pseudo cereals, like quinoa, with higher nutritional value. This study aimed to explore the impact of substituting 30% [...] Read more.
Gluten-free products were initially for people with gluten-related disorders but are now popular with regular consumers. Research is investigating the health benefits of other gluten-free pseudo cereals, like quinoa, with higher nutritional value. This study aimed to explore the impact of substituting 30% rice flour (RF) in gluten-free mushroom instant dry soup with quinoa seed flour (QSF) at different levels on its nutritional, physicochemical, sensory characteristics, and the antioxidant activity. The results showed that replacing RF with QSF led to a significant improvement in the nutritional profile of the soup, with a linear increase in crude protein, fat, ash, crude fiber, total polyphenol, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity levels as the substitution rate increased. Moreover, macro- and microelements and essential amino acids increased significantly in the soup samples by adding QSF instead of RF, from 10 to 30%, compared to the control, which contained 30% of RF. However, the other total carbohydrate content decreased with the rise in the QSF concentration in the soup. In addition, substituting RF with QSF improved the soup samples’ rehydration ratio and total soluble solids. However, the color parameters (a* and b*) were increased with a decrease in L*. The sensory analysis revealed that the maximum substitution rate of QSF maintained the highest consumer acceptability, odor, flavor, texture, and appearance of the gluten-free mushroom instant soup samples. In conclusion, adding QSF to non-gluten soups improves their physical and chemical characteristics, nutritional impact, and organoleptic properties due to phytochemicals. Full article
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16 pages, 310 KiB  
Article
Production and Evaluation of Gluten-Free Pasta and Pan Bread from Spirulina Algae Powder and Quinoa Flour
by Ahmed S. Hussein, Sayed Mostafa, Suzanne Fouad, Nefisa A. Hegazy and Ahmed A. Zaky
Processes 2023, 11(10), 2899; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11102899 - 30 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 913
Abstract
This study was carried out to evaluate semolina flour (SF), wheat flour (WF), quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) flour (QF), spirulina algae powder (SAP) and their blends for production of gluten-free pasta and bread suitable for celiac patients. Pasta made of 100% semolina [...] Read more.
This study was carried out to evaluate semolina flour (SF), wheat flour (WF), quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) flour (QF), spirulina algae powder (SAP) and their blends for production of gluten-free pasta and bread suitable for celiac patients. Pasta made of 100% semolina and pan bread made of 100% WF were prepared for comparison with pasta and pan bread from QF and blends with SAP at different levels (5, 10 and 15%). The chemical composition, rheological properties, color attributes, cooking quality, baking quality, sensory properties and texture analysis of the pasta and pan bread were investigated. SAP was added to QF at 5, 10 and 15% levels. The results show that SAP is marked by higher protein (63.65%), fat (6.18%), and ash (12.50%) contents. Thus, raising the mixing level of SAP with QF resulted in an increase in the nutritional value of pasta and pan bread. Moreover, these high-protein products improved basal metabolic rate, preserved body muscle mass, and decreased body fat percentage. Farinograph characteristics demonstrated that water absorption, arrival time, dough development time, and stability grew as the ratio of SAP in QF increased. The addition of SAP to QF in increasing proportions from 5% to 15% decreased the elasticity and proportional number, while the extensibility and energy of the dough increased. Also, addition of SAP to QF at different levels (5 to 15%) decreased all viscoamylograph parameters except for the temperature of transition, which increased. In regard to cooking quality, all the pasta samples prepared by mixing SAP with QF had higher weight, volume, and cooking loss than the control. Additionally, while all samples of pasta and pan bread passed the sensory test, those that contained SAP had greater sensory qualities and nutritional value. These products are suitable for athletes and for patients with celiac disease and obesity. Full article
13 pages, 2103 KiB  
Article
Process Optimization of Sea Buckthorn Fruit Powder Effervescent Tablets by Random Centroid Methodology Combined with Fuzzy Mathematical Sensory Evaluation
by Yan Ma, Yali Lian, Xintao Meng, Mingqiang Xu, Ting Zhang, Hui Zou and Haiyan Yang
Processes 2023, 11(9), 2639; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11092639 - 04 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 881
Abstract
Solid beverages of effervescent tablets have good taste and portable features and are favored by consumers, but product quality and nutrition cannot meet the need of increasing nutritional requirements. Sea buckthorn fruit has a special flavor and nutrient-rich characteristics, but the related products [...] Read more.
Solid beverages of effervescent tablets have good taste and portable features and are favored by consumers, but product quality and nutrition cannot meet the need of increasing nutritional requirements. Sea buckthorn fruit has a special flavor and nutrient-rich characteristics, but the related products of effervescent tablets have not been developed. In this paper, different additive contents (sea buckthorn fruit powder, erythritol, disintegrant, maltodextrin, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)) were optimized using the random centroid method; the obtained effervescent effect sensory evaluation characteristics (appearance, beverage, appearance, taste, solubility) were used to establish a fuzzy mathematic model for sensory evaluation method of process optimizing; and the nutritional components and characteristics of optimized sea buckthorn powder effervescent tablets were compared to the ones of the commercial product. The results show that the optimal process conditions (47.7% sea buckthorn fruit powder, 1.3% erythritol, 1:1 disintegrant ratio, 2% maltodextrin and 2.9% PVP) were obtained according to the highest fuzzy comprehensive sensory score (87.76). Moreover, the optimized one contains a higher content of vitamin C (50.36 mg/100 g), carotenoids (10.18 mg/100 g), total phenols (11.52 GAE/g), and total flavonoids (28.46 mg RE/100 g), as well as a shorter disintegration time (10 s). The results indicate the RCO, combined with fuzzy mathematical sensory evaluation, is preferably suitable for effervescent tablet process optimization, and the quality indicators met the requirements of the effervescent tablet. Full article
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10 pages, 283 KiB  
Article
Preserving the Internal Quality of Quail Eggs Using a Corn Starch-Based Coating Combined with Basil Essential Oil
by Maria Viviane de Araújo, Gabriel da Silva Oliveira, Concepta McManus, Igor Rafael Ribeiro Vale, Cristiane Batista Salgado, Paula Gabriela da Silva Pires, Tatiana Amabile de Campos, Laura Fernandes Gonçalves, Ana Paula Cardoso Almeida, Gustavo dos Santos Martins, Ivana Correa Ramos Leal and Vinícius Machado dos Santos
Processes 2023, 11(6), 1612; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11061612 - 25 May 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1226
Abstract
The objective of the study is to evaluate a new proposal for a coating based on corn starch (CS) enriched with basil essential oil (BEO) to overcome the rapid deterioration of quail eggs under nonrefrigerated conditions. One hundred and seventy-one quail eggs were [...] Read more.
The objective of the study is to evaluate a new proposal for a coating based on corn starch (CS) enriched with basil essential oil (BEO) to overcome the rapid deterioration of quail eggs under nonrefrigerated conditions. One hundred and seventy-one quail eggs were divided into treatments of uncoated eggs (control), eggs coated with CS, and eggs coated with CS/BEO, and analyzed over four weeks at room temperature. The CS/BEO coating reduced the growth of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, molds, and yeasts on the surface of eggshells to <2 log10 CFU/mL compared to the control treatment at week four storage. The average Haugh unit (HU) of the four weeks of storage of the CS/BEO treatment was notably higher compared to the control. There was no significant difference between the sensory parameter scores of coated eggs and control treatment. Based on the findings, the CS/BEO coating can be used to mitigate the contamination of quail eggs and preserve their internal quality when stored in an environment without temperature and humidity control. Full article
21 pages, 3781 KiB  
Article
Impact of Some Enzymatic Treatments on Acrylamide Content in Biscuits
by Amr A. El-Sayed, Magdy M. Abdelhady, Saleh A. Jaafari, Tariq M. Alanazi and Alaa S. Mohammed
Processes 2023, 11(4), 1041; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11041041 - 29 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2182
Abstract
Since its discovery in many heat-treatment foods in 2002, many efforts have been made to reduce acrylamide levels in foods. Methods to reduce acrylamide levels by reducing Maillard reaction products have been considered. However, baking cookies produces acrylamide, a carcinogenic compound. This study [...] Read more.
Since its discovery in many heat-treatment foods in 2002, many efforts have been made to reduce acrylamide levels in foods. Methods to reduce acrylamide levels by reducing Maillard reaction products have been considered. However, baking cookies produces acrylamide, a carcinogenic compound. This study aimed to use a new quantitative index and formula for L-asparaginase, glucose oxidase, their 1:1 blending enzymes, baker’s yeast, and green tea powder (0.5 g/kg wheat flour) at a new proposed temperature of 37 °C for 30 min to reduce acrylamide production in biscuits and bakery products using new indicators such as asparagine reduction (%), the asparagine/acrylamide ratio, acrylamide reduction (%), and the asparagine/reducing sugar ratio. The highest acrylamide concentrations were reduced from 865 mg/kg in the blank sample (BT0) to 260 and 215 mg/kg in the mixed enzyme powder (1:1) (BT3)- and BT4-treated samples, respectively. The biscuit samples treated with 0.5 g/kg L-asparaginase reduced the acrylamide levels by approximately 67.63%, while the BT3 samples showed acrylamide levels of 69.94% and asparagine levels of 68.75% and 47%, respectively, compared with percentage in the untreated sample (blank), 95%. This percentage was 54.16% for the BT4 samples. The results showed that acrylamide was formed during baking, and all treatment samples inhibited its formation, making it possible to produce foods with low levels of acrylamide in starchy foods in the food industry at 37 °C for 30 min and preserving the quality and nutritional value of the final product. It can be used as a specialty food or functional food and protects school-agechildren, as well as youth on campus, from approximately 70–80% of their daily intake of acrylamide. Full article
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11 pages, 1771 KiB  
Article
Authentication of Coffee Blends by 16-O-Methylcafestol Quantification Using NMR Spectroscopy
by Ya-Tze Lin, You-Lun We, Ya-Min Kao, Su-Hsiang Tseng, Der-Yuan Wang and Shin-Yu Chen
Processes 2023, 11(3), 871; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11030871 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1465
Abstract
In 2019, a coffee chain in Taiwan was found to be mixing relatively cheap Robusta beans into products marketed as 100% Arabica. Many studies show 16-OMC is a remarkable marker to distinguish Robusta from Arabica beans, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a [...] Read more.
In 2019, a coffee chain in Taiwan was found to be mixing relatively cheap Robusta beans into products marketed as 100% Arabica. Many studies show 16-OMC is a remarkable marker to distinguish Robusta from Arabica beans, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a convenient and efficient technique for 16-OMC quantification. Here, a 500 MHz NMR was employed to determine the content of 16-OMC in coffee for adulterate evaluation. A total of 118 samples were analyzed including products from the coffee chain, raw materials (single coffee beans), and other commercial products. The contents of 16-OMC in single Robusta beans were between 1005.55 and 3208.32 mg/kg and were absent from single Arabica beans. The surveillance results indicate that 17 out of 47 blend products claiming to contain 100% Arabica had 16-OMC quantifications in the range of 155.74–784.60 mg/kg. Furthermore, all 17 products were produced by the same coffee chain. We confirmed that coffee chain adulterated Arabica with Robusta in parts of their products, which claimed to include 100% Arabica. Moreover, this work highlights the free form of 16-OMC was esterified by coffee instantly. The decomposition products of 16-OMC were observed obviously in green Robusta while the mechanisms remain unclear. Future research should focus more on these aspects to further increase our understanding of these mechanisms. Full article
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12 pages, 2400 KiB  
Article
Effects of Soybean and Tempeh Water Extracts on Regulation of Intestinal Flora and Prevention of Colon Precancerous Lesions in Rats
by Nileema R. Divate, Katharina Ardanareswari, Yu-Ping Yu, Ya-Chen Chen, Jiunn-Wang Liao and Yun-Chin Chung
Processes 2023, 11(1), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11010257 - 13 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2248
Abstract
Soybean bioactivity is significantly enhanced during tempeh fermentation. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of tempeh on colorectal cancer cells in vitro and colon precancerous lesions (aberrant crypt foci, ACF) in vivo. In the in vitro assay, tempeh water extract (WET) could [...] Read more.
Soybean bioactivity is significantly enhanced during tempeh fermentation. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of tempeh on colorectal cancer cells in vitro and colon precancerous lesions (aberrant crypt foci, ACF) in vivo. In the in vitro assay, tempeh water extract (WET) could inhibit the proliferation of Caco-2 cells. In the animal assay using 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats, 12-weeks daily feeding of tempeh could decrease the level of Clostridium perfringens in cecum contents and reduce the number of large (≥4 foci) ACF in the colon of treated rats, compared to the DMH control. By the results of TOF-MS and Edman degradation, the isolated antioxidant dipeptide, tripeptides, and tetrapeptides from WET might contain methionine, proline, and lysine. The bioactive peptides in tempeh might inhibit colon cancer by suppressing the growth of C. perfringens in the intestinal tract. Full article
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12 pages, 2759 KiB  
Article
Separation of Free Fatty Acid and Triglycerides by Molecular Distillation–Experimental and Simulation Approaches
by Teetach Changwatchai, Mitsutoshi Nakajima, Lorena de Oliveira Felipe and Marcos A. Neves
Processes 2022, 10(10), 2053; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10102053 - 11 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2836
Abstract
Separation of free fatty acids and triglycerides is important in the edible oil industry. In this study, both experimental and simulation approaches were conducted using falling film molecular distillation. A binary mixture of oleic acid as free fatty acid with refined soybean oil [...] Read more.
Separation of free fatty acids and triglycerides is important in the edible oil industry. In this study, both experimental and simulation approaches were conducted using falling film molecular distillation. A binary mixture of oleic acid as free fatty acid with refined soybean oil as triglyceride was used. Evaporation temperature range tested was from 110 to 160 °C, while other parameters such as condensation temperature, feeding rate, and vacuum pressure were fixed. The free fatty acid content of retentate was gradually decreased as evaporation temperature increased, while the free fatty acid content of distillate was approximately 100 wt.%, regardless of temperature. Triglycerides had an extremely low vapor pressure compared to oleic acid; therefore, their fraction in distillate was negligible. The mass conservation and transport equations were selected to explain the evaporation mechanism, and analytical solutions were simply introduced under the conditions of low mass fraction of volatile compound in the feeding mixture. Some experimental data are re-quired to determine the coefficient of molecular distillation in the governing equation. Using this obtained parameter, the proposed model could simulate all mass amounts and fractions of each component in retentate and distillate with a good agreement between experimental and simulation data, indicating the reasonable accuracy of the model proposed. Full article
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11 pages, 2668 KiB  
Article
Effects of Calcium Sulfate and Chitosan on Textural Modification and Microstructure of Tofu Made from Lentils (Lens culinaris)
by Cheng-Hsun Jao, Chieh-Yi Lin, Chao-Jung Chen and Jung-Feng Hsieh
Processes 2022, 10(10), 2000; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10102000 - 03 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2023
Abstract
This study investigated calcium sulfate and chitosan on the textural modification and microstructure of tofu made from lentils. The addition of varying amounts of calcium sulfate (0–12 mM) and chitosan (0–1.0%) into lentil milk could affect the gel properties of lentil-based tofu. The [...] Read more.
This study investigated calcium sulfate and chitosan on the textural modification and microstructure of tofu made from lentils. The addition of varying amounts of calcium sulfate (0–12 mM) and chitosan (0–1.0%) into lentil milk could affect the gel properties of lentil-based tofu. The gel properties, including the hardness and cohesiveness, of lentil-based tofu significantly increased with the addition of 12 mM calcium sulfate, exhibiting a slightly discontinuous network structure and a slightly regular pore network. However, the gel properties including hardness and cohesiveness significantly decreased with the addition of 1.0% chitosan, presenting a slightly continuous network structure with pores. Sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis showed that the aggregation of the vicilin, legumin acidic unit and legumin basic unit proteins in lentil milk was induced both by 12 mM calcium sulfate and 1.0% chitosan. Our results suggested that calcium sulfate and chitosan could affect the gel properties, such as hardness and cohesiveness, of lentil-based tofu. Therefore, calcium sulfate and chitosan can be used as practical food additives for the development of texture-modified lentil-based tofu. Full article
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Review

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21 pages, 1761 KiB  
Review
Morula Tree: From Fruit to Wine through Spontaneous Fermentation and the Potential of Deriving Other Value-Added Products
by Lesetja Moraba Legodi, Maleho Annastasia Lekganyane and Kgabo L. Maureen Moganedi
Processes 2022, 10(9), 1706; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10091706 - 27 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4101
Abstract
Sclerocarya birrea (Morula tree) is one of the indigenous trees bearing wild fruits with various applications in the African communities. Wine is a globally known beverage usually made from grapes; however, recently, other fruits, including wild fruits with a considerable amount of sugars, [...] Read more.
Sclerocarya birrea (Morula tree) is one of the indigenous trees bearing wild fruits with various applications in the African communities. Wine is a globally known beverage usually made from grapes; however, recently, other fruits, including wild fruits with a considerable amount of sugars, can be used for making wines. The marula fruit wine is also important in many communities for cultural activities and can be enjoyed by people of varying age groups depending on the age of the product. In recent years, there has been growing interest in shifting from traditional marula winemaking to developing technologies for the marula winemaking process and commercialisation. The process of marula winemaking is similar to the production of grape wines, which entails collection, selection and washing of the fruits; extraction of the juice and mashing; formation and removal of the scum; and ultimately spontaneous fermentation of the resulting juice. The new process in marula winemaking would take into consideration the use of starter cultures as either monoculture or mixed cultures developed from the native marula fruit microbiota and the pasteurisation of the juice. The main challenge or difficulty with marula is the extraction of sugar and other soluble solids from the pulp more than it is for the grapes. The other challenge confronting the sustainability of marula wine is the seasonality of the fruit and poor juice yield. It is therefore imperative to develop strategies to increase the juice yield without affecting the quality, to preserve the marula fruits to ensure the year-round presence of marula fruit wine in the markets and, consequently, to improve the income generation capacity of the households dependent on the product. In addition to achieving a high juice yield, it is imperative to ensure consistent quality wine products. This review gives an overview of the S. birrea subsp. caffra and the biochemical components of the fruits or juice. It also highlights the use of marula fruits for wine production in African communities. The potential economic sustainability of the marula fruit wine is explored, particularly in southern Africa, where the marula tree (Morula) is abundant and the marula fruit wine is popularly produced. The review also examines the opportunities, challenges and future prospects of the marula fruit wine. Full article
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