Activated Carbon in Contaminant Removal

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Chemical Processes and Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 November 2021) | Viewed by 10077

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. David W. Mazyck
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
Interests: activated carbon for all applications
Department of Civil and Construction Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Kennesaw State University, 655 Arnston Drive, Room L-158, MD 9055, Marietta, GA 30060, USA
Interests: water and wastewater treatment; biosolids application; photochemical mercury removal; sustainability
Dr. Emily K. Faulconer
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Stem Education, College of Arts and Sciences, Worldwide College of Arts & Sciences, 1 Aerospace Boulevard, Daytona Beach, FL 32114, USA
Interests: environmental chemistry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Activated carbon has been successfully applied for the removal of organic and inorganic contaminants for several decades, and advancements in activated carbons are similarly occurring. Worldwide, environmental regulations are tightening, and activated carbon is commonly the best available technology for these applications. One particular class of compounds include perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOAs), and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) is of particular interest, while pharmaceuticals, inorganics such as mercury, and taste- and odor-causing compounds likewise are globally present.

This Special Issue on “Activated Carbon in Contaminant Removal” seeks high-quality works focusing on recent applications of activated carbons, particularly addressing the compounds listed above. Topics include but are not limited to:

  • Comparisons of activated carbons from different raw materials;
  • Impacts of thermal reactivation on subsequent adsorption;
  • Theoretical modeling to predict adsorption;
  • Advancement in activated carbon characterization.

Prof. David W. Mazyck
Dr. Amy Borello Gruss
Dr. Emily K. Faulconer
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • activated carbon
  • PFOA
  • adsorption
  • surface chemistry
  • reactivation

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

23 pages, 3379 KiB  
Article
Novel Correlations between Spectroscopic and Morphological Properties of Activated Carbons from Waste Coffee Grounds
Processes 2021, 9(9), 1637; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9091637 - 10 Sep 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2289
Abstract
Massive quantities of spent coffee grounds (SCGs) are generated by users around the world. Different processes have been proposed for SCG valorization, including pyrolytic processes to achieve carbonaceous materials. Here, we report the preparation of activated carbons through pyrolytic processes carried out under [...] Read more.
Massive quantities of spent coffee grounds (SCGs) are generated by users around the world. Different processes have been proposed for SCG valorization, including pyrolytic processes to achieve carbonaceous materials. Here, we report the preparation of activated carbons through pyrolytic processes carried out under different experimental conditions and in the presence of various porosity activators. Textural and chemical characterization of the obtained carbons have been achieved through Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), ESEM, 13C solid state NMR, XPS, XRD, thermogravimetric and spectroscopic determinations. The aim of the paper is to relate these data to the preparation method, evaluating the correlation between the spectroscopic data and the physical and textural properties, also in comparison with the corresponding data obtained for three commercial activated carbons used in industrial adsorption processes. Some correlations have been observed between the Raman and XPS data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Activated Carbon in Contaminant Removal)
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15 pages, 3632 KiB  
Article
Synthesis of MFe2O4/CNS (M = Zn, Ni, Mn) Composites Derived from Rice Husk by the Hydrothermal-Microwave Method for Remediation of Paddy Fields
Processes 2021, 9(8), 1349; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9081349 - 30 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1665
Abstract
In this research work, MFe2O4/CNS was prepared using the hydrothermal–microwave method. The influence of cations (M) toward functional groups of composites and their performance in pesticide degradation were studied. Rice husk was pyrolyzed hydrothermally (200 °C, 6 h) and [...] Read more.
In this research work, MFe2O4/CNS was prepared using the hydrothermal–microwave method. The influence of cations (M) toward functional groups of composites and their performance in pesticide degradation were studied. Rice husk was pyrolyzed hydrothermally (200 °C, 6 h) and by microwave (800 W, 40 min). Each product was mixed with MCl2 (Zn, Ni, Mn), FeCl3, KOH, and water, and calcined (600 °C, 15 min) to obtain a composite. Characterization by XRD confirmed the MFe2O4/CNS structure. The FTIR spectra of the composites showed different band sharpness related to C-O and M-O. A mixture of dried paddy farm soil, composite, BPMC (buthylphenylmethyl carbamate) pesticide solution (0.25%), and H2O2 solution (0.15%) was kept under dark conditions for 48 h. The solution above the soil was filtered and measured with a UV-Vis spectrophotometer at 217 nm. Applications without the composite and composite–H2O2 were also conducted. The results reveal that dark BPMC degradation with the composite was 7.5 times larger than that without the composite, and 2.9 times larger than that without the composite–H2O2. There were no significantly different FTIR spectra of the soil, soil–BPMC, soil–BPMC-H2O2, and soil–BPMC-H2O2 composite and no significantly different X-ray diffractograms between the soil after drying and soil after application for pesticide degradation using the composite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Activated Carbon in Contaminant Removal)
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15 pages, 1704 KiB  
Article
Activated Carbon for Pharmaceutical Removal at Point-of-Entry
Processes 2021, 9(7), 1091; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9071091 - 23 Jun 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2564
Abstract
Pharmaceuticals are an increasing problem in waterways due to improper disposal and lack of removal at wastewater treatment plants. Long-term exposure impacts to humans are unknown but have been observed in model organisms (i.e., fish), impacting reproduction, changing temperament, and causing organ damage. [...] Read more.
Pharmaceuticals are an increasing problem in waterways due to improper disposal and lack of removal at wastewater treatment plants. Long-term exposure impacts to humans are unknown but have been observed in model organisms (i.e., fish), impacting reproduction, changing temperament, and causing organ damage. The application of activated carbon (AC) for organic contaminant removal is widespread and applied successfully for water treatment. The objective of this study is to rapidly adsorb ibuprofen using AC to determine the feasibility as a point-of-entry treatment option for removal of pharmaceuticals in the toilet. AC factors analyzed include type of AC raw material, adsorbent particle size, contact time, and competitive adsorption of ibuprofen and common toilet bowl cleaner components such as chlorine and methylene blue dye. A coconut-based AC with a high surface area adsorbed the highest quantity of ibuprofen. There was no significant impact to ibuprofen adsorption upon the introduction of other compounds to the solution, thus demonstrating rapid adsorption and the potential for application at the point-of-entry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Activated Carbon in Contaminant Removal)
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18 pages, 4078 KiB  
Article
In Situ Modification of Activated Carbons by Oleic Acid under Microwave Heating to Improve Adsorptive Removal of Naphthalene in Aqueous Solutions
Processes 2021, 9(2), 391; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9020391 - 21 Feb 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2329
Abstract
This study aimed to improve the adsorption capacity of activated carbon (AC) towards naphthalene (NAP) in aqueous solutions. Starch-based AC (SAC) and pulverized coal-based AC (PCAC) were prepared in a one-pot procedure by activation with oleic acid and KOH under microwave heating. Brunauer–Emmett–Teller [...] Read more.
This study aimed to improve the adsorption capacity of activated carbon (AC) towards naphthalene (NAP) in aqueous solutions. Starch-based AC (SAC) and pulverized coal-based AC (PCAC) were prepared in a one-pot procedure by activation with oleic acid and KOH under microwave heating. Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) specific surface areas reached 725.0 and 912.9 m2/g for in situ modified SAC (O-SAC1) and PCAC (O-PCAC1), respectively. π–π bond, H-bond, and hydrophobic effects were directly involved in the NAP adsorption process. Batch adsorption data were well fitted by pseudo-second order kinetics and the Freundlich isotherm model. As compared to ACs prepared with only KOH activation, NAP adsorption capacities of PCAC and SAC prepared by the one-pot method increased by 16.9% and 13.7%, respectively. Influences of varying factors were investigated in column adsorption of NAP using O-SAC1 and O-PCAC1. Based on breakthrough curves analysis, the larger column height (H), lower flow rate (Q0), and lower initial concentration (C0) resulted in the longer breakthrough and exhaustion times in both cases. Specifically, we concluded that O-PCAC1 exhibits better adsorption capacity than O-SAC1 in the given conditions. The optimized operating parameters were 1 cm (H), 1 mL/min (Q0) and 30 mg/L (C0). Finally, column adsorption data could be well fitted by the Thomas model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Activated Carbon in Contaminant Removal)
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