Treatment and Remediation of Organic and Inorganic Pollutants

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental and Green Processes".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2024 | Viewed by 3279

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Chemistry and Technology, University of Split, Ruđera Boškovića 35, 21000 Split, Croatia
Interests: environmental protection; wastewater treatment; soil remediation; low-cost sorbent; organic componds; heavy metals; adsorption; ion-exchange; electrocoagulation

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Guest Editor
Department of Electrochemistry and Materials Protection, Faculty of Chemistry and Technology, University of Split, Ruđera Boškovića 35, 21000 Split, Croatia
Interests: electrochemical methods; corrosion; oxidation; electroremediation; metals and alloys
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Africa Centre of Excellence in Future Energies and Electrochemical Systems (ACE-FUELS), Federal University of Technology Owerri, PMB 1526, Owerri. Imo State, Nigeria
Interests: environmental electrochemistry; materials degradation; corrosion protection; natural products; renewable energy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent decades, pollutants from human activities have become ubiquitous in the environment and have degraded the quality of the water, soil, and air worldwide, harming all forms of life on Earth. Therefore, there is an urgent need to contain and reduce their presence in the environment. This Special Issue is intended to provide a forum for research on the treatment and remediation of various organic and inorganic environmental pollutants. Articles are sought that address various physical, chemical, and biological processes and their combination for the treatment and remediation of soils, sediments, and water to achieve maximum recovery and to reuse contaminants. Analysis of the process of treatment and remediation, selecting the treatment strategy to achieve a circular economy, zero-waste discharge and energy saving studies, analysis of all influencing factors that can affect process performance and efficiency, kinetics and equilibrium studies, and modelling the obtained data are especially welcome. In light of increasingly stringent environmental regulations, cost-effective solutions for the treatment and remediation of various pollutants in the environment are being promoted.

Prof. Dr. Nediljka Vukojevic Medvidovic
Prof. Dr. Ladislav Vrsalović
Prof. Dr. Emeka Emmanuel Oguzie
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Processes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • treatment
  • remediation
  • organic pollutants
  • inorganic pollutants
  • water
  • soil
  • sediment

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 1873 KiB  
Article
Ultrasonically Assisted Electrocoagulation Combined with Zeolite in Compost Wastewater Treatment
by Sandra Svilović, Nediljka Vukojević Medvidović, Ladislav Vrsalović, Senka Gudić and Ana-Marija Mikulandra
Processes 2024, 12(5), 951; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12050951 - 8 May 2024
Viewed by 653
Abstract
In this paper, the possibility of combining electrocoagulation (EC), ultrasound, and the addition of zeolite for wastewater treatment was investigated for the first time. The following combinations of hybrid processes were tested: electrocoagulation with zeolite (ECZ), simultaneous electrocoagulation with zeolite and ultrasound (ECZ+US), [...] Read more.
In this paper, the possibility of combining electrocoagulation (EC), ultrasound, and the addition of zeolite for wastewater treatment was investigated for the first time. The following combinations of hybrid processes were tested: electrocoagulation with zeolite (ECZ), simultaneous electrocoagulation with zeolite and ultrasound (ECZ+US), and two-stage electrocoagulation with zeolite and ultrasound (US+Z - EC), carried out with three different electrode materials. The results show that the simultaneous assistance of ultrasound in the ECZ leads to a lower increase in pH, while the temperature increase is higher. Regarding the COD, the assistance of ultrasound is only useful for Zn electrodes in the two-stage US+Z - EC, while the reduction in voltage consumption occurs for Fe and Al electrodes. Ultrasonic assistance caused more damage to the anodes, but anode consumption was reduced for Al and Zn electrodes. The total amount of zeolite that can be recovered is between 55–97%, and recovery is higher in systems with higher turbidity reduction. Good settling ability is only achieved with Al and Fe electrodes in simultaneous performance. Taguchi’s orthogonal L9 array design was applied to analyze the effects of electrode material, process type, mixing speed, and time duration on COD decrease, settling velocity, electrode, and voltage consumption. The results show that the use of ultrasound does not contribute to the desired result and generally only has a favorable effect on voltage and electrode consumption, while it has no positive effect on settling ability or COD decrease. Furthermore, although longer times and higher mixing speeds negatively impact cost due to voltage and electrode consumption, it is advisable not to choose the shortest duration and lowest speed to obtain adequate wastewater treatment quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Treatment and Remediation of Organic and Inorganic Pollutants)
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12 pages, 951 KiB  
Article
Pristine and UV-Weathered PET Microplastics as Water Contaminants: Appraising the Potential of the Fenton Process for Effective Remediation
by Marin Kovačić, Antonija Tomić, Stefani Tonković, Anamarija Pulitika, Josipa Papac Zjačić, Zvonimir Katančić, Boštjan Genorio, Hrvoje Kušić and Ana Lončarić Božić
Processes 2024, 12(4), 844; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12040844 - 22 Apr 2024
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Abstract
Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) microplastics constitute a significant portion of plastic pollution in the environment and pose substantial environmental challenges. In this study, the effectiveness of the Fenton process and post-oxidation coagulation for the removal of non-weathered and UV-weathered PET microplastics (PET MPs) were [...] Read more.
Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) microplastics constitute a significant portion of plastic pollution in the environment and pose substantial environmental challenges. In this study, the effectiveness of the Fenton process and post-oxidation coagulation for the removal of non-weathered and UV-weathered PET microplastics (PET MPs) were investigated. A response surface methodology was used to investigate the interplay between PET concentration and ferrous ion (Fe2+) concentration. The models revealed an intricate interplay between these variables, highlighting the need for a balanced system for optimal PET MP removal. For non-weathered PET, the simultaneous increase in the concentrations of both PET microplastics and Fe2+ was found to enhance the removal efficiency. However, this synergistic effect was not observed in UV-weathered PET, which also demonstrated a more pronounced effect from the Fe2+ concentration. The statistical analysis provided a strong basis for the validity of the models. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) further elucidated the mechanisms behind these findings, revealing that UV weathering results in surface changes, which facilitate hydroxyl radical oxidation. These findings underline the complexity of the Fenton process in PET microplastic removal and the different behavior of non-weathered and UV-weathered microplastics. This has significant implications for tailoring remediation strategies and underscores the importance of considering environmental weathering in these strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Treatment and Remediation of Organic and Inorganic Pollutants)
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21 pages, 5923 KiB  
Article
Bentonite Modified with Surfactants—Efficient Adsorbents for the Removal of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs
by Milena Obradović, Aleksandra Daković, Danijela Smiljanić, Marija Marković, Milica Ožegović, Jugoslav Krstić, Nikola Vuković and Maja Milojević-Rakić
Processes 2024, 12(1), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12010096 - 31 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1254
Abstract
Organobentonites have been applied for the removal of two common non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, ibuprofen (IBU) and diclofenac sodium (DS), from aqueous solutions. Two surfactants, one with and the other without benzyl group (octadecyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride, ODMBA, and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide, HDTMA), in amounts equivalent to [...] Read more.
Organobentonites have been applied for the removal of two common non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, ibuprofen (IBU) and diclofenac sodium (DS), from aqueous solutions. Two surfactants, one with and the other without benzyl group (octadecyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride, ODMBA, and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide, HDTMA), in amounts equivalent to 50, 75, and 100% of the cation exchange capacity of bentonite were used for the preparation of organobentonites. Successful modification of bentonite was confirmed by several methods: X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), point of the zero charge (pHPZC), determination of exchanged inorganic cations in bentonite, determination of textural properties, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Kinetic and thermodynamic data on the adsorption of IBU and DS showed that drug adsorption was controlled by the type and the amount of surfactant incorporated into the bentonite and by their arrangement in the interlayer space and at the surface of organobentonites. The adsorption of both drugs increased with an increase in the amount of both surfactants in organobentonites. The presence of the benzyl group in organobentonites enhanced the adsorption of IBU and DS and was more pronounced for IBU. Drug adsorption fits the pseudo-second-order kinetic model the best. The thermodynamic data revealed that the adsorption process was endothermic in nature and with increase of the amount of both surfactants drug adsorption processes were more spontaneous. The results obtained from this study revealed that adsorbents based on surfactants modified bentonite are promising candidates for IBU and DS removal from contaminated water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Treatment and Remediation of Organic and Inorganic Pollutants)
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