Overview, Challenges and Current Trends in H2 Energy, Gasification, Waste and Biomass

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental and Green Processes".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2024 | Viewed by 4533

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Department of Mechanical and Product Design Engineering, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC, Australia
Interests: hydrogen energy; gasification; elctrolysis; process modelling; technoeconomics, LCA
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Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical and Product Design Engineering, Swinburne University of Technology, ATC844 | H38 | John St., Hawthorn, VIC 3122, Australia
Interests: hydrogen energy; metallurgy and metals recycling; waste recycling; circular economy, gasification; technoeconomics; LCA
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Hydrogen (H2) energy, gasification, waste, and biomass are all areas of increasing interest due to the need for cleaner and more sustainable energy sources. H2 energy involves the use of hydrogen as a fuel, either through combustion or in fuel cells, to generate electricity. Hydrogen is also used as a reductant and valuable precursor for chemical industries. Gasification involves the conversion of solid or liquid fuels into syngas that can be used for energy production or chemicals. Waste and biomass involve the use of organic materials, such as municipal solid waste or plant matter, to generate energy.

However, there are several challenges associated with the use of H2 energy, gasification, waste, and biomass. Among the many current technological challenges is the cost of implementing these technologies, as they often require significant investment in infrastructure and equipment. In addition, these technologies can be relatively inefficient, particularly in the case of gasification and waste-to-energy, which can result in relatively high emissions. Another challenge is the need for reliable sources of feedstock, particularly in the case of biomass, which requires a steady supply of plant matter or other organic materials.

Despite these challenges, there are several promising trends in the field of H2 energy, gasification, waste, and biomass. One of the most significant trends is the increasing use of renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar power, to generate the electricity needed to produce hydrogen. In addition, there is a growing interest in the use of waste and biomass as feedstock for energy production, as these materials are often readily available and can be used to generate energy in a relatively sustainable manner. Finally, recent research into the development of more efficient and cost-effective technologies for H2 energy production, gasification, waste, and biomass could help us to overcome some of the challenges associated with these approaches.

We urge researchers around the world to contribute to this Special Issue by submitting high-quality research.

Dr. Shahabuddin Ahmmad
Prof. Dr. M Akbar Rhamdhani
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Processes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • H2 energy
  • gasification
  • waste
  • biomass
  • sustainability
  • environment
  • energy
  • emission
  • fuel cell
  • electrolysis
  • pyrolysis
  • inceneration
  • waste to energy
  • circular economy

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Research

19 pages, 4008 KiB  
Article
Technoeconomic Analysis for Green Hydrogen in Terms of Production, Compression, Transportation and Storage Considering the Australian Perspective
by M. Shahabuddin, M. A. Rhamdhani and G. A. Brooks
Processes 2023, 11(7), 2196; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11072196 - 21 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3142
Abstract
This current article discusses the technoeconomics (TE) of hydrogen generation, transportation, compression and storage in the Australian context. The TE analysis is important and a prerequisite for investment decisions. This study selected the Australian context due to its huge potential in green hydrogen, [...] Read more.
This current article discusses the technoeconomics (TE) of hydrogen generation, transportation, compression and storage in the Australian context. The TE analysis is important and a prerequisite for investment decisions. This study selected the Australian context due to its huge potential in green hydrogen, but the modelling is applicable to other parts of the world, adjusting the price of electricity and other utilities. The hydrogen generation using the most mature alkaline electrolysis (AEL) technique was selected in the current study. The results show that increasing temperature from 50 to 90 °C and decreasing pressure from 13 to 5 bar help improve electrolyser performance, though pressure has a minor effect. The selected range for performance parameters was based on the fundamental behaviour of water electrolysers supported with literature. The levelised cost of hydrogen (LCH2) was calculated for generation, compression, transportation and storage. However, the majority of the LCH2 was for generation, which was calculated based on CAPEX, OPEX, capital recovery factor, hydrogen production rate and capacity factor. The LCH2 in 2023 was calculated to be 9.6 USD/kgH2 using a base-case solar electricity price of 65–38 USD/MWh. This LCH2 is expected to decrease to 6.5 and 3.4 USD/kgH2 by 2030 and 2040, respectively. The current LCH2 using wind energy was calculated to be 1.9 USD/kgH2 lower than that of solar-based electricity. The LCH2 using standalone wind electricity was calculated to be USD 5.3 and USD 2.9 in 2030 and 2040, respectively. The LCH2 predicted using a solar and wind mix (SWM) was estimated to be USD 3.2 compared to USD 9.6 and USD 7.7 using standalone solar and wind. The LCH2 under the best case was predicted to be USD 3.9 and USD 2.1 compared to USD 6.5 and USD 3.4 under base-case solar PV in 2030 and 2040, respectively. The best case SWM offers 33% lower LCH2 in 2023, which leads to 37%, 39% and 42% lower LCH2 in 2030, 2040 and 2050, respectively. The current results are overpredicted, especially compared with CSIRO, Australia, due to the higher assumption of the renewable electricity price. Currently, over two-thirds of the cost for the LCH2 is due to the price of electricity (i.e., wind and solar). Modelling suggests an overall reduction in the capital cost of AEL plants by about 50% in the 2030s. Due to the lower capacity factor (effective energy generation over maximum output) of renewable energy, especially for solar plants, a combined wind- and solar-based electrolysis plant was recommended, which can increase the capacity factor by at least 33%. Results also suggest that besides generation, at least an additional 1.5 USD/kgH2 for compression, transportation and storage is required. Full article
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