State-of-the-Art Polymer Science and Technology in Poland (2021,2022)

A topical collection in Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This collection belongs to the section "Innovation of Polymer Science and Technology".

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Editors


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Collection Editor
Centre of Polymer and Carbon Materials Polish Academy of Sciences, PL-41819 Zabrze, Poland
Interests: biocompatible and biodegradable polymer systems; polymer mass spectrometry; bioactive oligomers; controlled drug delivery systems; ring-opening polymerization; forensic engineering of advanced polymeric materials
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Collection Editor
Department of Polymer and Biomaterials Science, Faculty of Chemical Technology and Engineering, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Al. Piastow 45, 71-311 Szczecin, Poland
Interests: polyesters; tissue engineering; implants; electrospinning; photocurable systems; biopolymers; biomimetics; renewable resources; polymeric composites and nanocomposites
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Institute of Chemical Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Technology, Poznan University of Technology, Berdychowo 4, PL-60965 Poznan, Poland
Interests: biopolymers; lignin chemistry; synthesis, characterization and applications of advanced functional materials; hybrid materials, biomaterials; polymer composites, biocomposites; chemical modification of synthetic and natural polymers; application of ligno-cellulosic materials in polymer chemistry; (bio)additives and eco-friendly fillers
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Collection Editor
Department of Physical Chemistry and Technology of Polymers, Faculty of Chemistry, Silesian University of Technology, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
Interests: amphiphilic polymers; graft copolymers; molecular brushes; micellization; drug delivery systems
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Supramolecular Chemistry Group, Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland
Interests: materiel characterization; nanomaterials sunthesis; molecularly imprinted polymers
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Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

The history of polymers manufacturing in Poland dates back before the World War II, when regenerated cellulose films (1931) and polybutadiene (erythrene rubber, 1938) were introduced to the market. Currently, the scientific potential of Polish institutions conducting research in the field of chemistry, technology and polymer engineering is significant and recognized not only at national but also international level. Among the most active institutions, the Polish Academy of Sciences institutions have to be listed: Center for Polymer and Carbon Materials in Zabrze, Center of Molecular and Macromolecular Studies in Łódź and the Institute of Fundamental Technological Research in Warsaw. A strong research potential is also located at Polish Technical Universities in: Warsaw, Wrocław, Szczecin, Gliwice, Kraków, Poznań, Gdańsk, Częstochowa, Rzeszów and the Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, the Jagiellonian University in Kraków, Univerity of Warsaw, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin, the Silesian University in Katowice and the Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń. The research on applied polymer materials is carried out mainly by the industrial institutes. These are mainly the Industrial Chemistry Research Institute in Warsaw and the Institute for Engineering of Polymer Materials and Dyes in Toruń.

In this Special Issue, we aim to present a broad overview on recent developments in the field of polymer science and technology in Poland. Reviews, original articles, and state-of-the-art research papers, covering all the aspects of current trends in polymeric materials research performed in Poland or by Polish researchers working abroad are welcome.

The topics of this collection will include, but are not limited to:

  • Macromolecular synthesis and characterization
  • Polymer physics and structure
  • Polymer composites and nanocomposites
  • Polymers processing
  • Biodegradable and functional polymers
  • Biopolymers

Prof. Dr. Marek Kowalczuk
Prof. Dr. Miroslawa El Fray
Dr. Łukasz Klapiszewski
Prof. Dr. Dorota Neugebauer
Dr. Michał Cegłowski
Collection Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Polymers is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


Keywords

  • polymers
  • polymeric materials
  • polymer chemistry
  • polymer physics
  • polymer engineering
  • forensic engineering of polymeric materials

Published Papers (15 papers)

2022

Jump to: 2021

27 pages, 5396 KiB  
Review
Recent Reports on Polysaccharide-Based Materials for Drug Delivery
by Joanna Kurczewska
Polymers 2022, 14(19), 4189; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14194189 - 06 Oct 2022
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 3895
Abstract
Polysaccharides constitute one of the most important families of biopolymers. Natural polysaccharide-based drug delivery systems are of constant interest to the scientific community due to their unique properties: biocompatibility, non-toxicity, biodegradability, and high availability. These promising biomaterials protect sensitive active agents and provide [...] Read more.
Polysaccharides constitute one of the most important families of biopolymers. Natural polysaccharide-based drug delivery systems are of constant interest to the scientific community due to their unique properties: biocompatibility, non-toxicity, biodegradability, and high availability. These promising biomaterials protect sensitive active agents and provide their controlled release in targeted sites. The application of natural polysaccharides as drug delivery systems is also intensively developed by Polish scientists. The present review focuses on case studies from the last few years authored or co-authored by research centers in Poland. A particular emphasis was placed on the diversity of the formulations in terms of the active substance carried, the drug delivery route, the composition of the material, and its preparation method. Full article
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30 pages, 6183 KiB  
Review
Poly(2-oxazoline)s as Stimuli-Responsive Materials for Biomedical Applications: Recent Developments of Polish Scientists
by Aleksandra Lusina, Tomasz Nazim and Michał Cegłowski
Polymers 2022, 14(19), 4176; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14194176 - 05 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2736
Abstract
Poly(2-oxazoline)s are the synthetic polymers that are the products of the cationic ring-opening polymerization (CROP) of 2-oxazoline monomers. Due to their beneficial properties, from which biocompatibility, stealth behavior, high functionalization possibilities, low dispersity, stability, nonionic character, and solubility in water and organic solvents [...] Read more.
Poly(2-oxazoline)s are the synthetic polymers that are the products of the cationic ring-opening polymerization (CROP) of 2-oxazoline monomers. Due to their beneficial properties, from which biocompatibility, stealth behavior, high functionalization possibilities, low dispersity, stability, nonionic character, and solubility in water and organic solvents should be noted, they have found many applications and gained enormous interest from scientists. Additionally, with high versatility attainable through copolymerization or through post-polymerization modifications, this class of polymeric systems has been widely used as a polymeric platform for novel biomedical applications. The chemistry of polymers significant expanded into biomedical applications, in which polymeric networks can be successfully used in pharmaceutical development for tissue engineering, gene therapies, and also drug delivery systems. On the other hand, there is also a need to create ‘smart’ polymer biomaterials, responsive to the specified factor, that will be sensitive to various environmental stimuli. The commonly used stimuli-responsive biomedical materials are based mostly on temperature-, light-, magnetic-, electric-, and pH-responsive systems. Thus, creating selective and responsive materials that allow personalized treatment is in the interest of the scientific world. This review article focuses on recent discoveries by Polish scientists working in the field of stimuli-responsive poly(2-oxazoline)s, and their work is compared and contrasted with results reported by other world-renowned specialists. Full article
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14 pages, 3699 KiB  
Review
The Role of Electrochemical and Spectroelectrochemical Techniques in the Preparation and Characterization of Conjugated Polymers: From Polyaniline to Modern Organic Semiconductors
by Przemyslaw Ledwon and Mieczyslaw Lapkowski
Polymers 2022, 14(19), 4173; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14194173 - 05 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2093
Abstract
This review article presents different electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical techniques used to investigate conjugated polymers. The development of this research area is presented from an over 40-year perspective—the period of research carried out by Professor Mieczyslaw Lapkowski. Initial research involved polymers derived from simple [...] Read more.
This review article presents different electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical techniques used to investigate conjugated polymers. The development of this research area is presented from an over 40-year perspective—the period of research carried out by Professor Mieczyslaw Lapkowski. Initial research involved polymers derived from simple aromatic compounds, such as polyaniline. Since then, scientific advances in the field of conductive polymers have led to the development of so-called organic electronics. Electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical methods have a great influence in the development of organic semiconductors. Their potential for explaining many phenomena is discussed and the most relevant examples are provided. Full article
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24 pages, 3179 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Supramolecular Polymers Based on Zinc Bis(diorganophospate)s: Synthesis, Structure and Transformations in Solid State and Solutions
by Maciej Dębowski, Zbigniew Florjańczyk, Katarzyna Godlewska, Alicja Kaczmarczyk, Maciej Dranka and Andrzej Ostrowski
Polymers 2022, 14(16), 3407; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14163407 - 20 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1737
Abstract
The synthesis, structure and some properties of coordination polymers composed of linear zinc bis(diorganophospate)s (ZnDOPs) with a general formula of Zn[O2P(OR)2]2 (where R = CH3, C2H5, n-C4H9, [...] Read more.
The synthesis, structure and some properties of coordination polymers composed of linear zinc bis(diorganophospate)s (ZnDOPs) with a general formula of Zn[O2P(OR)2]2 (where R = CH3, C2H5, n-C4H9, or 2-ethylhexyl group) are described. Hybrid (co)polymers obtained by different procedures were characterized by means of powder XRD, DSC, SEM, TGA coupled with mass spectrometry of the evolved gases and rheological measurements, as well as FTIR and NMR techniques. The morphology, thermal transformations and solubility of ZnDOPs strongly depend on the type of organic substituent in the O2P(OR)2 ligands and the thermal history of the sample. Because of this, one can obtain highly crystalline rods, semicrystalline powders, as well as rubbery materials exhibiting a second-order transition below −50 °C. Polymeric chains formed by ZnDOPs undergo a reversible dissociation in polar organic solvents (e.g., methanol, DMSO), which allows for easy modification of their composition and physicochemical properties via a simple exchange of diorganophosphate anions. Some of the ZnDOPs were investigated as the latent curing agents for epoxides. On the basis of rheological and DSC studies, it is evident that ZnDOPs catalyze very effectively the cross-linking process within the 130–160 °C temperature range. Full article
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16 pages, 3035 KiB  
Article
Efficient OLEDs Based on Slot-Die-Coated Multicomponent Emissive Layer
by Ewelina Witkowska, Ireneusz Glowacki, Tung-Huei Ke, Pawel Malinowski and Paul Heremans
Polymers 2022, 14(16), 3363; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14163363 - 17 Aug 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2504
Abstract
The optimization of multicomponent emissive layer (EML) deposition by slot-die coating for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) is presented. In the investigated EMLs, the yellow-green iridium complex (Ir) was doped in two types of host: a commonly used mixture of poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) [...] Read more.
The optimization of multicomponent emissive layer (EML) deposition by slot-die coating for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) is presented. In the investigated EMLs, the yellow-green iridium complex (Ir) was doped in two types of host: a commonly used mixture of poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) with oxadiazole derivative (PBD) or PVK with thermally activated delayed fluorescence-assisted dopant (10-(4-(4,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)phenyl)-10H-spiro[acridine-9,9′-fluorene], SpiroAC-TRZ). In this article, OLEDs with EML prepared in air by slot-die coating, facilitating industrial manufacturing, are confronted with those with spin-coated EML in nitrogen. OLEDs based on PVK:PBD + 2 wt.% Ir-dopant exhibit comparable performance: ~13 cd A−1, regardless of the used method. The highest current efficiency (21 cd A−1) is shown by OLEDs based on spin-coated PVK with 25 wt.% SpiroAC-TRZ and 2 wt.% Ir-dopant. It is three times higher than the efficiency of OLEDs with slot-die-coated EML in air. The performance reduction, connected with the adverse oxygen effect on the energy transfer from TADF to emitter molecules, is minimized by the rapid EML annealing in a nitrogen atmosphere. This post-treatment causes more than a doubling of the OLED efficiency, from 7 cd A−1 to over 15 cd A−1. Such an approach may be easily implemented in other printing techniques and result in a yield enhancement. Full article
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17 pages, 13075 KiB  
Article
Susceptibility to Degradation in Soil of Branched Polyesterurethane Blends with Polylactide and Starch
by Joanna Brzeska, Grzegorz Jasik, Wanda Sikorska, Barbara Mendrek, Jakub Karczewski, Marek Kowalczuk and Maria Rutkowska
Polymers 2022, 14(10), 2086; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14102086 - 20 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1828
Abstract
A very important method of reducing the amount of polymer waste in the environment is the introduction to the market of polymers susceptible to degradation under the influence of environmental factors. This paper presents the results of testing the susceptibility to degradation in [...] Read more.
A very important method of reducing the amount of polymer waste in the environment is the introduction to the market of polymers susceptible to degradation under the influence of environmental factors. This paper presents the results of testing the susceptibility to degradation in soil of branched polyesterurethane (PUR) based on poly([R,S]-3-hydroxybutyrate) (R,S-PHB), modified with poly([D,L]-lactide) (PLA) and starch (St). Weight losses of samples and changes in surface morphology (SEM, OM and contact angle system) with simultaneously only slight changes in molecular weight (GPC), chemical structure (FTIR and 1HNMR) and thermal properties (DSC) indicate that these materials are subject to enzymatic degradation caused by the presence of microorganisms in the soil. Chemical modification of branched polyesterurethanes with R,S-PHB and their physical blending with small amounts of PLA and St resulted in a slow but progressive degradation of the samples. Full article
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24 pages, 3295 KiB  
Review
Polymeric Materials Based on Carbon Dioxide: A Brief Review of Studies Carried Out at the Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology
by Zbigniew Florjańczyk, Gabriel Rokicki, Paweł Grzegorz Parzuchowski, Magdalena Mazurek-Budzyńska and Maciej Dębowski
Polymers 2022, 14(4), 718; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14040718 - 13 Feb 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3911
Abstract
Carbon dioxide is an important raw material in many industrial technologies, but it is also one of the greenhouse gases that has to be effectively removed from the environment. This contribution provides a brief overview of carbon dioxide-based polymers developed in the laboratories [...] Read more.
Carbon dioxide is an important raw material in many industrial technologies, but it is also one of the greenhouse gases that has to be effectively removed from the environment. This contribution provides a brief overview of carbon dioxide-based polymers developed in the laboratories of the Faculty of Chemistry at Warsaw University of Technology. We present some simple and versatile synthetic approaches that can be used to prepare a library of oligocarbonate diols, polycarbonates, poly(ester-carbonates), poly(ether-carbonates) and various types of polyurethanes, including the newly emerging family of environmentally friendly non-isocyanate polyurethanes. The main synthesis strategy involves the reaction of CO2 with oxiranes to form five-membered cyclic carbonates, which can be utilized as a source of carbonate bonds in polymeric materials obtained by the ester exchange reactions and/or step-growth polyaddition. We also show that cyclic carbonates are valuable starting materials in the synthesis of hyperbranched polymers and polymer networks. The properties of several CO2-based polymers are presented and their potential application as biomaterials, smart materials, and absorbers with a high CO2 capture capacity is discussed. Full article
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13 pages, 2135 KiB  
Article
Thermally Degradable Poly(n-butyl acrylate) Model Networks Prepared by PhotoATRP and Radical Trap-Assisted Atom Transfer Radical Coupling
by Michael R. Martinez, Ziye Zhuang, Megan Treichel, Julia Cuthbert, Mingkang Sun, Joanna Pietrasik and Krzysztof Matyjaszewski
Polymers 2022, 14(4), 713; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14040713 - 12 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2946
Abstract
Model poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PBA) networks were prepared by photoinduced atom transfer radical polymerization (photoATRP), followed by curing of polymer stars via atom transfer radical coupling (ATRC) with a nitrosobenzene radical trap. The resulting nitroxyl radical installed thermally labile alkoxyamine functional groups [...] Read more.
Model poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PBA) networks were prepared by photoinduced atom transfer radical polymerization (photoATRP), followed by curing of polymer stars via atom transfer radical coupling (ATRC) with a nitrosobenzene radical trap. The resulting nitroxyl radical installed thermally labile alkoxyamine functional groups at the junctions of the network. The alkoxyamine crosslinks of the network were degraded back to star-like products upon exposure to temperatures above 135 °C. Characterization of the degraded products via gel permeation chromatography (GPC) confirmed the inversion of polymer topology after thermal treatment. Full article
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2021

Jump to: 2022

14 pages, 3253 KiB  
Article
Fast-Setting Permeable Alkyd/Polyester Composites: Moulding Sands
by Wojciech (Voytek) S. Gutowski and Andrzej K. Błędzki
Polymers 2021, 13(24), 4386; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13244386 - 14 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2452
Abstract
This paper presents the outcomes of extensive research targeting the development of high-performance alkyd and polyester resins used as binders in mould- and core-making permeable composite materials designated for large-size/complex-shape, heavy alloy-steel and cast-iron castings (0.5 to 50 tonnes): steam turbine casings (e.g., [...] Read more.
This paper presents the outcomes of extensive research targeting the development of high-performance alkyd and polyester resins used as binders in mould- and core-making permeable composite materials designated for large-size/complex-shape, heavy alloy-steel and cast-iron castings (0.5 to 50 tonnes): steam turbine casings (e.g., 18K360 condensing turbine), naval engine blocks and heavy machinery. The technology was implemented by Zamech/ALSTON Power. The key issues discussed here are: (1) control of resin crosslinking kinetics; slow or rapid strength development, (2) shelf-life control of pre-mixed composite, (3) improved thermo-mechanical stability; (4) kinetics of gaseous by-product emission. Optimised composite formulations (resins, crosslinkers and catalysts) allow for the flexible control of material properties and mould-/core fabrication, i.e.,: shelf-life: 10–120 min; mould stripping time: 10 min to 24 h; compressive strength: 4–6 MPa (with post-cure: 10–12 MPa); tensile strength: up to 3 MPa (after post-cure). The moulding sands developed achieved thermal resistance temperatures of up to 345 °C, which exceeded that of 280 °C of comparable commercial material. The onset of the thermal decomposition process was 2–3 times longer than that of furan or commercial alkyd/polyester resin. The technology developed allows for the defect-free manufacture of castings (no pinholes) and binder contents minimisation to 1.2–1.5% with quartz and 1.2% with zirconium or chromite sand. Full article
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18 pages, 2358 KiB  
Review
From Anionic Ring-Opening Polymerization of β-Butyrolactone to Biodegradable Poly(hydroxyalkanoate)s: Our Contributions in This Field
by Grażyna Adamus, Adrian Domiński, Marek Kowalczuk, Piotr Kurcok and Iza Radecka
Polymers 2021, 13(24), 4365; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13244365 - 13 Dec 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3828
Abstract
The feasibility of synthesis of functionalized poly(3-hydroxybutanoic acid) analogue and its copolymers via ring-opening polymerization of β-butyrolactone mediated by activated anionic initiators is presented. Using these new synthetic approaches, polyesters with a defined chemical structure of the end groups, as well as block, [...] Read more.
The feasibility of synthesis of functionalized poly(3-hydroxybutanoic acid) analogue and its copolymers via ring-opening polymerization of β-butyrolactone mediated by activated anionic initiators is presented. Using these new synthetic approaches, polyesters with a defined chemical structure of the end groups, as well as block, graft, and random copolymers, have been obtained and characterized by modern instrumental techniques, with special emphasis on ESI-MS. The relationship between the structure and properties of the prepared polymeric materials is also discussed. Full article
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27 pages, 3462 KiB  
Review
The Role of Polymer Structure in Formation of Various Nano- and Microstructural Materials: 30 Years of Research in the Laboratory of Nano- and Microstructural Materials at the Centre of Polymer and Carbon Materials PAS
by Natalia Oleszko-Torbus, Barbara Mendrek, Agnieszka Kowalczuk, Wojciech Wałach, Barbara Trzebicka and Alicja Utrata-Wesołek
Polymers 2021, 13(17), 2892; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13172892 - 27 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3619
Abstract
The review summarizes the research carried out in the Laboratory of Nano- and Microstructural Materials at the Centre of Polymer and Carbon Materials, Polish Academy of Sciences (CMPW PAS). Studies carried out for many years under the guidance of Professor Andrzej Dworak led [...] Read more.
The review summarizes the research carried out in the Laboratory of Nano- and Microstructural Materials at the Centre of Polymer and Carbon Materials, Polish Academy of Sciences (CMPW PAS). Studies carried out for many years under the guidance of Professor Andrzej Dworak led to the development and exploration of the mechanisms of oxirane and cyclic imine polymerization and controlled radical polymerization of methacrylate monomers. Based on that knowledge, within the last three decades, macromolecules with the desired composition, molar mass and topology were obtained and investigated. The ability to control the structure of the synthesized polymers turned out to be important, as it provided a way to tailor the physiochemical properties of the materials to their specific uses. Many linear polymers and copolymers as well as macromolecules with branched, star, dendritic and hyperbranched architectures were synthesized. Thanks to the applied controlled polymerization techniques, it was possible to obtain hydrophilic, hydrophobic, amphiphilic and stimulus-sensitive polymers. These tailor-made polymers with controlled properties were used for the construction of various types of materials, primarily on the micro- and nanoscales, with a wide range of possible applications, mainly in biomedicine. The diverse topology of polymers, and thus their properties, made it possible to obtain various types of polymeric nanostructures and use them as nanocarriers by encapsulation of biologically active substances. Additionally, polymer layers were obtained with features useful in medicine, particularly regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Full article
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20 pages, 7436 KiB  
Article
An Analysis of Polymer Gear Wear in a Spur Gear Train Made Using FDM and FFF Methods Based on Tooth Surface Topography Assessment
by Jadwiga Pisula, Grzegorz Budzik, Paweł Turek and Mariusz Cieplak
Polymers 2021, 13(10), 1649; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13101649 - 19 May 2021
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 4767
Abstract
This article focuses on wear tests of spur gears made with the use of additive manufacturing techniques from thermoplastic materials. The following additive manufacturing techniques were employed in this study: Melted and Extruded Modelling (FDM) and Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF). The study analysed [...] Read more.
This article focuses on wear tests of spur gears made with the use of additive manufacturing techniques from thermoplastic materials. The following additive manufacturing techniques were employed in this study: Melted and Extruded Modelling (FDM) and Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF). The study analysed gears made from ABS M-30 (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene), ULTEM 9085 (PEI Polyetherimide) and PEEK (Polyetheretherketone), and the selection of these materials reflects their hierarchy in terms of economical application and strength parameters. A test rig designed by the authors was used to determine the fatigue life of polymer gears. Gear trains were tested under load in order to measure wear in polymer gears manufactured using FDM and FFF techniques. In order to understand the mechanism behind gear wear, further tests were performed on a P40 coordinate measuring machine (CMM) and a TalyScan 150 scanning instrument. The results of the gear tests made under load allow us to conclude that PEEK is resistant to wear and gear train operating temperature. Its initial topography undergoes slight changes in comparison to ABS M-30 and Ultem 9085. The biggest wear was reported for gears made from Ultem 9085. The hardness of the material decreased due to the loaded gear train’s operating temperature. Full article
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15 pages, 5143 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Impact on the Mechanical Properties of Modification of Oligohydroxyethers in Organic Solvent Solution with Rubbers
by Vitalii Bezgin, Agata Dudek and Adam Gnatowski
Polymers 2021, 13(4), 519; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13040519 - 09 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2526
Abstract
This paper proposes and presents the chemical modification of linear hydroxyethers (LHE) with different molecular weights (380, 640, and 1830 g/mol) with the addition of three types of rubbers (polysulfide rubber (PSR), polychloroprene rubber (PCR), and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)). The main purpose of [...] Read more.
This paper proposes and presents the chemical modification of linear hydroxyethers (LHE) with different molecular weights (380, 640, and 1830 g/mol) with the addition of three types of rubbers (polysulfide rubber (PSR), polychloroprene rubber (PCR), and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)). The main purpose of choosing this type of modification and the materials used was the possibility to use it in industrial settings. The modification process was conducted for a very wide range of modifier additions (rubber) per 100 g LHE. The materials obtained in the study were subjected to strength tests in order to determine the effect of the modification on functional properties. Mechanical properties of the modified materials were improved after the application of the modifier (rubber) to polyhydroxyether (up to certain modifier content). The most favorable changes in the tested materials were registered in the modification of LHE-1830 with PSR. In the case of LHE-380 and LHE-640 modified in cyclohexanol (CH) and chloroform (CF) solutions, an increase in the values of the tested properties was also obtained, but to a lesser extent than for LHE-1830. The largest changes were registered for LHE-1830 with PSR in CH solution: from 12.1 to 15.3 MPa for compressive strength tests, from 0.8 to 1.5 MPa for tensile testing, from 0.8 to 14.7 MPa for shear strength, and from 1% to 6.5% for the maximum elongation. The analysis of the available literature showed that the modification proposed by the authors has not yet been presented in any previous scientific paper. Full article
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19 pages, 9985 KiB  
Article
Modification of Thiol-Ene Ionogels with Octakis(methacryloxypropyl) Silsesquioxane
by Aneta Lewandowska, Piotr Gajewski, Katarzyna Szcześniak, Mariola Sadej, Piotr Patelski and Agnieszka Marcinkowska
Polymers 2021, 13(3), 385; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13030385 - 26 Jan 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3007
Abstract
The effect of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) on the synthesis and properties of hybrid organic–inorganic ionogels was investigated using octakis(methacryloxypropyl) silsesquioxane (methacryl-POSS). Ionogels were prepared in situ by thiol-ene photopolymerization of triallyl isocyanurate with pentaerythritol tetrakis(3-mercaptopropionate) in a mixture of imidazolium ionic liquid [...] Read more.
The effect of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) on the synthesis and properties of hybrid organic–inorganic ionogels was investigated using octakis(methacryloxypropyl) silsesquioxane (methacryl-POSS). Ionogels were prepared in situ by thiol-ene photopolymerization of triallyl isocyanurate with pentaerythritol tetrakis(3-mercaptopropionate) in a mixture of imidazolium ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (EMImNTf2) and propylene carbonate (PC). Investigations included the kinetics of hybrid materials formation and selected physical and mechanical properties. The disadvantage of ionogels without the methacryl-POSS modifier is leakage and insufficient mechanical properties. Modifying the thiol-ene matrix by the addition of methacryl-POSS made it possible to obtain non-leaking ionogels with improved mechanical and conductive properties. The steric hindrance of POSS cages and high-density network formation played important roles in ionogel synthesis: decrease of polymerization rate (with almost no effect on conversion), as well as dimensions of the formed polymer spheres during dispersion polymerization (highly cross-linked polymer has poorer solubility in polymerizing medium at a similar conversion, and nucleation begins at lower conversion), an increase of glass transition temperature and puncture strength. Hybrid ionogels with high ionic conductivity in the range of 4.0–5.1 mS∙cm−1 with the maximum parameter for 1.5 wt.% addition of the methacryl-POSS were obtained, which can be associated with ion-pair dissociations in ionic liquid clusters caused by methacryl-POSS. Full article
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11 pages, 3049 KiB  
Article
The Quantitative Nanomechanical Mapping of Starch/Kaolin Film Surfaces by Peak Force AFM
by Anita Kwaśniewska, Michał Świetlicki, Adam Prószyński and Grzegorz Gładyszewski
Polymers 2021, 13(2), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13020244 - 12 Jan 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2862
Abstract
Starch films modified with additives are materials increasingly being used in the production of packaging. These types of biopolymers can, to a considerable degree, replace plastic, contributing to the reduction in both production and waste management costs. However, they should be characterised by [...] Read more.
Starch films modified with additives are materials increasingly being used in the production of packaging. These types of biopolymers can, to a considerable degree, replace plastic, contributing to the reduction in both production and waste management costs. However, they should be characterised by specific mechanical and surface parameters which determine their application. In the presented work, the PeakForce Quantitative Nanomechanics Mapping (PFQNM) method was applied to analyse a starch-based biopolymer modified with two different kaolin clay contents (5% and 10%). The technique used facilitates the assessment of the correlation of Atomic Force Microscope AFM height parameters with nanomechanical ones which provide the definitions of mutual interactions and allow the possibility to analyse materials in respect of various details. The investigated material was mapped in the Derjaguin–Muller–Toporov (DMT) modulus, adhesion and height domains. The results obtained indicated the impact of additives on the determined parameters. Increases in the DMT modulus and the adhesion force, along with the kaolin content, were observed. The enhancement of starch films with kaolin clay also induced growth in the surface roughness parameters. Full article
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