Organic Polymers for Encapsulation of Drugs, Food Ingredients and Agrochemicals

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Polymer Networks".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 January 2023) | Viewed by 26895

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Laboratorio de Ambiental, Facultad de Ingeniería Culiacán, Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Ciudad Universitaria, Culiacán, Sinaloa P.O. Box 80013, Mexico
Interests: synthesis and characterization of polymers; controlled drug delivery; polymeric carriers; water remediation; flocculants and adsorbents; chitosan; stimuli-responsive polymers
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Centro de Graduados e Investigación en Química, Tecnológico Nacional de México/Instituto Tecnológico de Tijuana, A. P. 1166., Tijuana 22000, Mexico
Interests: nanomaterials; temperature and pH-sensitive polymers; amphiphilic polymers; living radical polymerization; controlled drug release
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Laboratoire Chrono-Environnement, UMR 6249, UFR Sciences et Techniques, Université de Franche-Comté, 16 route de Gray, 25000 Besançon, France
Interests: water pollution; environmental analysis; water purification technologies; wastewater engineering; adsorption processes; polysaccharides; cyclodextrins; bioassays
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As you know, drugs, food ingredients, and agrochemicals help to improve the quality of life around the world. In the last decade, researchers have developed outstanding systems to use them in a minimal quantity that allows us to reach the desired efficiency and reduce side effects and/or contamination derived from the overuse of these substances. For this goal, the encapsulation of guest molecules has been studied using organic polymers (natural, synthetic and semi-synthetic chains) as platforms with different architecture, such as films, gels, stars, micelles, liposomes, vesicles, polyelectrolyte complexes, etc. These platforms can protect guest compounds against degradation and provide enhanced water solubility, increasing the percentage of substance that is available for biological action. Additionally, the release of guest molecules can be tuned, resulting in an improved effectiveness.

This Special Issue is focused on the collection of current advances in the design of systems involving encapsulation of drugs (antineoplastics, antibiotics, hormones, etc.), food ingredients (nutraceuticals, dyes, etc.) and agrochemicals (insecticides, herbicides and fungicides) using organic polymers as carriers. We welcome original papers and review articles addressing this topic for platforms from macro- to micro/nano-scales.

Prof. Dr. Lorenzo Antonio Picos Corrales
Prof. Dr. Angel Licea-Claveríe
Prof. Dr. Grégorio Crini
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • polymeric carriers
  • encapsulation
  • films
  • emulsions
  • gels
  • micelles
  • liposomes
  • vesicles
  • polyelectrolyte complexes
  • star polymers
  • amphiphilic copolymers
  • stimuli-responsive polymers
  • polysaccharides
  • drugs
  • food ingredients
  • agrochemicals

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Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 3198 KiB  
Article
Hybrid Microcapsules for Encapsulation and Controlled Release of Rosemary Essential Oil
by Doha Berraaouan, Kamal Essifi, Mohamed Addi, Christophe Hano, Marie-Laure Fauconnier and Abdesselam Tahani
Polymers 2023, 15(4), 823; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15040823 - 07 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2314
Abstract
The foremost objective of this work is to assess the microcapsules composition (polymer-based and polymer/clay-based) effect, on the release of rosemary essential oil into w/o medium and evaluate their antioxidant activity. Calcium alginate (CA) and calcium alginate/montmorillonite hybrid (CA-MTN) microcapsules were developed following [...] Read more.
The foremost objective of this work is to assess the microcapsules composition (polymer-based and polymer/clay-based) effect, on the release of rosemary essential oil into w/o medium and evaluate their antioxidant activity. Calcium alginate (CA) and calcium alginate/montmorillonite hybrid (CA-MTN) microcapsules were developed following an ionotropic crosslinking gelation and were used as host materials for the encapsulation of rosemary essential oil. The unloaded/loaded CA and hybrid CA-MTN microcapsules were characterized by Fourier transform infra-red (FT-ATR) spectroscopy, thermal analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and DPPH assay. The evaluation of the microcapsule’s physicochemical properties has shown that the clay filling with montmorillonite improved the microcapsule’s properties. The encapsulation efficiency improved significantly in hybrid CA-MTN microcapsules and exhibited higher values ranging from 81 for CA to 83% for hybrid CA-MTN and a loading capacity of 71 for CA and 73% for hybrid CA-MTN, owing to the large adsorption capacity of the sodic clay. Moreover, the hybrid CA-MTN microcapsules showed a time-extended release of rosemary essential oil compared to CA microcapsules. Finally, the DPPH assay displayed a higher reduction of free radicals in hybrid CA-MNT-REO (12.8%) than CA-REO (10%) loaded microcapsules. These results proved that the clay–alginate combination provides microcapsules with enhanced properties compared to the polymer-based microcapsules. Full article
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11 pages, 5123 KiB  
Article
Accelerating Payload Release from Complex Coacervates through Mechanical Stimulation
by Wesam A. Hatem and Yakov Lapitsky
Polymers 2023, 15(3), 586; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15030586 - 23 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1222
Abstract
Complex coacervates formed through the association of charged polymers with oppositely charged species are often investigated for controlled release applications and can provide highly sustained (multi-day, -week or -month) release of both small-molecule and macromolecular actives. This release, however, can sometimes be too [...] Read more.
Complex coacervates formed through the association of charged polymers with oppositely charged species are often investigated for controlled release applications and can provide highly sustained (multi-day, -week or -month) release of both small-molecule and macromolecular actives. This release, however, can sometimes be too slow to deliver the active molecules in the doses needed to achieve the desired effect. Here, we explore how the slow release of small molecules from coacervate matrices can be accelerated through mechanical stimulation. Using coacervates formed through the association of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) with pentavalent tripolyphosphate (TPP) ions and Rhodamine B dye as the model coacervate and payload, we demonstrate that slow payload release from complex coacervates can be accelerated severalfold through mechanical stimulation (akin to flavor release from a chewed piece of gum). The stimulation leading to this effect can be readily achieved through either perforation (with needles) or compression of the coacervates and, besides accelerating the release, can result in a deswelling of the coacervate phases. The mechanical activation effect evidently reflects the rupture and collapse of solvent-filled pores, which form due to osmotic swelling of the solute-charged coacervate pellets and is most pronounced in release media that favor swelling. This stimulation effect is therefore strong in deionized water (where the swelling is substantial) and only subtle and shorter-lived in phosphate buffered saline (where the PAH/TPP coacervate swelling is inhibited). Taken together, these findings suggest that mechanical activation could be useful in extending the complex coacervate matrix efficacy in highly sustained release applications where the slowly releasing coacervate-based sustained release vehicles undergo significant osmotic swelling. Full article
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29 pages, 34530 KiB  
Article
Grafted Microparticles Based on Glycidyl Methacrylate, Hydroxyethyl Methacrylate and Sodium Hyaluronate: Synthesis, Characterization, Adsorption and Release Studies of Metronidazole
by Aurica Ionela Gugoasa, Stefania Racovita, Silvia Vasiliu and Marcel Popa
Polymers 2022, 14(19), 4151; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14194151 - 03 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1520
Abstract
Three types of precursor microparticles based on glycidyl methacrylate, hydroxyethyl methacrylate and one of the following three crosslinking agents (mono-, di- or triethylene glycol dimethacrylate) were prepared using the suspension polymerization technique. The precursor microparticles were subsequently used to obtain three types of [...] Read more.
Three types of precursor microparticles based on glycidyl methacrylate, hydroxyethyl methacrylate and one of the following three crosslinking agents (mono-, di- or triethylene glycol dimethacrylate) were prepared using the suspension polymerization technique. The precursor microparticles were subsequently used to obtain three types of hybrid microparticles. Their synthesis took place by grafting sodium hyaluronate, in a basic medium, to the epoxy groups located on the surface of the precursor microparticles. Both types of the microparticles were characterized by: FTIR spectroscopy, epoxy groups content, thermogravimetric analysis, dimensional analysis, grafting degree of sodium hyaluronate, SEM and AFM analyses, and specific parameters of porous structures (specific surface area, pore volume, porosity). The results showed that the hybrid microparticles present higher specific surface areas, higher swelling capacities as well as higher adsorption capacities of antimicrobial drugs (metronidazole). To examine the interactions between metronidazole and the precursor/hybrid microparticles the adsorption equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies were carried out. Thus, it was determined the performance of the polymer systems in order to select a polymer–drug system with a high efficiency. The release kinetics reflect that the release mechanism of metronidazole in the case of hybrid microparticles is a complex mechanism characteristic of anomalous or non-Fickian diffusion. Full article
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16 pages, 1670 KiB  
Article
Protection against Paraquat-Induced Oxidative Stress by Curcuma longa Extract-Loaded Polymeric Nanoparticles in Zebrafish Embryos
by Ana Teixeira, Marisa P. Sárria, Inês Pinto, Begoña Espiña, Andreia C. Gomes and Alberto C. P. Dias
Polymers 2022, 14(18), 3773; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14183773 - 09 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2386
Abstract
The link between oxidative stress and environmental factors plays an important role in chronic degenerative diseases; therefore, exogenous antioxidants could be an effective alternative to combat disease progression and/or most significant symptoms. Curcuma longa L. (CL), commonly known as turmeric, is mostly composed [...] Read more.
The link between oxidative stress and environmental factors plays an important role in chronic degenerative diseases; therefore, exogenous antioxidants could be an effective alternative to combat disease progression and/or most significant symptoms. Curcuma longa L. (CL), commonly known as turmeric, is mostly composed of curcumin, a multivalent molecule described as having antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. Poor chemical stability and low oral bioavailability and, consequently, poor absorption, rapid metabolism, and limited tissue distribution are major restrictions to its applicability. The advent of nanotechnology, by combining nanosacale with multi-functionality and bioavailability improvement, offers an opportunity to overcome these limitations. Therefore, in this work, poly-Ɛ-caprolactone (PCL) nanoparticles were developed to incorporate the methanolic extract of CL, and their bioactivity was assessed in comparison to free or encapsulated curcumin. Their toxicity was evaluated using zebrafish embryos by applying the Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity test, following recommended OECD guidelines. The protective effect against paraquat-induced oxidative damage of CL extract, free or encapsulated in PCL nanoparticles, was evaluated. This herbicide is known to cause oxidative damage and greatly affect neuromotor functions. The overall results indicate that CL-loaded PCL nanoparticles have an interesting protective capacity against paraquat-induced damage, particularly in neuromuscular development that goes well beyond that of CL extract itself and other known antioxidants. Full article
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19 pages, 2969 KiB  
Article
Loading and Release of Phenolic Compounds Present in Mexican Oregano (Lippia graveolens) in Different Chitosan Bio-Polymeric Cationic Matrixes
by Melissa Garcia-Carrasco, Lorenzo A. Picos-Corrales, Erick P. Gutiérrez-Grijalva, Miguel A. Angulo-Escalante, Angel Licea-Claverie and J. Basilio Heredia
Polymers 2022, 14(17), 3609; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14173609 - 01 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1853
Abstract
Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens) polyphenols have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential, but low bioaccessibility. Therefore, in the present work the micro/nano-encapsulation of these compounds in two different matrixes of chitosan (CS) and chitosan-b-poly(PEGMA2000) (CS-b-PPEGMA) is described [...] Read more.
Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens) polyphenols have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential, but low bioaccessibility. Therefore, in the present work the micro/nano-encapsulation of these compounds in two different matrixes of chitosan (CS) and chitosan-b-poly(PEGMA2000) (CS-b-PPEGMA) is described and assessed. The particle sizes of matrixes of CS (~955 nm) and CS-b-PPEGMA (~190 nm) increased by 10% and 50%, respectively, when the phenolic compounds were encapsulated, yielding loading efficiencies (LE) between 90–99% and 50–60%, correspondingly. The release profiles in simulated fluids revealed a better control of host–guest interactions by using the CS-b-PPEGMA matrix, reaching phenolic compounds release of 80% after 24 h, while single CS retained the guest compounds. The total reducing capacity (TRC) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of the phenolic compounds (PPHs) are protected and increased (more than five times) when they are encapsulated. Thus, this investigation provides a standard encapsulation strategy and relevant results regarding nutraceuticals stabilization and their improved bioaccessibility. Full article
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14 pages, 4911 KiB  
Article
Immobilization Systems of Antimicrobial Peptide Ib−M1 in Polymeric Nanoparticles Based on Alginate and Chitosan
by Carlos Enrique Osorio-Alvarado, Jose Luis Ropero-Vega, Ana Elvira Farfán-García and Johanna Marcela Flórez-Castillo
Polymers 2022, 14(15), 3149; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14153149 - 02 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1800
Abstract
The development of new strategies to reduce the use of traditional antibiotics has been a topic of global interest due to the resistance generated by multiresistant microorganisms, including Escherichia coli, as etiological agents of various diseases. Antimicrobial peptides are presented as an [...] Read more.
The development of new strategies to reduce the use of traditional antibiotics has been a topic of global interest due to the resistance generated by multiresistant microorganisms, including Escherichia coli, as etiological agents of various diseases. Antimicrobial peptides are presented as an alternative for the treatment of infectious diseases caused by this type of microorganism. The Ib−M1 peptide meets the requirements to be used as an antimicrobial compound. However, it is necessary to use strategies that generate protection and resist the conditions encountered in a biological system. Therefore, in this study, we synthesized alginate and chitosan nanoparticles (Alg−Chi NPs) using the ionic gelation technique, which allows for the crosslinking of polymeric chains arranged in nanostructures by intermolecular interactions that can be either covalent or non-covalent. Such interactions can be achieved through the use of crosslinking agents that facilitate this binding. This technique allows for immobilization of the Ib−M1 peptide to form an Ib−M1/Alg−Chi bioconjugate. SEM, DLS, and FT-IR were used to determine the structural features of the nanoparticles. We evaluated the biological activity against E. coli ATCC 25922 and Vero mammalian cells, as well as the stability at various temperatures, pH, and proteases, of Ib−M1 and Ib−M1/Alg-Chi. The results showed agglomerates of nanoparticles with average sizes of 150 nm; an MIC of 12.5 µM, which was maintained in the bioconjugate; and cytotoxicity values close to 40%. Stability was maintained against pH and temperature; in proteases, it was only evidenced against pepsin in Ib−M1/Alg-Chi. The results are promising with respect to the use of Ib−M1 and Ib−M1/Alg−Chi as possible antimicrobial agents. Full article
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19 pages, 7930 KiB  
Article
Starch-Based Hydrogel Nanoparticles Loaded with Polyphenolic Compounds of Moringa Oleifera Leaf Extract Have Hepatoprotective Activity in Bisphenol A-Induced Animal Models
by Hend Mohamed Hasanin Abou El-Naga, Samah A. El-Hashash, Ensaf Mokhtar Yasen, Stefano Leporatti and Nemany A. N. Hanafy
Polymers 2022, 14(14), 2846; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14142846 - 13 Jul 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2551
Abstract
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an xenoestrogenic chemical used extensively in the fabrication of baby bottles, reusable plastic water bottles and polycarbonate plastic containers. The current study aims to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of Moringa oleifera Lam leaf extract (MOLE) and hydrogel NPs made [...] Read more.
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an xenoestrogenic chemical used extensively in the fabrication of baby bottles, reusable plastic water bottles and polycarbonate plastic containers. The current study aims to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of Moringa oleifera Lam leaf extract (MOLE) and hydrogel NPs made of starch-MOLE-Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) against Bisphenol A-induced liver toxicity in male rats. Fabrication and characterization of hydrogel NPs formed of starch-MOLE-BSA were investigated using FTIR, TEM, zeta potential, UV-visible spectroscopy and fluorescence spectrophotometer. The potential efficacy of hydrogel NPs was studied. Compared to the results of control, the level of liver function, oxidative stress markers and lipid profile status were remodulated in the groups treated with MOLE and hydrogel NPs (Encap. MOLE). Meanwhile, the administration of MOLE and Encap MOLE significantly increased antioxidant activity and decreased the level of apoptotic pathways. Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and growth arrest -DNA damage-inducible gene 45b (Gadd45b) were also regulated in the groups treated with MOLE and Encap. MOLE compared to the group which received BPA alone. In the present study, MOLE and hydrogel NPs led to remarkable alterations in histological changes during BPA administration. Overall, MOLE has a potential antioxidant activity which can be used in the treatment of liver disorders. Full article
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17 pages, 1509 KiB  
Article
Encapsulation of Blackberry Phenolics and Volatiles Using Apple Fibers and Disaccharides
by Mirela Kopjar, Ivana Buljeta, Mario Nosić, Ivana Ivić, Josip Šimunović and Anita Pichler
Polymers 2022, 14(11), 2179; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14112179 - 27 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1763
Abstract
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of disaccharides on the encapsulation of the phenolics and volatiles of blackberry juice with the use of apple fiber. For this purpose, apple fiber/blackberry microparticles were prepared as the control, as well as [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of disaccharides on the encapsulation of the phenolics and volatiles of blackberry juice with the use of apple fiber. For this purpose, apple fiber/blackberry microparticles were prepared as the control, as well as microparticles additionally containing disaccharides, i.e., sucrose or trehalose. Fiber:disaccharide ratios were 1:0.5, 1:1, and 1:2. Formulated microparticles were characterized for total phenolics, proanthocyanidins, individual phenolics, antioxidant activity, flavor profiles, and color parameters. Both applied disaccharides affected the encapsulation of phenolics and volatiles by the apple fibers. Control microparticles had a higher content of phenolics than microparticles with disaccharides. Comparing disaccharides, the microparticles with trehalose had a higher content of phenolics than the ones containing sucrose. The amount of proanthocyanidins in the control microparticles was 47.81 mg PB2/100 g; in trehalose, the microparticles ranged from 39.88 to 42.99 mg PB2/100 g, and in sucrose, the microparticles ranged from 12.98 to 26.42 mg PB2/100 g, depending on the fiber:disaccharide ratio. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was the dominant anthocyanin. Its amount in the control microparticles was 151.97 mg/100 g, while in the trehalose microparticles, this ranged from 111.97 to 142.56 mg /100 g and in sucrose microparticles, from 100.28 to 138.74 mg /100 g. On the other hand, microparticles with disaccharides had a higher content of volatiles than the control microparticles. Trehalose microparticles had a higher content of volatiles than sucrose ones. These results show that the formulation of microparticles, i.e., the selection of carriers, had an important role in the final quality of the encapsulates. Full article
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17 pages, 3285 KiB  
Article
Development of Turmeric Oil—Loaded Chitosan/Alginate Nanocapsules for Cytotoxicity Enhancement against Breast Cancer
by Htet Htet Moe San, Khent Primo Alcantara, Bryan Paul I. Bulatao, Waraluck Chaichompoo, Nonthaneth Nalinratana, Apichart Suksamrarn, Opa Vajragupta, Pranee Rojsitthisak and Pornchai Rojsitthisak
Polymers 2022, 14(9), 1835; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14091835 - 29 Apr 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2578
Abstract
Turmeric oil (TO) exhibits various biological activities with limited therapeutic applications due to its instability, volatility, and poor water solubility. Here, we encapsulated TO in chitosan/alginate nanocapsules (CS/Alg-NCs) using o/w emulsification to enhance its physicochemical characteristics, using poloxamer 407 as a non-ionic surfactant. [...] Read more.
Turmeric oil (TO) exhibits various biological activities with limited therapeutic applications due to its instability, volatility, and poor water solubility. Here, we encapsulated TO in chitosan/alginate nanocapsules (CS/Alg-NCs) using o/w emulsification to enhance its physicochemical characteristics, using poloxamer 407 as a non-ionic surfactant. TO-loaded CS/Alg-NCs (TO-CS/Alg-NCs) were prepared with satisfactory features, encapsulation efficiency, release characteristics, and cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells. The average size of the fabricated TO-CS/Alg-NCs was around 200 nm; their distribution was homogenous, and their shapes were spherical, with smooth surfaces. The TO-CS/Alg-NCs showed a high encapsulation efficiency, of 70%, with a sustained release of TO at approximately 50% after 12 h at pH 7.4 and 5.5. The TO-CS/Alg-NCs demonstrated enhanced cytotoxicity against two breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7, compared to the unencapsulated TO, suggesting that CS/Alg-NCs are potential nanocarriers for TO and can serve as prospective candidates for in vivo anticancer activity evaluation. Full article
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16 pages, 3388 KiB  
Article
Spray-Drying Microencapsulation of Pink Guava (Psidium guajava) Carotenoids Using Mucilage from Opuntia ficus-indica Cladodes and Aloe Vera Leaves as Encapsulating Materials
by María Carolina Otálora, Andrea Wilches-Torres and Jovanny A. Gómez Castaño
Polymers 2022, 14(2), 310; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14020310 - 13 Jan 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2871
Abstract
In this work, the capacity of the mucilage extracted from the cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) and aloe vera (AV) leaves as wall material in the microencapsulation of pink guava carotenoids using spray-drying was studied. The stability of the encapsulated carotenoids was quantified [...] Read more.
In this work, the capacity of the mucilage extracted from the cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) and aloe vera (AV) leaves as wall material in the microencapsulation of pink guava carotenoids using spray-drying was studied. The stability of the encapsulated carotenoids was quantified using UV–vis and HPLC/MS techniques. Likewise, the antioxidant activity (TEAC), color (CIELab), structural (FTIR) and microstructural (SEM and particle size) properties, as well as the total dietary content, of both types of mucilage microcapsules were determined. Our results show that the use of AV mucilage, compared to OFI mucilage, increased both the retention of β-carotene and the antioxidant capacity of the carotenoid microcapsules by around 14%, as well as the total carotenoid content (TCC) by around 26%, and also favors the formation of spherical-type particles (Ø ≅ 26 µm) without the apparent damage of a more uniform size and with an attractive red-yellow hue. This type of microcapsules is proposed as a convenient alternative means to incorporate guava carotenoids, a natural colorant with a high antioxidant capacity, and dietary fiber content in the manufacture of functional products, which is a topic of interest for the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. Full article
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19 pages, 3542 KiB  
Article
Synergistics of Carboxymethyl Chitosan and Mangosteen Extract as Enhancing Moisturizing, Antioxidant, Antibacterial, and Deodorizing Properties in Emulsion Cream
by Nareekan Chaiwong, Yuthana Phimolsiripol, Pimporn Leelapornpisid, Warintorn Ruksiriwanich, Kittisak Jantanasakulwong, Pornchai Rachtanapun, Phisit Seesuriyachan, Sarana Rose Sommano, Noppol Leksawasdi, Mario J. Simirgiotis, Francisco J. Barba and Winita Punyodom
Polymers 2022, 14(1), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14010178 - 03 Jan 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3698
Abstract
Carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCH) from native chitosan of high molecular weight (H, 310–375 kDa) was synthesized for improving water solubility. The water solubility of high-molecular-weight carboxymethyl chitosan (H-CMCH) was higher than that of native chitosan by 89%. The application of H-CMCH as enhancing the [...] Read more.
Carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCH) from native chitosan of high molecular weight (H, 310–375 kDa) was synthesized for improving water solubility. The water solubility of high-molecular-weight carboxymethyl chitosan (H-CMCH) was higher than that of native chitosan by 89%. The application of H-CMCH as enhancing the moisturizer in mangosteen extract deodorant cream was evaluated. Different concentrations of H-CMCH (0.5–2.5%) were investigated in physicochemical characteristics of creams, including appearance, phase separation, pH, and viscosity, by an accelerated stability test. The different degrees of skin moisturizing (DM) on pig skin after applying H-CMCH solution, compared with untreated skin, water, and propylene glycol for 15 and 30 min using a Corneometer®, were investigated. The results showed that the 0.5% H-CMCH provided the best DM after applying the solution on pig skin for 30 min. Trans-2-nonenal, as an unsatisfied odor component, was also evaluated against components of the mangosteen extract deodorant cream, which were compared to the standard, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). In addition, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and antibacterial activities were examined for the mangosteen extract deodorant cream using 0.5% H-CMCH. Results indicated that the mangosteen extract synergized with H-CMCH, which had a good potential as an effective skin moisturizing agent enhancer, deodorizing activity on trans-2-nonenal odor, antioxidant properties, and antibacterial properties. Full article
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