Natural Polymer Based Micro and Nanoparticles

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2020) | Viewed by 5511

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1. Marine Bioprocess Research Center, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737, Korea
2. Yenepoya Research Centre, Yenepoya (Deemed to Be University), Deralakatte, Mangalore 575018, Karnataka, India
Interests: biomaterials; tissue engineering; regenerative medicine; drug delivery; polysaccharides
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Department of Marine Science & Convergence Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan 11558, Republic of Korea
Interests: marine natural products; marine biotechnology; marine algae; anti-oxidant; anti-HIV; anti-cancer; anti-allergy; anti-Inflammation; marine cosmeceuticals; nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals
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Hamad Medical Corporation, Post Box: 3050 Doha, Qatar
Interests: dental materials, periodontitis; immunology of periodontal disease; oral manifestations of HIV infection; periodontal disease and systemic conditions and diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Recently, much attention has been given to natural-based polymeric materials for food, biological, and biomedical applications due to their unique properties. Micro and nanoparticles of the natural polymeric system (cellulose, chitosan, alginate, carrageenan, uIvan, pectin, starch, etc.) have been extensively studied for pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and cosmeceutical product development. These natural-based micro and nanoparticles have unique properties, such as excellent antimicrobial properties, gel-forming ability, better loading capacity, biocompatibility and biodegradability, and non-toxic character. Nanoparticles of the natural-based polymeric system are widely studied for protein, peptides, cancer, antibiotic, and insulin delivery applications. Additionally, these natural-based polymeric systems are also utilized in tissue construction applications (skin, bone, cartilage, liver, heart, etc.). Overall, natural-based polymeric micro and nanoparticles need to be studied more extensively for the development of commercial products to improve quality of life for humans.

Dr. Jayachandran Venkatesan
Prof. Se-Kwon Kim
Prof. Anil Sukumaran
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • chitosan
  • alginate
  • carrageenan
  • cellulose
  • pectin
  • drug delivery system (DDS)
  • tissue engineering
  • biosensor

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Research

24 pages, 4634 KiB  
Article
Biodegradation of Crystalline Cellulose Nanofibers by Means of Enzyme Immobilized-Alginate Beads and Microparticles
by Arnaud Kamdem Tamo, Ingo Doench, Aliuska Morales Helguera, Daniel Hoenders, Andreas Walther and Anayancy Osorio Madrazo
Polymers 2020, 12(7), 1522; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12071522 - 09 Jul 2020
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 4977
Abstract
Recent advances in nanocellulose technology have revealed the potential of crystalline cellulose nanofibers to reinforce materials which are useful for tissue engineering, among other functions. However, the low biodegradability of nanocellulose can possess some problems in biomedical applications. In this work, alginate particles [...] Read more.
Recent advances in nanocellulose technology have revealed the potential of crystalline cellulose nanofibers to reinforce materials which are useful for tissue engineering, among other functions. However, the low biodegradability of nanocellulose can possess some problems in biomedical applications. In this work, alginate particles with encapsulated enzyme cellulase extracted from Trichoderma reesei were prepared for the biodegradation of crystalline cellulose nanofibers, which carrier system could be incorporated in tissue engineering biomaterials to degrade the crystalline cellulose nanoreinforcement in situ and on-demand during tissue regeneration. Both alginate beads and microparticles were processed by extrusion-dropping and inkjet-based methods, respectively. Processing parameters like the alginate concentration, concentration of ionic crosslinker Ca2+, hardening time, and ionic strength of the medium were varied. The hydrolytic activity of the free and encapsulated enzyme was evaluated for unmodified (CNFs) and TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers (TOCNFs) in suspension (heterogeneous conditions); in comparison to solubilized cellulose derivatives (homogeneous conditions). The enzymatic activity was evaluated for temperatures between 25–75 °C, pH range from 3.5 to 8.0 and incubation times until 21 d. Encapsulated cellulase in general displayed higher activity compared to the free enzyme over wider temperature and pH ranges and for longer incubation times. A statistical design allowed optimizing the processing parameters for the preparation of enzyme-encapsulated alginate particles presenting the highest enzymatic activity and sphericity. The statistical analysis yielded the optimum particles characteristics and properties by using a formulation of 2% (w/v) alginate, a coagulation bath of 0.2 M CaCl2 and a hardening time of 1 h. In homogeneous conditions the highest catalytic activity was obtained at 55 °C and pH 4.8. These temperature and pH values were considered to study the biodegradation of the crystalline cellulose nanofibers in suspension. The encapsulated cellulase preserved its activity for several weeks over that of the free enzyme, which latter considerably decreased and practically showed deactivation after just 10 d. The alginate microparticles with their high surface area-to-volume ratio effectively allowed the controlled release of the encapsulated enzyme and thereby the sustained hydrolysis of the cellulose nanofibers. The relative activity of cellulase encapsulated in the microparticles leveled-off at around 60% after one day and practically remained at that value for three weeks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polymer Based Micro and Nanoparticles)
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