Laser processing in polymer research

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Polymer Processing and Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (21 January 2019) | Viewed by 41763

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118, USA
Interests: pulsed laser deposition; novel laser fabrication of thin films; coatings of advanced materials; matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation; metallic nanoparticle fabrication; bionanotechnology; thin films and nanotechnology; mechanical behavior of materials; material characterization
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
Interests: organotrialkoxysilane and organo-amine functionalized metal nanoparticles; electrochemical sensors; organically modified silicate; self-assembling nanofluid; electrocatalysis; mediated bioelectrochemistry; metal ceramics hybrid; nanoparticle-siloxane nanofluid; polymer-nanoparticles nanofluid
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Lasers Department, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma & Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG-36, Magurele, 077125 Bucharest, Romania
Interests: materials science and engineering; laser–material interactions; thin films and coatings; laser processing; matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE); MAPLE direct write; functional biomaterials (biopolymers, proteins, biomembranes, nanoparticles, flavonoids, stem cells); controlled and targeted drug delivery; regenerative medicine; tissue engineering; biofouling; chem-bio-sensors; nanotechnology and bionanomedicine; biotechnology applied microbiology; biomedical engineering

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Maiman demonstrated light amplification using stimulated emission of radiation over fifty years ago. Lasers are being utilized in many applications in clinical medicine; for example, laser-based minimally-invasive surgical techniques are associated with little blood loss and precise removal of tissue. In addition, researchers have demonstrated and commercialized the use of lasers for processing biomedical materials. For example, pulsed laser deposition, laser micromachining, selective laser sintering, selective laser melting, and stereolithography have been used for processing biomaterials. A variety of devices, including cardiovascular stents, biosensors, drug delivery devices, and scaffolds for tissue engineering have been created using laser-based processes. This Special Issue will consider current developments in this interdisciplinary area.

Potential topics could include, but are not limited to:

- Laser texturing and patterning of polymers and/or polymer composites

- Laser deposition of polymer-based composite thin films and coatings

- Rapid prototyping/transfer/printing of polymers and/or polymer composites assisted by laser

- Laser micro- and nanofabrication of polymers and/or polymer composites

- Evaluation, performance, and applications of laser-processed polymers/polymer composites in nanotechnology, biomedicine, green chemistry, electronics, sensing, catalysis, etc.

-Modeling of laser processing of polymers

-Laser fabrication of 3D polymer constructs, microstructures, etc.

-Nanoparticle-mediated laser polymerization

Prof. Douglas B. Chrisey
Prof. Roger Narayan
Prof. Prem C. Pandey
Dr. Rodica Cristescu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Polymers is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Laser
  • Polymer composites
  • Polymer-based materials
  • Scaffolds
  • Surface Modification

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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7 pages, 2913 KiB  
Article
Effects of Cavity Structure on Tuning Properties of Polymer Lasers in a Liquid Environment
by Fengzhao Cao, Shuai Zhang, Junhua Tong, Chao Chen, Lianze Niu, Tianrui Zhai and Xinping Zhang
Polymers 2019, 11(2), 329; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11020329 - 14 Feb 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3620
Abstract
The effect of cavity structures on the tuning properties of polymer lasers was investigated in two common distributed-feedback cavities. The configurations of the two cavities are substrate/grating/active waveguide and substrate/active waveguide/grating, respectively. The polymer lasers were operated in the liquid environment, and the [...] Read more.
The effect of cavity structures on the tuning properties of polymer lasers was investigated in two common distributed-feedback cavities. The configurations of the two cavities are substrate/grating/active waveguide and substrate/active waveguide/grating, respectively. The polymer lasers were operated in the liquid environment, and the laser wavelength was tuned dynamically by changing the refractive index of the liquid. Polymer lasers based on the substrate/grating/active waveguide structure showed a higher tunability than those based on the substrate/active waveguide/grating structure due to a larger electric field distribution of the laser mode in the liquid environment. It is expected that these results will be useful in the development of tunable laser sources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser processing in polymer research)
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22 pages, 5012 KiB  
Article
Laser Processed Antimicrobial Nanocomposite Based on Polyaniline Grafted Lignin Loaded with Gentamicin-Functionalized Magnetite
by Anita Ioana Visan, Gianina Popescu-Pelin, Oana Gherasim, Valentina Grumezescu, Marcela Socol, Irina Zgura, Camelia Florica, Roxana C. Popescu, Diana Savu, Alina Maria Holban, Rodica Cristescu, Consuela E. Matei and Gabriel Socol
Polymers 2019, 11(2), 283; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11020283 - 7 Feb 2019
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4583
Abstract
Composite thin coatings of conductive polymer (polyaniline grafted lignin, PANI-LIG) embedded with aminoglycoside Gentamicin sulfate (GS) or magnetite nanoparticles loaded with GS (Fe3O4@GS) were deposited by the matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) technique. The aim was to obtain such [...] Read more.
Composite thin coatings of conductive polymer (polyaniline grafted lignin, PANI-LIG) embedded with aminoglycoside Gentamicin sulfate (GS) or magnetite nanoparticles loaded with GS (Fe3O4@GS) were deposited by the matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) technique. The aim was to obtain such nanostructured coatings for titanium-based biomedical surfaces, which would induce multi-functional properties to implantable devices, such as the controlled release of the therapeutically active substance under the action of a magnetic and/or electric field. Thus, the unaltered laser transfer of the initial biomaterials was reported, and the deposited thin coatings exhibited an appropriate nanostructured surface, suitable for bone-related applications. The laser processing of PANI-LIG materials had a meaningful impact on the composites’ wettability, since the contact angle values corresponding to the composite laser processed materials decreased in comparison with pristine conductive polymer coatings, indicating more hydrophilic surfaces. The corrosion resistant structures exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans strains. In vitro cytotoxicity studies demonstrated that the PANI-LIG-modified titanium substrates can allow growth of bone-like cells. These results encourage further assessment of this type of biomaterial for their application in controlled drug release at implantation sites by external activation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser processing in polymer research)
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9 pages, 1659 KiB  
Article
Operating Characteristics of High-Order Distributed Feedback Polymer Lasers
by Puxi Zhou, Lianze Niu, Anwer Hayat, Fengzhao Cao, Tianrui Zhai and Xinping Zhang
Polymers 2019, 11(2), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11020258 - 3 Feb 2019
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 5429
Abstract
In this study, high-order distributed-feedback (DFB) polymer lasers were comparatively investigated. Their performance relies on multiple lasing directions and their advantages include their high manufacturing tolerances due to the large grating periods. Nine laser cavities were fabricated by spin-coating the gain polymer films [...] Read more.
In this study, high-order distributed-feedback (DFB) polymer lasers were comparatively investigated. Their performance relies on multiple lasing directions and their advantages include their high manufacturing tolerances due to the large grating periods. Nine laser cavities were fabricated by spin-coating the gain polymer films onto a grating structure, which was manufactured via interference lithography that operated at the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th DFB orders. Low threshold lasing and high slope efficiency were achieved in high-order DFB polymer lasers due to the large grating groove depth and the large gain layer thickness. A high-order DFB configuration shows possible advantages, including the ability to control the lasing direction and to achieve multiple-wavelength lasers. Furthermore, our investigation demonstrates that the increase in threshold and decrease in slope efficiency with an increase in the feedback order can be limited by controlling the structural parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser processing in polymer research)
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12 pages, 4981 KiB  
Article
Microdrilling of Through-Holes in Flexible Printed Circuits Using Picosecond Ultrashort Pulse Laser
by Wanqin Zhao and Lingzhi Wang
Polymers 2018, 10(12), 1390; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10121390 - 14 Dec 2018
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 6125
Abstract
High density and high quality interconnects are necessary for the preparation of miniaturized and lightweight electronic products. Therefore, small-diameter and high-density through-holes in FPCs (Flexible Printed Circuits) are required. However, the current processing methods cannot further decrease the diameters and improve the quality [...] Read more.
High density and high quality interconnects are necessary for the preparation of miniaturized and lightweight electronic products. Therefore, small-diameter and high-density through-holes in FPCs (Flexible Printed Circuits) are required. However, the current processing methods cannot further decrease the diameters and improve the quality of through-holes. Comparatively, ultrashort pulse laser is a good choice. In this paper, the processing technology for the microdrilling of through-holes in FPCs using a 10 ps pulse laser was systematically studied. The effects of laser parameters, including the wavelength, energy, pulses and polarization, on the drilling of through-holes were investigated. The various processing parameters were optimized and the plausible reasons were discussed. Finally, the desired small-diameter and high-density through-holes in FPCs were obtained. The experimental results showed that, through-holes with diameters of less than 10 µm and inlet interconnection pitches of 0~2 µm could be successfully drilled in FPCs using ultrashort pulse laser. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser processing in polymer research)
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7 pages, 17847 KiB  
Article
Polymer Lasing in a Periodic-Random Compound Cavity
by Tianrui Zhai, Xiaofeng Wu, Songtao Li, Shuyan Liang, Lianze Niu, Meng Wang, Shengfei Feng, Hongmei Liu and Xinping Zhang
Polymers 2018, 10(11), 1194; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10111194 - 26 Oct 2018
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3199
Abstract
Simultaneous distributed feedback (DFB) lasing and linear polarized random lasing are observed in a compound cavity, which consists of a grating cavity and a random cavity. The grating cavity is fabricated by interference lithography. A light-emitting polymer doped with silver nanoparticles is spin-coated [...] Read more.
Simultaneous distributed feedback (DFB) lasing and linear polarized random lasing are observed in a compound cavity, which consists of a grating cavity and a random cavity. The grating cavity is fabricated by interference lithography. A light-emitting polymer doped with silver nanoparticles is spin-coated on the grating, forming a random cavity. DFB lasing and random lasing occur when the periodic-random compound cavity is optically pumped. The directionality and polarization of the random laser are modified by the grating structure. These results can potentially be used to design integrated laser sources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser processing in polymer research)
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13 pages, 6214 KiB  
Article
Laser-Textured Rubbers with Carbon Nanotube Fillers
by Mariusz Siciński, Ewa Korzeniewska, Mariusz Tomczyk, Ryszard Pawlak, Dariusz Bieliński, Tomasz Gozdek, Karolina Kałuzińska and Maria Walczak
Polymers 2018, 10(10), 1091; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10101091 - 2 Oct 2018
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3146
Abstract
This paper describes a method of laser ablation for improving the hydrophobic properties of vulcanized rubber. The treatment was tested on acrylonitrile rubber (NBR) and styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) containing carbon nanotubes and soot as fillers. The surface layer of the vulcanizates was [...] Read more.
This paper describes a method of laser ablation for improving the hydrophobic properties of vulcanized rubber. The treatment was tested on acrylonitrile rubber (NBR) and styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) containing carbon nanotubes and soot as fillers. The surface layer of the vulcanizates was modified using a nanosecond-pulsed laser at 1060 nm wavelength. The parameters of the ablation process were congruent, so no chemical changes in the polymeric material were observed. Evaluation of the surface condition of the laser-textured samples was performed using a Leica MZ6 stereoscopic microscope, operating with MultiScan 8.0 image analysis software. The contact angles were determined for all the samples before and after the surface modification process. Following modification of the surface morphology, with the best parameters of laser ablation, the contact angle increased, reaching 147°, which is very close to the threshold of superhydrophobicity (150°). On the basis of the results from several tests, laser ablation with a fiber-pulsed laser can be considered a very useful method for producing rubbers with superhydrophobic surfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser processing in polymer research)
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Review

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31 pages, 9874 KiB  
Review
Polymer-Based Device Fabrication and Applications Using Direct Laser Writing Technology
by Zhen-Lin Wu, Ya-Nan Qi, Xiao-Jie Yin, Xin Yang, Chang-Ming Chen, Jing-Ying Yu, Jia-Chen Yu, Yu-Meng Lin, Fang Hui, Peng-Li Liu, Yu-Xin Liang, Yang Zhang and Ming-Shan Zhao
Polymers 2019, 11(3), 553; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11030553 - 22 Mar 2019
Cited by 42 | Viewed by 9075
Abstract
Polymer materials exhibit unique properties in the fabrication of optical waveguide devices, electromagnetic devices, and bio-devices. Direct laser writing (DLW) technology is widely used for micro-structure fabrication due to its high processing precision, low cost, and no need for mask exposure. This paper [...] Read more.
Polymer materials exhibit unique properties in the fabrication of optical waveguide devices, electromagnetic devices, and bio-devices. Direct laser writing (DLW) technology is widely used for micro-structure fabrication due to its high processing precision, low cost, and no need for mask exposure. This paper reviews the latest research progresses of polymer-based micro/nano-devices fabricated using the DLW technique as well as their applications. In order to realize various device structures and functions, different manufacture parameters of DLW systems are adopted, which are also investigated in this work. The flexible use of the DLW process in various polymer-based microstructures, including optical, electronic, magnetic, and biomedical devices are reviewed together with their applications. In addition, polymer materials which are developed with unique properties for the use of DLW technology are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser processing in polymer research)
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15 pages, 5327 KiB  
Review
Advances in Conjugated Polymer Lasers
by Hongyan Xia, Chang Hu, Tingkuo Chen, Dan Hu, Muru Zhang and Kang Xie
Polymers 2019, 11(3), 443; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11030443 - 7 Mar 2019
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 5493
Abstract
This paper provides a review of advances in conjugated polymer lasers. High photoluminescence efficiencies and large stimulated emission cross-sections coupled with wavelength tunability and low-cost manufacturing processes make conjugated polymers ideal laser gain materials. In recent years, conjugated polymer lasers have become an [...] Read more.
This paper provides a review of advances in conjugated polymer lasers. High photoluminescence efficiencies and large stimulated emission cross-sections coupled with wavelength tunability and low-cost manufacturing processes make conjugated polymers ideal laser gain materials. In recent years, conjugated polymer lasers have become an attractive research direction in the field of organic lasers and numerous breakthroughs based on conjugated polymer lasers have been made in the last decade. This paper summarizes the recent progress of the subject of laser processes employing conjugated polymers, with a focus on the photoluminescence principle and excitation radiation mechanism of conjugated polymers. Furthermore, the effect of conjugated polymer structures on the laser threshold is discussed. The most common polymer laser materials are also introduced in detail. Apart from photo-pumped conjugated polymer lasers, a direction for the future development of electro-pumped conjugated polymer lasers is proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser processing in polymer research)
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