Biopolymer Matrices for Incorporation of Bioactive Compounds

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomacromolecules, Biobased and Biodegradable Polymers".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 5 October 2024 | Viewed by 24500

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Materials Engineering (DEMa), Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar), Sao Carlos, Brazil
Interests: biopolymers; biocolloids; nanocelluloses; packaging

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Guest Editor
Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Sao Paulo, São Paulo 04021-001, SP, Brazil
Interests: biopolymers; silk fibroin; controlled release; drug delivery; biomaterials

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Guest Editor
Chemical Engineering Department, School of Technology, Amazonas State University, UEA, Manaus, Brazil
Interests: bioprocess; biocatalysis; immobilization; bioactive compounds; endophytic fungi; enzymology

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Guest Editor
Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Environmental, Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, R. São Nicolau 210, Diadema 09913-030, SP, Brazil
Interests: bioactive compounds ; innovative techniques; high pressure; impregnation; drying ; encapsulation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The aim of this Special Issue is to explore cutting-edge developments in the field of biopolymer matrices applied to encapsulation, preservation, and controlled release of bioactive compounds. In recent years, bioactive compounds have been studied for different types of activity, such as antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and antioxidant, among many others. However, these biomolecules present poor stability, which can be improved by incorporation into (bio)polymeric matrices. Biopolymers are good candidates to be used as a matrix for the incorporation of bioactive compounds; they can be processed in the form of particles, hydrogels, and films, showing intrinsic properties of biodegradability and biocompatibility; and they can also be used as platforms for enzyme immobilization, with multipurpose applications.

With a focus on exploring the use of biopolymeric matrices, the potential topics include but are not limited to the following: (i) conventional and innovative methods for the encapsulation of bioactive compounds, (ii) co-encapsulation systems of biopolymers, (iii) innovative methods for impregnation of actives on biopolymeric matrices, (iv) controlled release of bioactive compounds from biopolymeric matrices, and (v) biopolymers as support carriers for the immobilization of enzymes.

Prof. Dr. Caio Gomide Otoni
Prof. Dr. Mariana Agostini de Moraes
Prof. Dr. Patrícia Melchionna Albuquerque
Prof. Dr. Priscilla Carvalho Veggi
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • natural polymers
  • encapsulation
  • prolonged release
  • preservation of bioactivity
  • biodegradability
  • hydrogels
  • films
  • nanoparticles
  • innovative techniques
  • immobilization

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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21 pages, 3021 KiB  
Article
Antimicrobial Bilayer Film Based on Chitosan/Electrospun Zein Fiber Loaded with Jaboticaba Peel Extract for Food Packaging Applications
by Luisa Bataglin Avila, Diana Pinto, Luis F. O. Silva, Bruna Silva de Farias, Caroline Costa Moraes, Gabriela Silveira Da Rosa and Guilherme Luiz Dotto
Polymers 2022, 14(24), 5457; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14245457 - 13 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2043
Abstract
This work focused on developing an active bilayer film based on natural extract. Thus, the jaboticaba peel extract (JPE) was produced and characterized and showed promising application as a natural additive in biopolymeric materials. The zein fiber and bilayer films were produced using [...] Read more.
This work focused on developing an active bilayer film based on natural extract. Thus, the jaboticaba peel extract (JPE) was produced and characterized and showed promising application as a natural additive in biopolymeric materials. The zein fiber and bilayer films were produced using a chitosan film (casting) and zein fiber (electrospinning), with and without JPE. All samples were evaluated according to thickness, solubility in water, water vapor permeability, and main diameter, and for these, zein fiber, chitosan/zein fiber, and chitosan/zein fiber + 3% JPE showed values of 0.19, 0.51, and 0.50 mm, 36.50, 12.96, and 27.38%, 4.48 × 10−9, 1.6 × 10−10, and 1.58 × 10−10 (g m−1 Pa−1 s−1), and 6.094, 4.685, and 3.620 μm, respectively. These results showed that the addition of a second layer improved the barrier properties of the material when compared to the monolayer zein fiber. The thermal stability analysis proved that the addition of JPE also improved this parameter and the interactions between the components of the zein fiber and bilayer films; additionally, the effective presence of JPE was shown through FTIR spectra. In the end, the active potential of the material was confirmed by antimicrobial analysis since the bilayer film with JPE showed inhibition halos against E. coli and S. aureus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biopolymer Matrices for Incorporation of Bioactive Compounds)
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15 pages, 3299 KiB  
Article
Silk Fibroin Hydrogels Incorporated with the Antioxidant Extract of Stryphnodendron adstringens Bark
by Vivian P. de Brito, Maurício M. de Souza Ribeiro, Juliane Viganó, Mariana A. de Moraes and Priscilla C. Veggi
Polymers 2022, 14(22), 4806; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14224806 - 8 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1441
Abstract
Barbatimão (Stryphnodendron adstringens) is a Brazilian medicinal plant known for its pharmacological properties, including healing activity related to its phenolic composition, which is chiefly given by tannins. In order to preserve its stability and bioactivity, barbatimão extracts can be incorporated into [...] Read more.
Barbatimão (Stryphnodendron adstringens) is a Brazilian medicinal plant known for its pharmacological properties, including healing activity related to its phenolic composition, which is chiefly given by tannins. In order to preserve its stability and bioactivity, barbatimão extracts can be incorporated into (bio-)polymeric matrixes, of which silk fibroin stands out due to its versatility and tunable properties. This work aimed to obtain barbatimão bark extract rich in phenolic compounds and evaluate its incorporation in fibroin hydrogels. From the extraction process, it was observed that the PG (propylene glycol) extract presented a higher global yield (X0) and phenolic compounds (TPC) than the ET (ethanol) extract. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity (ORAC and FRAP) was similar between both extracts. Regarding the hydrogels, morphological, chemical, thermal, and mechanical characterizations were performed to understand the influence of the barbatimão extract and the solvent on the fibroin hydrogel properties. As a result, the hydrogels containing the barbatimão PG extract (BT/PG hydrogels) showed the better physical–chemical and structural performance. Therefore, these hydrogels should be further investigated regarding their potential in medical and pharmaceutical applications, especially in wound healing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biopolymer Matrices for Incorporation of Bioactive Compounds)
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12 pages, 3323 KiB  
Article
Rigid Polyurethane Biofoams Filled with Chemically Compatible Fruit Peels
by Andrey Pereira Acosta, Caio Gomide Otoni, André Luiz Missio, Sandro Campos Amico and Rafael de Avila Delucis
Polymers 2022, 14(21), 4526; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14214526 - 26 Oct 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2149
Abstract
Banana and bergamot peels are underutilized byproducts of the essential oil and juice-processing industry. This study was designed for the development of rigid polyurethane foam (RPUF) composites using polysaccharide-rich fruit peels as fillers. These fillers were characterized for chemical properties using wet analyses. [...] Read more.
Banana and bergamot peels are underutilized byproducts of the essential oil and juice-processing industry. This study was designed for the development of rigid polyurethane foam (RPUF) composites using polysaccharide-rich fruit peels as fillers. These fillers were characterized for chemical properties using wet analyses. Additionally, the influences of the filler type and filler content on morphological, thermal, mechanical, hygroscopic, and colorimetric properties of the RPUF were investigated. The main results indicated that, in a comparison with the neat RPUF, the insertion of up to 15% of fillers yielded similar water uptake, apparent density, compressive strength, and color properties, as well as increases up to 115% in thermal stability and up to 80% in cell size. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biopolymer Matrices for Incorporation of Bioactive Compounds)
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Review

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27 pages, 2034 KiB  
Review
Biotechnological Applications of Nanoencapsulated Essential Oils: A Review
by Patrícia Melchionna Albuquerque, Sidney Gomes Azevedo, Cleudiane Pereira de Andrade, Natália Corrêa de Souza D’Ambros, Maria Tereza Martins Pérez and Lizandro Manzato
Polymers 2022, 14(24), 5495; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14245495 - 15 Dec 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3341
Abstract
Essential oils (EOs) are complex mixtures of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds that originate from different plant tissues, including flowers, buds, leaves and bark. According to their chemical composition, EOs have a characteristic aroma and present a wide spectrum of applications, namely in [...] Read more.
Essential oils (EOs) are complex mixtures of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds that originate from different plant tissues, including flowers, buds, leaves and bark. According to their chemical composition, EOs have a characteristic aroma and present a wide spectrum of applications, namely in the food, agricultural, environmental, cosmetic and pharmaceutical sectors. These applications are mainly due to their biological properties. However, EOs are unstable and easily degradable if not protected from external factors such as oxidation, heat and light. Therefore, there is growing interest in the encapsulation of EOs, since polymeric nanocarriers serve as a barrier between the oil and the environment. In this context, nanoencapsulation seems to be an interesting approach as it not only prevents the exposure and degradation of EOs and their bioactive constituents by creating a physical barrier, but it also facilitates their controlled release, thus resulting in greater bioavailability and efficiency. In this review, we focused on selecting recent articles whose objective concerned the nanoencapsulation of essential oils from different plant species and highlighted their chemical constituents and their potential biotechnological applications. We also present the fundamentals of the most commonly used encapsulation methods, and the biopolymer carriers that are suitable for encapsulating EOs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biopolymer Matrices for Incorporation of Bioactive Compounds)
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37 pages, 1874 KiB  
Review
Encapsulation of Bioactive Compounds for Food and Agricultural Applications
by Giovani Leone Zabot, Fabiele Schaefer Rodrigues, Lissara Polano Ody, Marcus Vinícius Tres, Esteban Herrera, Heidy Palacin, Javier S. Córdova-Ramos, Ivan Best and Luis Olivera-Montenegro
Polymers 2022, 14(19), 4194; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14194194 - 6 Oct 2022
Cited by 47 | Viewed by 11744
Abstract
This review presents an updated scenario of findings and evolutions of encapsulation of bioactive compounds for food and agricultural applications. Many polymers have been reported as encapsulated agents, such as sodium alginate, gum Arabic, chitosan, cellulose and carboxymethylcellulose, pectin, Shellac, xanthan gum, zein, [...] Read more.
This review presents an updated scenario of findings and evolutions of encapsulation of bioactive compounds for food and agricultural applications. Many polymers have been reported as encapsulated agents, such as sodium alginate, gum Arabic, chitosan, cellulose and carboxymethylcellulose, pectin, Shellac, xanthan gum, zein, pullulan, maltodextrin, whey protein, galactomannan, modified starch, polycaprolactone, and sodium caseinate. The main encapsulation methods investigated in the study include both physical and chemical ones, such as freeze-drying, spray-drying, extrusion, coacervation, complexation, and supercritical anti-solvent drying. Consequently, in the food area, bioactive peptides, vitamins, essential oils, caffeine, plant extracts, fatty acids, flavonoids, carotenoids, and terpenes are the main compounds encapsulated. In the agricultural area, essential oils, lipids, phytotoxins, medicines, vaccines, hemoglobin, and microbial metabolites are the main compounds encapsulated. Most scientific investigations have one or more objectives, such as to improve the stability of formulated systems, increase the release time, retain and protect active properties, reduce lipid oxidation, maintain organoleptic properties, and present bioactivities even in extreme thermal, radiation, and pH conditions. Considering the increasing worldwide interest for biomolecules in modern and sustainable agriculture, encapsulation can be efficient for the formulation of biofungicides, biopesticides, bioherbicides, and biofertilizers. With this review, it is inferred that the current scenario indicates evolutions in the production methods by increasing the scales and the techno-economic feasibilities. The Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for most of the encapsulation methods is going beyond TRL 6, in which the knowledge gathered allows for having a functional prototype or a representative model of the encapsulation technologies presented in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biopolymer Matrices for Incorporation of Bioactive Compounds)
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16 pages, 1817 KiB  
Review
Starch as a Matrix for Incorporation and Release of Bioactive Compounds: Fundamentals and Applications
by Lucas de Souza Falcão, Deborah Bento Coelho, Priscilla Carvalho Veggi, Pedro Henrique Campelo, Patrícia Melchionna Albuquerque and Mariana Agostini de Moraes
Polymers 2022, 14(12), 2361; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14122361 - 10 Jun 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2859
Abstract
Due to its abundance in nature and low cost, starch is one of the most relevant raw materials for replacing synthetic polymers in a number of applications. It is generally regarded as non-toxic, biocompatible, and biodegradable and, therefore, a safe option for biomedical, [...] Read more.
Due to its abundance in nature and low cost, starch is one of the most relevant raw materials for replacing synthetic polymers in a number of applications. It is generally regarded as non-toxic, biocompatible, and biodegradable and, therefore, a safe option for biomedical, food, and packaging applications. In this review, we focused on studies that report the use of starch as a matrix for stabilization, incorporation, or release of bioactive compounds, and explore a wide range of applications of starch-based materials. One of the key application areas for bioactive compounds incorporated in starch matrices is the pharmaceutical industry, especially in orally disintegrating films. The packaging industry has also shown great interest in using starch films, especially those with antioxidant activity. Regarding food technology, starch can be used as a stabilizer in nanoemulsions, thus allowing the incorporation of bioactive compounds in a variety of food types. Starch also presents potential in the cosmetic industry as a delivery system. However, there are still several types of industry that could benefit from the incorporation of starch matrices with bioactive compounds, which are described in this review. In addition, the use of microbial bioactive compounds in starch matrices represents an almost unexplored field still to be investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biopolymer Matrices for Incorporation of Bioactive Compounds)
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