Shape Memory and Functional Polymers

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Smart and Functional Polymers".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 5 October 2024 | Viewed by 9776

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
GRIDS-Research Group, Centre for Mechanical Technology and Automation, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
Interests: vibration damping; morphing; dynamic control; sensors

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Centre of Mechanical Technology and Automation, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal
Interests: polymer processing; polymer flow numerical simulation; material characterization; nanocomposites
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

This Special Issue on “Shape Memory and Functional Polymers” is devoted to the dissemination of high-quality original research articles or comprehensive reviews on cutting-edge developments in this interesting and contemporary field of research.

Polymers offer a set of interesting features, and the capability of incorporation of shape memory properties or other functional characteristics opens a vast, new field of applications, from biomedical devices to sensors, structural morphing, and vibration control.

Shape memory polymers (SMPs) and their composites (SMPCs) are remarkably interesting materials when designing structures or devices capable of responding to external stimuli. The cost of the material, the tailoring freedom through controlled polymer synthesis or material blending, allied to fast and cost-effective transformation processes, including additive manufacturing processes, dictate the interest in these materials. Moreover, the freedom to create complex geometries using polymers is one of the most important advantages of these materials when compared to other functional materials, including shape memory alloys.

This Special Issue intends to provide a comprehensive insight into these materials; hence, original contributions and complete reviews on shape memory polymers and their composites are welcome. Potential topics include but are not limited to the following:

  • Polymer synthesis;
  • Material characterization;
  • Polymer processing;
  • 3d printing of SMPs and SMPCs;
  • Structural morphing applications;
  • Biomedical applications;
  • Sensors.

Prof. Dr. Rui A. S. Moreira
Prof. Dr. Mónica S. A. Oliveira
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Polymers is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • shape memory polymers
  • shape memory composites
  • functional polymers
  • structural morphing
  • vibration control

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

12 pages, 2902 KiB  
Article
Glycerol Acrylate-Based Photopolymers with Antimicrobial and Shape-Memory Properties
by Evelina Saunoryte, Aukse Navaruckiene, Sigita Grauzeliene, Danguole Bridziuviene, Vita Raudoniene and Jolita Ostrauskaite
Polymers 2024, 16(6), 862; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym16060862 - 21 Mar 2024
Viewed by 851
Abstract
In this paper, for the first time, photopolymers were synthesized from glycerol acrylates with different numbers of functional groups, 2-hydroxy-3-phenoxypropyl acrylate, glycerol dimethacrylate or glycerol trimethacrylate, without and with the addition of vanillin styrene. The photocuring kinetics were monitored by real-time photorheometry. The [...] Read more.
In this paper, for the first time, photopolymers were synthesized from glycerol acrylates with different numbers of functional groups, 2-hydroxy-3-phenoxypropyl acrylate, glycerol dimethacrylate or glycerol trimethacrylate, without and with the addition of vanillin styrene. The photocuring kinetics were monitored by real-time photorheometry. The mechanical, rheological, thermal, antimicrobial and shape-memory properties of the photopolymers were investigated. All polymers synthesized demonstrated antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, as well as antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger. 2-Hydroxy-3-phenoxypropyl acrylate-based polymers showed thermoresponsive shape-memory behavior. They were able to maintain their temporary shape below the glass transition temperature and return to their permanent shape above the glass transition temperature. Synthesized photopolymers have potential to be used as sustainable polymers in a wide range of applications such as biomedicine, photonics, electronics, robotics, etc. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shape Memory and Functional Polymers)
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12 pages, 5318 KiB  
Article
Aliphatic Polybenzimidazoles: Synthesis, Characterization and High-Temperature Shape-Memory Performance
by Bato Ch. Kholkhoev, Zakhar A. Matveev, Kseniia N. Bardakova, Peter S. Timashev and Vitaliy F. Burdukovskii
Polymers 2023, 15(6), 1399; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15061399 - 11 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1607
Abstract
A series of aliphatic polybenzimidazoles (PBIs) with methylene groups of varying length were synthesized by the high-temperature polycondensation of 3,3′-diaminobenzidine (DAB) and the corresponding aliphatic dicarboxylic acid in Eaton’s reagent. The influence of the length of the methylene chain on PBIs’ properties was [...] Read more.
A series of aliphatic polybenzimidazoles (PBIs) with methylene groups of varying length were synthesized by the high-temperature polycondensation of 3,3′-diaminobenzidine (DAB) and the corresponding aliphatic dicarboxylic acid in Eaton’s reagent. The influence of the length of the methylene chain on PBIs’ properties was investigated by solution viscometry, thermogravimetric analysis, mechanical testing and dynamic mechanical analysis. All PBIs exhibited high mechanical strength (up to 129.3 ± 7.1 MPa), glass transition temperature (≥200 °C) and thermal decomposition temperature (≥460 °C). Moreover, all of the synthesized aliphatic PBIs possess a shape-memory effect, which is a result of the presence of soft aliphatic segments and rigid bis-benzimidazole groups in the macromolecules, as well as strong intermolecular hydrogen bonds that serve as non-covalent crosslinks. Among the studied polymers, the PBI based on DAB and dodecanedioic acid has high adequate mechanical and thermal properties and demonstrates the highest shape-fixity ratio and shape-recovery ratio of 99.6% and 95.6%, respectively. Because of these properties, aliphatic PBIs have great potential to be used as high-temperature materials for application in different high-tech fields, including the aerospace industry and structural component industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shape Memory and Functional Polymers)
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18 pages, 6862 KiB  
Article
Role of Maleic Anhydride-Grafted Poly(lactic acid) in Improving Shape Memory Properties of Thermoresponsive Poly(ethylene glycol) and Poly(lactic acid) Blends
by Wasana Nonkrathok, Tatiya Trongsatitkul and Nitinat Suppakarn
Polymers 2022, 14(18), 3923; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14183923 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2777
Abstract
Generally, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is added to poly(lactic acid) (PLA) to reduce brittleness and improve mechanical properties. However, shape memory properties of PEG/PLA blends suffered due to the blend’s incompatibility. To enhance shape memory abilities of the blends, 0.45% maleic anhydride-grafted poly(lactic acid) [...] Read more.
Generally, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is added to poly(lactic acid) (PLA) to reduce brittleness and improve mechanical properties. However, shape memory properties of PEG/PLA blends suffered due to the blend’s incompatibility. To enhance shape memory abilities of the blends, 0.45% maleic anhydride-grafted poly(lactic acid) (PLA-g-MA) was used as a compatibilizer. Thermal and mechanical properties, morphologies, microstructures, and shape memory properties of the blends containing different PLA-g-MA contents were investigated. The compatibilized blend with 2 wt% PLA-g-MA exhibited enhanced tensile modulus, strength, and elongation at break, as well as a lower glass transition temperature and degree of crystallinity than the uncompatibilized blend. Results revealed that PLA-g-MA improved interfacial adhesion between phases and promoted chain entanglement. Shape fixity performance of the compatibilized blends were comparable to that of neat PLA. The compatibilized blend containing 2 wt% PLA-g-MA possessed the best shape fixity and recovery performance. Although a high recovery temperature was expected to enhance the recovery of the PEG/PLA blends, the compatibilized blends can be recovered to their original shape at a lower temperature than the PLA. This study illustrated the possibility of optimizing PLA properties to meet requirements necessary for biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shape Memory and Functional Polymers)
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8 pages, 1348 KiB  
Communication
Integration of SMP with PVDF Unimorph for Bending Enhancement
by Sudarshan Kalel and Wei-Chih Wang
Polymers 2021, 13(3), 415; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13030415 - 28 Jan 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3546
Abstract
Heat generation in active/passive layer-based piezoelectric actuators is unavoidable due to the mechanical, dielectric, and resistive losses in the material. In this work, a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-based unimorph cantilever actuator is developed with simulation and experimental studies on the effect of DC high [...] Read more.
Heat generation in active/passive layer-based piezoelectric actuators is unavoidable due to the mechanical, dielectric, and resistive losses in the material. In this work, a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-based unimorph cantilever actuator is developed with simulation and experimental studies on the effect of DC high voltages on heat production in the PVDF layer. A layer of one-way shape memory polymers (1W-SMPs) is integrated in the actuator to exploit the heat produced to increase the bending angle. The length and mounting location of the SMP layer impacts the bending of the actuator; by using an SMP layer with a length equal to half of the PVDF layer at the center of the unimorph actuator, the absolute bending angle is increased to 40° compared to the base piezo bending angle of 4° at 20 V/µm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shape Memory and Functional Polymers)
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