State-of-the-Art Photopolymerization Technology

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Polymer Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2021) | Viewed by 6710

Special Issue Editor

Department of Polymers, Faculty of Chemical Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology and Engineering, Poznan University of Technology, Berdychowo 4, PL-60965 Poznan, Poland
Interests: photopolymerization; nanocomposites; hybrid polymeric materials; solid-state electrolytes; polymer gels; photocurable coatings; biomaterials; polymers in pharmacy
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Photopolymerization is a convenient method for obtaining polymers. It has a number of features that make it distinguishable from other polymerization methods, e.g. thermal polymerization. These features include, first of all, low energy consumption, due to the high speed of the process (in the range of seconds to minutes) as well as perform it at room temperature; no need to use a solvent, which reduces the emission of harmful and even toxic vapors as well as no need of the initiating system. In addition, the polymerization process can be easily controlled thanks to the time and the exposure area control. Moreover, the process can be carried out at physiological pH and temperature which enables to provide a polymerization process in situ in the body. These unique advantages of photochemically initiated polymerization have contributed to its wide application in many sectors in popular application areas like adhesives and sealants, coatings and surface modifications, electronic, printing, and optical materials, as well as in advanced technologies such as holographic data storage, micro- or nanolithography, rapid high-resolution prototyping 3D and 4D printing and especially in biomedical applications like dentistry, tissue engineering, drug delivery systems, with promising uses in protein and gene delivery. Increasingly newer and demanding areas of photopolymerization applications encourage to search for compatible, effective photoinitiators systems, tailor-made monomers, and modifiers. The general aim of this review is to provide insights into the current research and developments in the field of photopolymerization in modern applications areas, both in the preparation of polymers, modified polymeric materials, and initiating systems.

Dr. Agnieszka Marcinkowska
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • photopolymerization
  • photocrosslinking
  • photocurable
  • photopolymers
  • photoinduced polymerization
  • photoinitiators
  • photochemical
  • polymer nanocomposites
  • hybrid polymers

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 5375 KiB  
Article
Optimization of the Properties of Photocured Hydrogels for Use in Electrochemical Capacitors
Polymers 2021, 13(20), 3495; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13203495 - 12 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3116
Abstract
In this work, hydrogel polymer electrolytes (HPEs) were obtained by the photopolymerization of a mixture of two monomers: Exothane 8 (Ex8) and 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate acid phosphate (HEMA-P) in an organic solvent N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), which was replaced after polymerization with water, and then with the [...] Read more.
In this work, hydrogel polymer electrolytes (HPEs) were obtained by the photopolymerization of a mixture of two monomers: Exothane 8 (Ex8) and 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate acid phosphate (HEMA-P) in an organic solvent N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), which was replaced after polymerization with water, and then with the electrolyte. The ratio of monomers as well as the concentration of NMP was changed in the composition to study its influence on the properties of the HPE: conductivity (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, EIS) and mechanical properties (puncture resistance). Properties were optimized using a mathematical model to obtain a hydrogel with both good mechanical and conductive properties. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first publication that demonstrates the application of optimization methods for the preparation of HPE. Then, the hydrogel with optimal properties was tested as a separator in a two-electrode symmetric AC/AC pouch-cell. The cells were investigated by cyclic voltammetry galvanostatic charge/discharge with potential limitation and EIS. Good mechanical properties of HPE allowed for obtaining samples of smaller thickness while maintaining very good dimensional stability. Thus, the electrochemical capacitor (EC) resistance was reduced and their electrochemical properties improved. Moreover, photopolymerization kinetics in the solvent and in bulk by photo-DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) were performed. The great impact on the polymerization of HEMA-P and its mixtures (with Ex8 and NMP) have strong intermolecular interactions between reagents molecules (i.e., hydrogen bonds). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Photopolymerization Technology)
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21 pages, 5422 KiB  
Article
Novel Multifunctional Epoxy (Meth)Acrylate Resins and Coatings Preparation via Cationic and Free-Radical Photopolymerization
Polymers 2021, 13(11), 1718; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13111718 - 24 May 2021
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 2954
Abstract
In this work, a series of novel multifunctional epoxy (meth)acrylate resins based on a low-viscosity aliphatic triepoxide triglycidyl ether of trimethylolethane (TMETGE) and acrylic acid (AA) or methacrylic acid (MMA) have been synthesized. Thanks to the performed modification, the obtained prepolymers have both [...] Read more.
In this work, a series of novel multifunctional epoxy (meth)acrylate resins based on a low-viscosity aliphatic triepoxide triglycidyl ether of trimethylolethane (TMETGE) and acrylic acid (AA) or methacrylic acid (MMA) have been synthesized. Thanks to the performed modification, the obtained prepolymers have both epoxides as well as carbon–carbon double bonds and differ in their amount. The obtained results indicate that the carboxyl-epoxide addition esterification occurs in the presence of a catalyst (triphenylphosphine) at a temperature of 90 °C, whilst the required degree of conversion can be achieved simply by varying both the reagents ratio and reaction time. The structure of synthesized copolymers was confirmed by spectroscopic analyses (FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR) and studied regarding its nonvolatile matter content (NV), acid value (PAVs), as well as its epoxy equivalent value (EE). Due to the presence of both epoxy and double carbon–carbon pendant groups, one can apply two distinct mechanisms: (i) cationic ring-opening polymerization or (ii) free-radical polymerization to crosslink polymer chains. Synthesized epoxy (meth)acrylate prepolymers were further employed to formulate photocurable coating compositions. Hence, when cationic photoinitiators were applied, polyether-type polymer chains with pending acrylate or methacrylate groups were formed. In the case of free-radical polymerization, epoxy (meth)acrylates certainly formed a poly(meth)acrylate backbone with pending epoxy groups. Further, photopolymerization behavior and properties of cured coatings were investigated regarding some structural factors and parameters. Moreover, reaction rate coefficients of photo-cross-linking by both cationic ring-opening and free-radical photopolymerization of the received epoxy (meth)acrylate resins were determined via real-time infrared spectroscopy (RT-IR). Lastly, basic physicomechanical properties, such as tack-free time, hardness, adhesion, gloss, and yellowness index of cured coatings, were evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Photopolymerization Technology)
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