Natural Polysaccharide: Synthesis, Modification and Application

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomacromolecules, Biobased and Biodegradable Polymers".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 June 2023) | Viewed by 28975

Special Issue Editor

Engineering Research Center for Eco-Dyeing and Finishing of Textiles (Ministry of Education), College of Textiles Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018, China
Interests: modification of natural polysaccharide; natural antibacterial agent; biomass flame retardant; natural surfactant
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Natural polysaccharides have gained wide attention due to their sustainability, biodegradability, and environmental friendliness. There are abundant functional groups in the structures of natural polysaccharides for chemical modification by different approaches. Modified polysaccharides can be applied in many fields, such as chemical engineering, medicine, electronic engineering, textiles, and so on.

We are putting together a Special Issue of the open-access journal Polymers, entitled Natural Polysaccharides: Synthesis, Modification, and Application aims to collect cutting-edge, original, and innovative research papers. Special emphasis will be placed on, but topics are not limited to, the following:

  • Synthesis of natural polysaccharides;
  • Modification of natural polysaccharides;
  • Development of new natural polysaccharides;
  • Structural characterization of natural polysaccharides;
  • Functional materials based on natural polysaccharides;
  • Application of new natural polysaccharides.

We look forward to receiving your publications describing natural polysaccharides.

Dr. Lili Wang
Guest Editor

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Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 1984 KiB  
Article
Harvesting Mycelial Biomass of Selected Basidiomycetes for Chitosan Biopolymer Extraction
by Ilze Irbe, Laura Andze, Mara Blumfelde, Inese Filipova, Anrijs Verovkins and Juris Zoldners
Polymers 2023, 15(17), 3548; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15173548 - 26 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1523
Abstract
This study investigates the mycelial biomass production and chitosan extraction potential of various Basidiomycota strains, including Heterobasidion annosum, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus ostreatus, Trametes versicolor, and Lentinus lepideus. Both submerged fermentation (SF) and solid-state fermentation (SSF) methods were employed. The [...] Read more.
This study investigates the mycelial biomass production and chitosan extraction potential of various Basidiomycota strains, including Heterobasidion annosum, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus ostreatus, Trametes versicolor, and Lentinus lepideus. Both submerged fermentation (SF) and solid-state fermentation (SSF) methods were employed. The chitosan yield in basidiocarps of Pleurotus ostreatus, Agaricus bisporus, and Ganoderma applanatum was also evaluated as a reference material. The chitosan extracted from fungal cells was characterized using elemental analyses and FTIR spectroscopy. Among the cultivated strains, P. chrysosporium exhibited the highest mycelial biomass concentration in SF (1.03 g 100 mL–1) after 14 days, while T. versicolor achieved the highest biomass concentration in SSF (3.65 g 100 mL–1). The highest chitosan yield was obtained from the mycelium of P. chrysosporium (0.38%) and T. versicolor (0.37%) in shaken SF. Additionally, commercially cultivated A. bisporus demonstrated the highest chitosan yield in fungal fruiting bodies (1.7%). The extracted chitosan holds potential as a functional biopolymer additive for eco-friendly materials, serving as an alternative to synthetic wet and dry strength agents in packaging materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polysaccharide: Synthesis, Modification and Application)
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14 pages, 2562 KiB  
Article
Physicochemical Properties of Chitosan from Green Mussel Shells (Perna viridis): A Comparative Study
by Pimonpan Kaewprachu and Chalalai Jaisan
Polymers 2023, 15(13), 2816; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15132816 - 26 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3912
Abstract
Green mussel shells (Perna viridis) are generated in huge amounts and discarded as waste materials. Such waste may be used to produce biopolymer materials such as chitosan. The physicochemical properties of chitosan prepared from different sizes of green mussel shells (small [...] Read more.
Green mussel shells (Perna viridis) are generated in huge amounts and discarded as waste materials. Such waste may be used to produce biopolymer materials such as chitosan. The physicochemical properties of chitosan prepared from different sizes of green mussel shells (small size (CHS): ≤5.00 cm in length and big size (CHB): >5.01 cm in length) were characterized and compared with commercial chitosan (CH). Furthermore, the mechanical and physicochemical properties of the blended films were also investigated. The results of the physicochemical properties showed that CHS and CHB were quite different from CH. The degree of deacetylation of CHS, CHB, and CH was found to be 32.71%, 52.56%, and 70.42%, respectively (p < 0.05). The water- and fat-binding capacities of CH were higher than those of CHS and CHB. Structural differences between CHS, CHB, and CH were studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). Significant increases in thickness, water vapor permeability, and strength of the blended films were found when the extracted chitosan was added (p < 0.05). However, further study is needed to improve the chitosan extraction process, which can enhance the physicochemical properties of the obtained chitosan and be widely used in many industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polysaccharide: Synthesis, Modification and Application)
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14 pages, 3157 KiB  
Article
Assessment and Optimization of Thermal Stability and Water Absorption of Loading Snail Shell Nanoparticles and Sugarcane Bagasse Cellulose Fibers on Polylactic Acid Bioplastic Films
by Oluwatoyin J. Gbadeyan, Linda Z. Linganiso and Nirmala Deenadayalu
Polymers 2023, 15(6), 1557; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15061557 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2290
Abstract
The optimization and modeling of the parameters, the concentration of polylactic acid (PLA), sugarcane bagasse cellulose fibers (SBCF), and snail shell nanoparticles (SSNP), were investigated for the development of bioplastic films. With the aid of the Box–Behnken experimental design, response surface methodology was [...] Read more.
The optimization and modeling of the parameters, the concentration of polylactic acid (PLA), sugarcane bagasse cellulose fibers (SBCF), and snail shell nanoparticles (SSNP), were investigated for the development of bioplastic films. With the aid of the Box–Behnken experimental design, response surface methodology was used to assess the consequence of the parameters on the water absorption and thermal stability of fabricated bioplastic films. Varied water absorption and thermal stability with different component loading were obtained, evidencing the loading effect of snail shell nanoparticles and sugar bagasse cellulose fibers on bioplastic film’s water absorption and thermal stability. The quadratic polynomial model experiment data offered a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.8422 for water absorption and 0.8318 for thermal stability, verifying the models’ fitness to develop optimal concentration. The predicted optimal parameters were polylactic acid (99.815%), sugarcane bagasse cellulose fibers (0.036%), and snail shell nanoparticles (0.634%). The bioplastic developed with optimized concentrations of each component exhibited water absorption and thermal stability of 0.45% and 259.7 °C, respectively. The FTIR curves of bioplastic films show oxygen stretching in-plane carbon and single-bonded hydroxyl bending in the carboxylic acids functional group. SEM and TEM images of the bioplastic showed dispersion of the nanoparticles in the matrix, where SSNP is more visible than SBCF, which may be due to the lesser loading of SBCF. The improved properties suggest an optimum concentration of naturally sourced resources for developing bioplastic, which may be used for food and drug packaging for delivery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polysaccharide: Synthesis, Modification and Application)
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23 pages, 7226 KiB  
Article
Response Surface Methodology (RSM) Approach to Optimization of Coagulation-Flocculation of Aquaculture Wastewater Treatment Using Chitosan from Carapace of Giant Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii
by Benedict Terkula Iber, Donald Torsabo, Che Engku Noramalina Che Engku Chik, Fachrul Wahab, Siti Rozaimah Sheikh Abdullah, Hassimi Abu Hassan and Nor Azman Kasan
Polymers 2023, 15(4), 1058; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15041058 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2618
Abstract
The major sources of waste from aquaculture operations emanates from fish or shellfish processing and wastewater generation. A simple technique called coagulation/flocculation utilizes biowaste from aquaculture to produce chitosan coagulant for wastewater treatment. A chemical method was applied in the present study for [...] Read more.
The major sources of waste from aquaculture operations emanates from fish or shellfish processing and wastewater generation. A simple technique called coagulation/flocculation utilizes biowaste from aquaculture to produce chitosan coagulant for wastewater treatment. A chemical method was applied in the present study for chitin and chitosan extraction from carapace of Macrobrachium rosenbergii and subsequent application for removal of turbidity and salinity from shrimp aquaculture wastewater. Box-Behnken in RSM was used to determine the optimum operating conditions of chitosan dosage, pH, and settling time, after which quadratic models were developed and validated. Results show that 80 g of raw powder carapace yielded chitin and chitosan of 23.79% and 20.21%, respectively. The low moisture (0.38%) and ash (12.58%) content were an indication of good quality chitosan, while other properties such as water-binding capacity (WBC), fat-binding capacity (FBC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscope (SEM) confirmed the structure and the α-group, as well as the rough morphology of chitosan. In addition, the high solubility (71.23%) and DDA (85.20%) suggested good coagulant potentials. It was recorded in this study that 87.67% turbidity was successfully removed at 20 mg/L of chitosan dosage and 6.25 pH after 30 min settling time, while 21.43% salinity was removed at 5 mg/L of chitosan dosage, 7.5 pH, and 30 min settling time. Therefore, the process conditions adopted in this study yielded chitosan of good quality, suitable as biopolymer coagulant for aquaculture wastewater treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polysaccharide: Synthesis, Modification and Application)
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18 pages, 3025 KiB  
Article
Isolation and Characterization of Cellulose Microfibers from Colombian Cocoa Pod Husk via Chemical Treatment with Pressure Effects
by Ana Sofia Hozman-Manrique, Andres J. Garcia-Brand, María Hernández-Carrión and Alicia Porras
Polymers 2023, 15(3), 664; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15030664 - 28 Jan 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4245
Abstract
One of the current challenges is to add value to agro-industrial wastes, and the cocoa industry generates about 10 tons of cocoa pod husks in Colombia for each ton of cocoa beans, which are incinerated and cause environmental damage. This study characterized the [...] Read more.
One of the current challenges is to add value to agro-industrial wastes, and the cocoa industry generates about 10 tons of cocoa pod husks in Colombia for each ton of cocoa beans, which are incinerated and cause environmental damage. This study characterized the Colombian cocoa pod husk (CPH) and to isolate and characterize cellulose microfibers (tCPH) extracted via chemical treatment and pressure. Chemical and physical analyses of CPH were performed, and a pretreatment method for CPH fibers was developed, which is followed by a hydrolysis method involving high pressure in an autoclave machine with an alkaline medium (6% NaOH), and finally, bleaching of the fiber to obtain tCPH. The tCPH cellulose microfibers were also chemically and physically analyzed and characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Chemical and physical characterization showed a decrease in lignin content in tCPH. FTIR analysis showed the absence of some peaks in tCPH with respect to the CPH spectrum; XRD results showed an increase in crystallinity for tCPH compared to CPH, due to a higher presence of crystalline cellulose in tCPH. SEM images included a control fiber treated without high pressure (tCPHnpe), and agglomerated fibers were observed, whereas cellulose microfibers with a mean diameter of 10 ± 2.742 μm were observed in tCPH. Finally, with TGA and DTGA it was confirmed that in tCPH, the hemicellulose and lignin were removed more successfully than in the control fiber (tCPHnpe), showing that the treatment with pressure was effective at isolating the cellulose microfibers from cocoa pod husk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polysaccharide: Synthesis, Modification and Application)
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10 pages, 2748 KiB  
Article
Extraction and Characterization of New Cellulosic Fiber from Catalpa bignonioides Fruits for Potential Use in Sustainable Products
by Ebru Bozaci and Aylin Altınışık Tağaç
Polymers 2023, 15(1), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15010201 - 30 Dec 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2231
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the extract of Catalpa bignonioides plants and characterize novel natural cellulosic fibers from the fruits as an alternative material for sustainable products. The Catalpa bignonioides tree contains pharmacologically active compounds and is found all over [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the extract of Catalpa bignonioides plants and characterize novel natural cellulosic fibers from the fruits as an alternative material for sustainable products. The Catalpa bignonioides tree contains pharmacologically active compounds and is found all over the world. The sustainable natural fibers were easily extracted in an environmentally friendly manner from the fruits of the plant and characterized in terms of their chemical, thermal, and physical properties. The Catalpa bignonioides fibers (CBF) were composed of cellulose (58.3%), hemicellulose (3.1%), and lignin (38.6%) and had a low density (0.713 g/cm3). Fourier transform (FT-IR) analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses were used to search for the chemical groups, crystalline structures, and surface morphology of the CBF fibers. The results suggest that CBF fibers are a suitable alternative for composite and textile applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polysaccharide: Synthesis, Modification and Application)
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11 pages, 2027 KiB  
Article
Starch Physicochemical Properties of Normal Maize under Different Fertilization Modes
by Jue Wang and Dalei Lu
Polymers 2023, 15(1), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15010083 - 25 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1352
Abstract
Improving the quality with desired functions of natural starch through agronomic practice will meet the increasing need of people for natural, functional foods. A one-off application of slow-release fertilizer is a simple and efficient practice in maize production, though its influence on the [...] Read more.
Improving the quality with desired functions of natural starch through agronomic practice will meet the increasing need of people for natural, functional foods. A one-off application of slow-release fertilizer is a simple and efficient practice in maize production, though its influence on the starch quality is scarce. In the present study, the structural and functional properties of the starch of normal maize under two fertilization modes (one-off application of slow-release fertilizer at the sowing time (SF), and three applications of conventional fertilizer at the sowing time, and topdressing at the jointing and flowering stages (CF)) under the same fertilization level (N/P2O5/K2O = 405/135/135 kg/ha) were studied using Jiangyu877 (JY877) and Suyu30 (SY30) as materials. The observed results indicate that the size of starch granules was enlarged by fertilization and the size was the largest under CF in both hybrids. The amylose content was unaffected by CF and reduced by SF in both hybrids. In comparison to no fertilizer (0F), the peak 1/peak 2 ratio was decreased by CF in both hybrids, whereas the ratio under SF was unaffected in JY877 and decreased in SY30. The amylopectin average chain-length was reduced by fertilization and the reduction was higher under CF in JY877. The relative crystallinity was increased by CF in both hybrids and the value under SF was unaffected in SY30 and increased in JY877. The peak, trough, and final viscosities of starch were increased by fertilization in both hybrids. The starch thermal characteristics in response to fertilization modes were dependent on hybrids. The retrogradation enthalpy and percentage were increased by CF in both hybrids, whereas those two parameters under SF were increased in SY30 and decreased in JY877. In conclusion, starch with similar granule size, higher peak 1/peak 2 ratio, and lower relative crystallinity was obtained under SF than under CF for both hybrids. Longer amylopectin chain-length was observed in JY877, which induced lower pasting viscosities in SY30 and lower retrogradation characteristics in JY877. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polysaccharide: Synthesis, Modification and Application)
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13 pages, 4183 KiB  
Article
Grafted Pullulan Derivatives for Reducing the Content of Some Pesticides from Simulated Wastewater
by Luminita Ghimici, Marieta Constantin and Maria-Magdalena Nafureanu
Polymers 2022, 14(13), 2663; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14132663 - 29 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1445
Abstract
The goal of the current article was to obtain data regarding the application of a series of grafted pullulan derivatives, as flocculating agents, for removal of some pesticide formulations from model wastewater. The pullulan derivatives are cationic polyelectrolytes, with various content and length [...] Read more.
The goal of the current article was to obtain data regarding the application of a series of grafted pullulan derivatives, as flocculating agents, for removal of some pesticide formulations from model wastewater. The pullulan derivatives are cationic polyelectrolytes, with various content and length of grafted poly[(3-acrylamidopropyl)-trimethylammonium chloride] chains onto the pullulan (P-g-pAPTAC)]. The commercial pesticides are either fungicide (Bordeaux Mixture) (BM) or insecticides (Decis (Dc)—active ingredient Deltamethrin, Confidor Oil (CO)—active ingredient Imidacloprid, Confidor Energy (CE)—active ingredients Deltamethrin and Imidacloprid and Novadim Progress (NP)—active ingredient Dimethoate). The removal efficiency has been assessed by UV-Vis spectroscopy measurements as a function of some parameters, namely polymer dose, grafted chains content and length, pesticides concentration. The P-g-pAPTAC samples showed good removal efficacy at doseop, more than 94% for BM, between 84 and 90% for DC, CO and CE and around 93% for NP. The maximum percentage removal decreased with the pesticides (DC, CO, CE, NP) concentration declining; no effect of BM concentration in suspension on its removal efficiency process has been noted. Differences indicated by zeta potential and particle size distribution measurements regarding the pesticides removal mechanisms by pullulan derivatives (charge neutralization, bridging, etc.) are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polysaccharide: Synthesis, Modification and Application)
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Review

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15 pages, 1296 KiB  
Review
Alkenyl Succinic Anhydride: The Question of Covalent Bonding and Chemistry Considerations for Better Sizing—Review
by Yao Ntifafa, Lebo Xu, Sara Bollinger, Yun Ji and Peter W. Hart
Polymers 2023, 15(13), 2876; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15132876 - 29 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2560
Abstract
Alkenyl Succinic Anhydride (ASA) is a sizing agent used in papermaking to increase the water repellency of paper. Almost 60 years after the introduction of the chemical in papermaking, scientists still have differing views on how ASA interacts with cellulose. Several experiments were [...] Read more.
Alkenyl Succinic Anhydride (ASA) is a sizing agent used in papermaking to increase the water repellency of paper. Almost 60 years after the introduction of the chemical in papermaking, scientists still have differing views on how ASA interacts with cellulose. Several experiments were conducted to bring more clarity to the ASA sizing mechanism, especially on the contentious question of ASA-cellulose covalent bonding or the esterification reaction between ASA and cellulose during papermaking. Herein, research papers and patents, including experiments and results, from the 1960s to 2020 were reviewed. Our investigation revealed that the ester bond formation between ASA and cellulose is insignificant and is not a prerequisite for sizing effectiveness; the main ASA-related material found in sized paper is hydrolyzed ASA or both hydrolyzed ASA and ASA salt. In addition, ASA emulsion stability and ASA emulsion retention are important for sizing efficiency improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polysaccharide: Synthesis, Modification and Application)
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26 pages, 3404 KiB  
Review
The Alterations and Roles of Glycosaminoglycans in Human Diseases
by Qingchi Wang and Lianli Chi
Polymers 2022, 14(22), 5014; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14225014 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 5721
Abstract
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are a heterogeneous family of linear polysaccharides which are composed of a repeating disaccharide unit. They are also linked to core proteins to form proteoglycans (PGs). GAGs/PGs are major components of the cell surface and the extracellular matrix (ECM), and they [...] Read more.
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are a heterogeneous family of linear polysaccharides which are composed of a repeating disaccharide unit. They are also linked to core proteins to form proteoglycans (PGs). GAGs/PGs are major components of the cell surface and the extracellular matrix (ECM), and they display critical roles in development, normal function, and damage response in the body. Some properties (such as expression quantity, molecular weight, and sulfation pattern) of GAGs may be altered under pathological conditions. Due to the close connection between these properties and the function of GAGs/PGs, the alterations are often associated with enormous changes in the physiological/pathological status of cells and organs. Therefore, these GAGs/PGs may serve as marker molecules of disease. This review aimed to investigate the structural alterations and roles of GAGs/PGs in a range of diseases, such as atherosclerosis, cancer, diabetes, neurodegenerative disease, and virus infection. It is hoped to provide a reference for disease diagnosis, monitoring, prognosis, and drug development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polysaccharide: Synthesis, Modification and Application)
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