Advances in Functional Polymer Coatings and Surfaces

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Smart and Functional Polymers".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 25 August 2024 | Viewed by 6241

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Coatings and Polymeric Materials, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58102, USA
Interests: biobased polymer; degradable polymer; functional polymer; barrier coatings; functional coating; thermal analysis

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Coatings and Polymeric Materials, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58102, USA
Interests: biobased polymer; emulsion polymerization; stimuli responsive coating; barrier coatings; functional coating

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Coatings and Polymeric Materials, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58102, USA
Interests: polymer coatings

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As cutting-edge technologies have emerged in the coating industry, the use of novel polymers/materials and advanced fabrication processes to develop coatings and surfaces that can provide special functions beyond being decorative and providing protection has become highly lucrative. These surfaces can deliver special properties that are crucial for the application and extended service life of products, ultimately saving tremendous on labor, repair, and replacement costs.

This Special Issue of the open access journal Polymers aims to collect cutting-edge original research papers and reviews on the topic of 'advances in functional polymer coatings and surfaces':

  • Novel approaches and concepts, both conceptual or applied;
  • The synthesis of novel functional polymers targeting special surface properties, with a sustainable approach being preferable;
  • Novel methodologies to characterize functional polymer coating materials, coating properties (inherent and stimuli-responsive), and failure of functional polymer coatings;
  • Polymer surface coatings with a reduction in/the elimination of previously used toxic chemicals without diminishing performance;
  • Functional polymer coatings derived from novel additives, providing novel properties;
  • Functional polymer coatings replacing fluoropolymers (on substrates such as metal, textile, and paper);
  • Investigations into mechanisms to understand the fundamentals behind a functional polymer coating's performance.

We also look forward to receiving review articles for publication and generating a successful Special Issue.

Dr. Deep Kalita
Dr. Ihor Tarnavchyk
Dr. Bret J. Chisholm
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Polymers is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • adhesion
  • super-hydrophobic
  • antifouling
  • self-stratifying
  • antibacterial
  • anti-icing
  • safe/green additives
  • thermochromic
  • conductive
  • antireflective
  • self-healing
  • shape memory

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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27 pages, 13825 KiB  
Article
Study on the High-Efficiency Preparation of Superhydrophobic Polymer Thin Films by Continuous Micro/Nano Imprinting
by Zhi Chen, Yumeng Wei, Cheng Wu, Guojun Zhang and Fenglin Han
Polymers 2024, 16(7), 912; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym16070912 - 26 Mar 2024
Viewed by 584
Abstract
In order to improve the preparation efficiency, quality stability, and large-area preparation of superhydrophobic thin films, a roll-to-roll continuous micro–nano imprinting method for the efficient preparation of superhydrophobic polymer films is proposed. A wear-resistant mold roller with hierarchical microstructure is prepared by wire [...] Read more.
In order to improve the preparation efficiency, quality stability, and large-area preparation of superhydrophobic thin films, a roll-to-roll continuous micro–nano imprinting method for the efficient preparation of superhydrophobic polymer films is proposed. A wear-resistant mold roller with hierarchical microstructure is prepared by wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM). The rheological filling model is constructed for revealing the forming mechanism of superhydrophobic polymer films during continuous micro/nano imprinting. The effects of imprinting temperature, rolling speed and the surface texture size of the template on the surface texture formation rate of polymer films are analyzed. The experimental results show that, compared with other process methods, the template processed by WEDM shows excellent wear resistance. Moreover, the optimal micro/nano imprinting parameters are the mold temperature of 190 °C (corresponding film temperature of 85 ± 5 °C), rolling speed of 3 rpm and roller gap of 0.1 mm. The maximum contact angle of the polymer film is 154°. In addition, the superhydrophobic polymer thin film has been proven to have good self-cleaning and anti-icing performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Functional Polymer Coatings and Surfaces)
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13 pages, 2480 KiB  
Article
Efficient Approach for Direct Robust Surface Grafting of Polyethyleneimine onto a Polyester Surface during Moulding
by Philipp Zimmermann, Silven Frohs, Martin Wiesing, Kamal Meena and Jürgen Nagel
Polymers 2024, 16(5), 644; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym16050644 - 27 Feb 2024
Viewed by 704
Abstract
This paper uses a very effective way for surface modification of thermoplastic polymers during moulding. It is based on a grafting reaction between a thin layer of a functional polymer, deposited on a substrate in advance, and a polymer melt. In this paper, [...] Read more.
This paper uses a very effective way for surface modification of thermoplastic polymers during moulding. It is based on a grafting reaction between a thin layer of a functional polymer, deposited on a substrate in advance, and a polymer melt. In this paper, a glycol-modified polyethylene terephthalate (PETG) that was brought in contact with a polyethyleneimine layer during fused filament fabrication is investigated. The focus of this paper is the investigation of the reaction product. Grafting was realised by the formation of stable amide bonds by amidation of ester groups in the main chain of a PETG. XPS investigations revealed that the conversion of amino groups was very high, the distribution was even, and the quantity of amino groups per polyester surface area was still very high. The surface properties of the produced polyester part were mainly characterised by polyethyleneimine. The grafting was able to resist several cycles of extraction in alkaline solutions. The stability was only limited by saponification of the polyester. The degree of surface modification was dependent on the molar mass of polyethyleneimine. This could be rationalised, because grafting only occurred with the one polyethyleneimine molecule that is in close vicinity to the polyester surface when both components come in contact. Fused deposition modelling was chosen as the model process with control over each processing step. However, any other moulding process may be applied, particularly injection moulding for mass production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Functional Polymer Coatings and Surfaces)
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16 pages, 7428 KiB  
Article
Durable Surface Modification of Low-Density Polyethylene/Nano-Silica Composite Films with Bacterial Antifouling and Liquid-Repelling Properties for Food Hygiene and Safety
by Sang Ha Song, Michael Bae and Jun Kyun Oh
Polymers 2024, 16(2), 292; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym16020292 - 21 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1237
Abstract
The growing prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in bacterial strains has increased the demand for preventing biological deterioration on the surfaces of films used in applications involving food contact materials (FCMs). Herein, we prepared superhydrophobic film surfaces using a casting process that involved the [...] Read more.
The growing prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in bacterial strains has increased the demand for preventing biological deterioration on the surfaces of films used in applications involving food contact materials (FCMs). Herein, we prepared superhydrophobic film surfaces using a casting process that involved the combination of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) with solutions containing surface energy-reducing silica (SRS). The bacterial antifouling properties of the modified film surfaces were evaluated using Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus epidermidis via the dip-inoculation technique. The reduction in bacterial populations on the LDPE film embedded with SRS was confirmed to be more than 2 log-units, which equates to over 99%, when compared to the bare LDPE film. Additionally, the modified film demonstrated liquid-repelling properties against food-related contaminants, such as blood, beverages, and sauces. Moreover, the modified film demonstrated enhanced durability and robustness compared to one of the prevalent industry methods, dip-coating. We anticipate that the developed LDPE/nano-silica composite film represents a promising advancement in the multidisciplinary aspects of food hygiene and safety within the food industry, particularly concerning FCMs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Functional Polymer Coatings and Surfaces)
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13 pages, 4108 KiB  
Article
Increasing Functionality of Fish Leather by Chemical Surface Modifications
by Achiad Zilberfarb, Gali Cohen and Elizabeth Amir
Polymers 2023, 15(19), 3904; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15193904 - 27 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1285
Abstract
Fish skin is a by-product of the fishing industry, which has become a significant environmental pollutant in recent years. Therefore, there is an emerging interest in developing novel technologies to utilize fish skin as a versatile raw material for the clothing and biomedical [...] Read more.
Fish skin is a by-product of the fishing industry, which has become a significant environmental pollutant in recent years. Therefore, there is an emerging interest in developing novel technologies to utilize fish skin as a versatile raw material for the clothing and biomedical industries. Most research on finishing procedures is conducted on cattle leather, and practically very limited information on fish leather finishing is found in the literature. We have developed three functional surface finishing treatments on chromium (CL)- and vegetable (VL)- tanned salmon leather. These treatments include hydrophobic, oil repellent, and electro-conductive ones. The hydroxyl functional groups present on the surface of the leather were covalently grafted with bi-functional aliphatic small molecule, 10-undecenoylchloride (UC), by esterification reaction forming hydrophobic coating. The surface hydrophobicity was further increased via covalent binding of perfluorodecanethiol (PFDT) to the double bond end-groups of the UC-modified leather via thiol-ene click chemistry conditions. The oleophobic coating was successfully developed using synthesized fluorinated silica nanoparticles (FSN) and polyvinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP), showing oil repellency with a contact angle of about 100° for soybean oil and n-hexadecane. The electrically conductive coating was realized by the incorporation of conjugated polymer, polyaniline (PANI), via in situ polymerization method. The treated leather exhibited surface resistivity of about 5.2 (Log (Ω/square)), much lower than untreated leather with a resistivity of 11.4 (Log (Ω/square)). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Functional Polymer Coatings and Surfaces)
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12 pages, 2743 KiB  
Article
A Self-Healing Thermoset Epoxy Modulated by Dynamic Boronic Ester for Powder Coating
by Yongqi Liu, Ziyuan Li, Caifu Zhang, Biru Yang and Hua Ren
Polymers 2023, 15(19), 3894; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15193894 - 26 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1513
Abstract
Thermoset powder coatings exhibit distinctive characteristics such as remarkable hardness and exceptional resistance to corrosion. In contrast to conventional paints, powder coatings are environmentally friendly due to the absence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). However, their irreversible cross-linking structures limit their chain segment [...] Read more.
Thermoset powder coatings exhibit distinctive characteristics such as remarkable hardness and exceptional resistance to corrosion. In contrast to conventional paints, powder coatings are environmentally friendly due to the absence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). However, their irreversible cross-linking structures limit their chain segment mobility, preventing polymers from autonomously repairing cracks. Dynamic cross-linking networks have garnered attention for their remarkable self-healing capabilities, facilitated by rapid internal bond exchange. Herein, we introduce an innovative method for synthesizing thermoset epoxy containing boronic ester moieties which could prolong the life of the powder coating. The epoxy resin system relies on the incorporation of two curing agents: one featuring small-molecule diamines with boronic bonds and the other a modified polyurethane prepolymer. A state of equilibrium in mechanical properties was achieved via precise manipulation of the proportions of these agents, with the epoxy composite exhibiting a fracture stress of 67.95 MPa while maintaining a stable glass transition temperature (Tg) of 51.39 °C. This imparts remarkable self-healing ability to the coating surface, capable of returning to its original state even after undergoing 1000 cycles of rubbing (using 1200-grit abrasive paper). Furthermore, the introduction of carbon nanotube nanoparticles enabled non-contact sequential self-healing. Subsequently, we introduce this method into powder coatings of different materials. Therefore, this work provides a strategy to develop functional interior decoration and ensure its potential for broad-ranging applications, such as aerospace, transportation, and other fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Functional Polymer Coatings and Surfaces)
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Review

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42 pages, 8482 KiB  
Review
Thermochromic Polymer Nanocomposites for the Heat Detection System: Recent Progress on Properties, Applications, and Challenges
by A. B. M. Supian, M. R. M. Asyraf, Agusril Syamsir, M. I. Najeeb, Abdulrahman Alhayek, Rayeh Nasr Al-Dala’ien, Gunasilan Manar and A. Atiqah
Polymers 2024, 16(11), 1545; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym16111545 - 30 May 2024
Viewed by 455
Abstract
Reversible thermochromic polymers have emerged as compelling candidates in recent years, captivating attention for their application in heat detection systems. This comprehensive review navigates through the multifaceted landscape, intricately exploring both the virtues and hurdles inherent in their integration within these systems. Their [...] Read more.
Reversible thermochromic polymers have emerged as compelling candidates in recent years, captivating attention for their application in heat detection systems. This comprehensive review navigates through the multifaceted landscape, intricately exploring both the virtues and hurdles inherent in their integration within these systems. Their innate capacity to change colour in response to temperature fluctuations renders reversible thermochromic nanocomposites promising assets for heat detection technologies. However, despite their inherent potential, certain barriers hinder their widespread adoption. Factors such as a restricted colour spectrum, reliance on external triggers, and cost considerations have restrained their pervasive use. For instance, these polymer-based materials exhibit utility in the domain of building insulation, where their colour-changing ability serves as a beacon, flagging areas of heat loss or inadequate insulation, thus alerting building managers and homeowners to potential energy inefficiencies. Nevertheless, the limited range of discernible colours may impede precise temperature differentiation. Additionally, dependency on external stimuli, such as electricity or UV light, can complicate implementation and inflate costs. Realising the full potential of these polymer-based materials in heat detection systems necessitates addressing these challenges head-on. Continuous research endeavours aimed at augmenting colour diversity and diminishing reliance on external stimuli offer promising avenues to enhance their efficacy. Hence, this review aims to delve into the intricate nuances surrounding reversible thermochromic nanocomposites, highlighting their transformative potential in heat detection and sensing. By exploring their mechanisms, properties, and current applications, this manuscript endeavours to shed light on their significance, providing insights crucial for further research and potential applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Functional Polymer Coatings and Surfaces)
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