Advanced Polymers for Wastewater Treatment and Toxicant Removal

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Polymer Applications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 March 2024 | Viewed by 3581

Special Issue Editors

J. Mike Walker ’66 Mechanical Engineering Department, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA
Interests: water treatment; polymer materials; environmental sciences
School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Electric Power Division, Photometry Laboratory, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Heroon Polytechniou Street, 15780 Athens, Greece
Interests: environmental and renewable energy law; economic development; environmental impact analysis; climate change; atmospheric pollution; water pollution regulations; environmental management standards; technology transfer; sustainability; higher education policy
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

A considerable amount of freshwater is polluted by wastewater streaming into natural water bodies. Diverse types of contaminants could adversely affect the quality of water/wastewater, namely aromatic compounds, heavy metals, pharmaceutical micropollutants, organic cationic dyes, etc. To overcome the negative consequences of this, many remediation techniques have been employed, such as chemical, physical, and biological treatments. Polymer composites and MOFs have shown attractive capabilities for treating wastewater. 

This Special Issue on “Advanced Polymers for Wastewater Treatment and Toxicant Removal” aims to focus on but is not limited to the effect of polymer-based materials, synthesis methods, and characterizations in removing toxic contaminants from waster. 

Scientists are welcome to submit their works covering the subject. 

Dr. Seyed Borhan Mousavi
Dr. Grigorios L. Kyriakopoulos
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 4113 KiB  
Article
NH2-MIL-125-Derived N-Doped TiO2@C Visible Light Catalyst for Wastewater Treatment
Polymers 2024, 16(2), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym16020186 - 08 Jan 2024
Viewed by 560
Abstract
The utilization of titanium dioxide (TiO2) as a photocatalyst for the treatment of wastewater has attracted significant attention in the environmental field. Herein, we prepared an NH2-MIL-125-derived N-doped TiO2@C Visible Light Catalyst through an in situ calcination [...] Read more.
The utilization of titanium dioxide (TiO2) as a photocatalyst for the treatment of wastewater has attracted significant attention in the environmental field. Herein, we prepared an NH2-MIL-125-derived N-doped TiO2@C Visible Light Catalyst through an in situ calcination method. The nitrogen element in the organic connector was released through calcination, simultaneously doping into the sample, thereby enhancing its spectral response to cover the visible region. The as-prepared N-doped TiO2@C catalyst exhibited a preserved cage structure even after calcination, thereby alleviating the optical shielding effect and further augmenting its photocatalytic performance by increasing the reaction sites between the catalyst and pollutants. The calcination time of the N-doped TiO2@C-450 °C catalyst was optimized to achieve a balance between the TiO2 content and nitrogen doping level, ensuring efficient degradation rates for basic fuchsin (99.7%), Rhodamine B (89.9%) and tetracycline hydrochloride (93%) within 90 min. Thus, this study presents a feasible strategy for the efficient degradation of pollutants under visible light. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Polymers for Wastewater Treatment and Toxicant Removal)
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13 pages, 1687 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Molecularly Imprinted Polymers as Selective Solid-Phase Extraction Sorbents for the Detection of Cloxacillin in Drinking and River Water
Polymers 2023, 15(21), 4314; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15214314 - 03 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 619
Abstract
This paper describes a new methodology for carrying out quantitative extraction of cloxacillin from drinking and river water samples using a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) as a selective sorbent for solid-phase extraction (MISPE). Several polymers were synthesized via thermal polymerization using cloxacillin as [...] Read more.
This paper describes a new methodology for carrying out quantitative extraction of cloxacillin from drinking and river water samples using a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) as a selective sorbent for solid-phase extraction (MISPE). Several polymers were synthesized via thermal polymerization using cloxacillin as a template, methacrylic acid (MAA) as a functional monomer, ethyleneglycoldimethacrylate (EGDMA) as a cross-linker and different solvents as porogens. Binding characteristics of the adequate molecularly imprinted and non-imprinted (NIP) polymers were evaluated via batch adsorption assays following the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and Scatchard assays. The parameters related to the extraction approach were studied to select the most appropriate polymer for cloxacillin determination. Using the optimized MIP as the SPE sorbent, a simple sample treatment methodology was combined with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to analyze cloxacillin residues in drinking and river water. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the MISPE methodology was validated using spiked samples. The linearity for cloxacillin was assessed within the limits of 0.05–1.5 µg L−1 and the recovery percentage was higher than 98% (RSD < 4%). The limits of detection and limits of quantification were 0.29 and 0.37 µg L−1 and 0.8 and 0.98 µg L−1 for drinking and river water, respectively. The selectivity of MIP against other ß-lactam antibiotics with similar structures (oxacillin, cefazoline, amoxicillin and penicillin V) was studied, obtaining a good recovery higher than 85% for all except cefazoline. The proposed MISPE-HPLC methodology was successfully applied for the detection of cloxacillin in drinking water from Canal de Isabel II (Madrid) and river water from the Manzanares River (Madrid). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Polymers for Wastewater Treatment and Toxicant Removal)
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27 pages, 1779 KiB  
Article
Investigation of the Release Rate of Biocide and Corrosion Resistance of Vinyl-, Acrylic-, and Epoxy-Based Antifouling Paints on Steel in Marine Infrastructures
Polymers 2023, 15(19), 3948; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15193948 - 29 Sep 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1009
Abstract
This study comprehensively assesses the release rate of biocides, corrosion effects related to antifouling, and the physical properties of different paint types. Tests were conducted to measure thickness, viscosity, hardness, bending, adhesion, gloss, impact resistance, abrasion resistance, scratch resistance, polarization, and salt spray. [...] Read more.
This study comprehensively assesses the release rate of biocides, corrosion effects related to antifouling, and the physical properties of different paint types. Tests were conducted to measure thickness, viscosity, hardness, bending, adhesion, gloss, impact resistance, abrasion resistance, scratch resistance, polarization, and salt spray. The paints evaluated include resin-based, acrylic-based, epoxy-based, and vinyl-based formulations. The study investigates the influence of biocide content, biocide particle size, and immersion time on release rate using a lab-scale setup. Results showed that acrylic-based paints had a higher biocide release rate due to faster hydrolysis, while smaller biocide particle sizes led to higher release rates in resin-based paints. Optimal total biocide contents were determined to be 30% for acrylic-based, 60% for epoxy-based, and 50% for vinyl-based paints. Antifouling corrosion analysis demonstrated that sample with an optimal release rate effectively prevent algae growth and fouling. Acrylic-based paint with 30 wt.% biocide content exhibited superior adhesion with a dolly separation force of 4.12 MPa. Evaluating the impact of synthesized polyaniline on 30 wt.% epoxy-based paint, a sample coated with 10 wt.% polyaniline represented a low corrosion rate of 0.35 µm/year and a high impedance value of approximately 37,000 Ohm·cm−2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Polymers for Wastewater Treatment and Toxicant Removal)
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21 pages, 7616 KiB  
Article
Highly Stable, Mechanically Enhanced, and Easy-to-Collect Sodium Alginate/NZVI-rGO Gel Beads for Efficient Removal of Cr(VI)
Polymers 2023, 15(18), 3764; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15183764 - 14 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 855
Abstract
Nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) is a material that is extensively applied for water pollution treatment, but its poor dispersibility, easy oxidation, and inconvenient collection limit its application. To overcome these drawbacks and limit secondary contamination of nanomaterials, we confine NZVI supported by reduced [...] Read more.
Nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) is a material that is extensively applied for water pollution treatment, but its poor dispersibility, easy oxidation, and inconvenient collection limit its application. To overcome these drawbacks and limit secondary contamination of nanomaterials, we confine NZVI supported by reduced graphene oxide (rGO) in the scaffold of sodium alginate (SA) gel beads (SA/NZVI-rGO). Scanning electron microscopy showed that the NZVI was uniformly dispersed in the gel beads. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrated that the hydrogen bonding and conjugation between SA and rGO allowed the NZVI-rGO to be successfully embedded in SA. Furthermore, the mechanical strength, swelling resistance, and Cr(VI) removal capacity of SA/NZVI-rGO were enhanced by optimizing the ratio of NZVI and rGO. Interestingly, cation exchange may drive Cr(VI) removal above 82% over a wide pH range. In the complex environment of actual Cr(VI) wastewater, Cr(VI) removal efficiency still reached 70.25%. Pseudo-first-order kinetics and Langmuir adsorption isotherm are preferred to explain the removal process. The mechanism of Cr(VI) removal by SA/NZVI-rGO is dominated by reduction and adsorption. The sustainable removal of Cr(VI) by packed columns could be well fitted by the Thomas, Adams–Bohart, and Yoon–Nelson models, and importantly, the gel beads maintained integrity during the prolonged removal. These results will contribute significant insights into the practical application of SA/NZVI-rGO beads for the Cr(VI) removal in aqueous environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Polymers for Wastewater Treatment and Toxicant Removal)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Co-evaluation of Different Membrane Bioreactors (MBRs) and Their Physico-Chemical Characteristics towards Quality Water Reuse
Authors: Nikos Tsalas 1 , Konstantinos Tsimnadis 2 , Grigorios L. Kyriakopoulos 3,*, Giorgos Katsouras 1,*, Stefanos Leontopoulos 2, Samios Stelios 1
Affiliation: 1. The Athens Water Supply and Sewerage Company (EYDAP SA), Research and Development (R&D), Amaliados 5-9, Metamorfosi 144 52, Greece 2. School of Applied Arts and Sustainable Design, Hellenic Open University, Parodos Aristotelous 18, 26335 Patra, Greece 3. School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, 15780 Athens, Greece

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