Extraction of Cellulose-Based Polymers from Textile Wastes

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Circular and Green Polymer Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2022) | Viewed by 41407

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Centre for Textile Science and Technology, University of Minho, Campus de Azurém, 4800-058 Guimarães, Portugal
Interests: antimicrobial agents; regenerative cues; drug delivery; biomaterials; wound healing; medical textiles; polymer processing; nano- and microfiber scaffolding systems
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Guest Editor
Centre for Textile Science and Technology (2C2T), University of Minho, 4800-058 Guimarães, Portugal
Interests: textile materials; biotechnology; biomaterials; antimicrobials; bioreactor optimization; nanotechnology; environmental biotechnology; industrial biotechnology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Centre for Textile Science and Technology (2C2T), University of Minho, Campus de Azurém, 4800-058 Guimarães, Portugal
Interests: bioengineering; nanotechnology; biomaterials; polymer processing; controlled drug delivery; targeted delivery; tissue regeneration; antimicrobial strategies; bioactive molecules
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

With the booming of nanotechnology in response to the demands for new and improved bio-based products, the extraction and exploration of cellulose-based polymers is becoming an exciting area of research. To date, wood (especially from bleached kraft wood pulp) has been the main source of cellulosic compounds because of its abundance in nature. However, in the past decade, researchers have been devoted to finding alternatives to extract cellulose from byproducts of agricultural crops and/or textile wastes, which are highly available at a very reduced raw material cost. The consumption of cotton-based products has been growing steadily over the past few decades. As a result of this increased consumption, the amount of cotton waste generated, including both pre-consumer (fiber linters, yarn slivers, fabric scraps from factory offcuts, unsold brand-new garments) and post-consumer (used and unwanted garments) wastes, has increased substantially in landfills. In finished cotton fabrics, cellulose content can be up to 99% since non-cellulose components are eliminated during scouring and bleaching, which are routine preparation procedures. Considering the urgent demands for a circular economy and sustainable actions, research has been providing the first steps towards finding new and greener extraction systems for textile wastes that provide the present raw materials with a second life. This Special Issue seeks manuscript submissions that further our understanding of these techniques and extractions processes employed to textile waste, and the mechanisms by which a second-life purpose can be provided to the extracted raw material. Studies that deal with the ability to recover cellulose-based polymers, with elevated purity, from cotton wastes are highly desirable. Submissions on new processing and extraction methodologies that employ green approaches, with a smaller environment impact than conventional strategies and that are capable of giving rise to high purity polymers are also very welcome.

Dr. Helena P. Felgueiras
Dr. Jorge Padrão
Dr. Joana C. Antunes
Guest Editors

Keywords

  • textile fabrics
  • recycling
  • chemical extraction
  • green methodologies
  • natural-origin polymers
  • polymer purity
  • sustainability
  • circular economy
  • second-life polymer applications

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 198 KiB  
Editorial
Extraction of Cellulose-Based Polymers from Textile Wastes
by Helena P. Felgueiras, Jorge Padrão and Joana C. Antunes
Polymers 2022, 14(10), 2063; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14102063 - 18 May 2022
Viewed by 1681
Abstract
The extraction and exploration of cellulose-based polymers is an exciting area of research [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction of Cellulose-Based Polymers from Textile Wastes)

Research

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15 pages, 13108 KiB  
Article
Assessment of the Eco-Efficiency of the Circular Economy in the Recovery of Cellulose from the Shredding of Textile Waste
by Geraldo Cardoso de Oliveira Neto, Micheline Maia Teixeira, Gabriel Luis Victorino Souza, Valquiria Demarchi Arns, Henrricco Nieves Pujol Tucci and Marlene Amorim
Polymers 2022, 14(7), 1317; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14071317 - 24 Mar 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3210
Abstract
There is a growing demand for the adoption of cyclical processes in the fashion industry. The trends point to the reuse of cellulose from cotton fibres, obtained from industrial waste, as a substitute to the former linear processes of manufacturing, sale, use, and [...] Read more.
There is a growing demand for the adoption of cyclical processes in the fashion industry. The trends point to the reuse of cellulose from cotton fibres, obtained from industrial waste, as a substitute to the former linear processes of manufacturing, sale, use, and discarding. This study sets up to explore and assess the economic and environmental gains from the mechanical shredding of cellulose in cotton fabrics in a textile company, identifying the circularity associated with the adoption of such methods. The study resorted to a case study methodology building on interviews and observation. For the environmental estimations, the study employed the material intensity factor tool, and for the economic evaluation the study uses the return on investment. The study also offers an estimation of the circularity of the processes that were implemented. The adoption of the mechanical shredding for cotton cellulose generated economic gains of US$11,798,662.98 and a reduction in the environmental impact that amounts to 31,335,767,040.26 kg including the following different compartments: biotic, abiotic, water, air, and erosion. The findings suggest the existence of opportunities for the circular economy in the textile sector of about 99.69%, dissociated to the use of mechanical recycling, while limited by the consumption of electrical energy and lubricants in the recycling process, leading the way to a circular economy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction of Cellulose-Based Polymers from Textile Wastes)
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14 pages, 6334 KiB  
Article
Extraction and Isolation of Cellulose Nanofibers from Carpet Wastes Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Approach
by Halimatuddahliana Nasution, Esam Bashir Yahya, H. P. S. Abdul Khalil, Marwan Abdulhakim Shaah, A. B. Suriani, Azmi Mohamed, Tata Alfatah and C. K. Abdullah
Polymers 2022, 14(2), 326; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14020326 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 2959
Abstract
Cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) are the most advanced bio-nanomaterial utilized in various applications due to their unique physical and structural properties, renewability, biodegradability, and biocompatibility. It has been isolated from diverse sources including plants as well as textile wastes using different isolation techniques, such [...] Read more.
Cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) are the most advanced bio-nanomaterial utilized in various applications due to their unique physical and structural properties, renewability, biodegradability, and biocompatibility. It has been isolated from diverse sources including plants as well as textile wastes using different isolation techniques, such as acid hydrolysis, high-intensity ultrasonication, and steam explosion process. Here, we planned to extract and isolate CNFs from carpet wastes using a supercritical carbon dioxide (Sc.CO2) treatment approach. The mechanism of defibrillation and defragmentation caused by Sc.CO2 treatment was also explained. The morphological analysis of bleached fibers showed that Sc.CO2 treatment induced several longitudinal fractions along with each fiber due to the supercritical condition of temperature and pressure. Such conditions removed th fiber’s impurities and produced more fragile fibers compared to untreated samples. The particle size analysis and Transmission Electron Microscopes (TEM) confirm the effect of Sc.CO2 treatment. The average fiber length and diameter of Sc.CO2 treated CNFs were 53.72 and 7.14 nm, respectively. In comparison, untreated samples had longer fiber length and diameter (302.87 and 97.93 nm). The Sc.CO2-treated CNFs also had significantly higher thermal stability by more than 27% and zeta potential value of −38.9± 5.1 mV, compared to untreated CNFs (−33.1 ± 3.0 mV). The vibrational band frequency and chemical composition analysis data confirm the presence of cellulose function groups without any contamination with lignin and hemicellulose. The Sc.CO2 treatment method is a green approach for enhancing the isolation yield of CNFs from carpet wastes and produce better quality nanocellulose for advanced applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction of Cellulose-Based Polymers from Textile Wastes)
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12 pages, 2748 KiB  
Article
Forensic Analysis of Polymeric Carpet Fibers Using Direct Analysis in Real Time Coupled to an AccuTOF™ Mass Spectrometer
by Torki A. Zughaibi and Robert R. Steiner
Polymers 2021, 13(16), 2687; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13162687 - 12 Aug 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2877
Abstract
Polymeric fibers are encountered in numerous forensic circumstances. This study focused on polymeric carpet fibers most encountered at a crime scene, which are nylons, polyesters and olefins. Analysis of the multiple polymer types was done using Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART [...] Read more.
Polymeric fibers are encountered in numerous forensic circumstances. This study focused on polymeric carpet fibers most encountered at a crime scene, which are nylons, polyesters and olefins. Analysis of the multiple polymer types was done using Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) coupled to an Accurate time-of-flight (AccuTOF™) mass spectrometer (MS). A DART gas temperature of 275 °C was determined as optimal. Twelve olefin, polyester, and nylon polymer standards were used for parameter optimization for the carpet fiber analysis. A successful identification and differentiation of all twelve polymer standards was completed using the DART-AccuTOF. Thirty-two carpet samples of both known and unknown fiber composition were collected and subsequently analyzed. All samples with known fiber compositions were correctly identified by class. All of the remaining carpet samples with no known composition information were correctly identified by confirmation using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The method was also capable of identifying sub-classes of nylon carpet fibers. The results exhibit the capability of DART-AccuTOF being applied as an addition to the sequence of tests conducted to analyze carpet fibers in a forensic laboratory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction of Cellulose-Based Polymers from Textile Wastes)
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21 pages, 36001 KiB  
Article
Green Synthesis of Thermo-Responsive Hydrogel from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches Cellulose for Sustained Drug Delivery
by Maha Mohammad Al-Rajabi and Yeit Haan Teow
Polymers 2021, 13(13), 2153; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13132153 - 29 Jun 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2911
Abstract
Drug delivery is a difficult task in the field of dermal therapeutics, particularly in the treatment of burns, wounds, and skin diseases. Conventional drug delivery mediums have some limitations, including poor retention on skin/wound, inconvenience in administration, and uncontrolled drug release profile. Hydrogels [...] Read more.
Drug delivery is a difficult task in the field of dermal therapeutics, particularly in the treatment of burns, wounds, and skin diseases. Conventional drug delivery mediums have some limitations, including poor retention on skin/wound, inconvenience in administration, and uncontrolled drug release profile. Hydrogels able to absorb large amount of water and give a spontaneous response to stimuli imposed on them are an attractive solution to overcome the limitations of conventional drug delivery media. The objective of this study is to explore a green synthesis method for the development of thermo-responsive cellulose hydrogel using cellulose extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB). A cold method was employed to prepare thermo-responsive cellulose hydrogels by incorporating OPEFB-extracted cellulose and Pluronic F127 (PF127) polymer. The performance of the synthesized thermo-responsive cellulose hydrogels were evaluated in terms of their swelling ratio, percentage of degradation, and in-vitro silver sulfadiazine (SSD) drug release. H8 thermo-responsive cellulose hydrogel with 20 w/v% PF127 and 3 w/v% OPEFB extracted cellulose content was the best formulation, given its high storage modulus and complex viscosity (81 kPa and 9.6 kPa.s, respectively), high swelling ratio (4.22 ± 0.70), and low degradation rate (31.3 ± 5.9%), in addition to high t50% value of 24 h in SSD in-vitro drug release to accomplish sustained drug release. The exploration of thermo-responsive cellulose hydrogel from OPEFB would promote cost-effective and sustainable drug delivery system with using abundantly available agricultural biomass. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction of Cellulose-Based Polymers from Textile Wastes)
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11 pages, 4958 KiB  
Article
Fabrication and Application of SERS-Active Cellulose Fibers Regenerated from Waste Resource
by Shengjun Wang, Jiaqi Guo, Yibo Ma, Alan X. Wang, Xianming Kong and Qian Yu
Polymers 2021, 13(13), 2142; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13132142 - 29 Jun 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2486
Abstract
The flexible SERS substrate were prepared base on regenerated cellulose fibers, in which the Au nanoparticles were controllably assembled on fiber through electrostatic interaction. The cellulose fiber was regenerated from waste paper through the dry-jet wet spinning method, an eco-friendly and convenient approach [...] Read more.
The flexible SERS substrate were prepared base on regenerated cellulose fibers, in which the Au nanoparticles were controllably assembled on fiber through electrostatic interaction. The cellulose fiber was regenerated from waste paper through the dry-jet wet spinning method, an eco-friendly and convenient approach by using ionic liquid. The Au NPs could be controllably distributed on the surface of fiber by adjusting the conditions during the process of assembling. Finite-difference time-domain theoretical simulations verified the intense local electromagnetic fields of plasmonic composites. The flexible SERS fibers show excellent SERS sensitivity and adsorption capability. A typical Raman probe molecule, 4-Mercaptobenzoicacid (4-MBA), was used to verify the SERS cellulose fibers, the sensitivity could achieve to 10−9 M. The flexible SERS fibers were successfully used for identifying dimetridazole (DMZ) from aqueous solution. Furthermore, the flexible SERS fibers were used for detecting DMZ from the surface of fish by simply swabbing process. It is clear that the fabricated plasmonic composite can be applied for the identifying toxins and chemicals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction of Cellulose-Based Polymers from Textile Wastes)
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12 pages, 3355 KiB  
Article
Enhanced Water Resistance of Recycled Newspaper/High Density Polyethylene Composite Laminates via Hydrophobic Modification of Newspaper Laminas
by Binwei Zheng, Weiwei Zhang, Litao Guan, Jin Gu, Dengyun Tu and Chuanshuang Hu
Polymers 2021, 13(3), 421; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13030421 - 28 Jan 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1850
Abstract
A high strength recycled newspaper (NP)/high density polyethylene (HDPE) laminated composite was developed using NP laminas as reinforcement and HDPE film as matrix. Herein, NP fiber was modified with stearic acid (SA) to enhance the water resistance of the NP laminas and NP/HDPE [...] Read more.
A high strength recycled newspaper (NP)/high density polyethylene (HDPE) laminated composite was developed using NP laminas as reinforcement and HDPE film as matrix. Herein, NP fiber was modified with stearic acid (SA) to enhance the water resistance of the NP laminas and NP/HDPE composite. The effects of heat treatment and SA concentration on the water resistance and tensile property of NP and composite samples were investigated. The chemical structure of the NP was characterized with X-ray diffractometer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectra techniques. The surface and microstructure of the NP sheets were observed by scanning electron microscopy. An expected high-water resistance of NP sheets was achieved due to a chemical bonding that low surface energy SA were grafted onto the modified NP fibers. Results showed that the hydrophobicity of NP increased with increasing the stearic acid concentration. The water resistance of the composite laminates was depended on the hydrophobicity of the NP sheets. The lowest value of 2 h water absorption rate (3.3% ± 0.3%) and thickness swelling rate (2.2% ± 0.4%) of composite were obtained when the SA concentration was 0.15 M. In addition, the introduction of SA can not only enhance the water resistance of the composite laminates, but also reduce the loss of tensile strength in wet conditions, which shows potential in outdoor applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction of Cellulose-Based Polymers from Textile Wastes)
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15 pages, 2916 KiB  
Article
Isolation of Textile Waste Cellulose Nanofibrillated Fibre Reinforced in Polylactic Acid-Chitin Biodegradable Composite for Green Packaging Application
by Samsul Rizal, Funmilayo G. Olaiya, N. I. Saharudin, C. K. Abdullah, Olaiya N. G., M. K. Mohamad Haafiz, Esam Bashir Yahya, F. A. Sabaruddin, Ikramullah and Abdul Khalil H. P. S.
Polymers 2021, 13(3), 325; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13030325 - 20 Jan 2021
Cited by 38 | Viewed by 4735
Abstract
Textile waste cellulose nanofibrillated fibre has been reported with excellent strength reinforcement ability in other biopolymers. In this research cellulose nanofibrilated fibre (CNF) was isolated from the textile waste cotton fabrics with combined supercritical carbon dioxide and high-pressure homogenisation. The isolated CNF was [...] Read more.
Textile waste cellulose nanofibrillated fibre has been reported with excellent strength reinforcement ability in other biopolymers. In this research cellulose nanofibrilated fibre (CNF) was isolated from the textile waste cotton fabrics with combined supercritical carbon dioxide and high-pressure homogenisation. The isolated CNF was used to enhance the polylactic acid/chitin (PLA/chitin) properties. The properties enhancement effect of the CNF was studied by characterising the PLA/chitin/CNF biocomposite for improved mechanical, thermal, and morphological properties. The tensile properties, impact strength, dynamic mechanical analysis, thermogravimetry analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and the PLA/chitin/CNF biocomposite wettability were studied. The result showed that the tensile strength, elongation, tensile modulus, and impact strength improved significantly with chitin and CNF compared with the neat PLA. Furthermore, the scanning electron microscopy SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) morphological images showed uniform distribution and dispersion of the three polymers in each other, which corroborate the improvement in mechanical properties. The biocomposite’s water absorption increased more than the neat PLA, and the contact angle was reduced. The results of the ternary blend compared with PLA/chitin binary blend showed significant enhancement with CNF. This showed that the three polymers’ combination resulted in a better material property than the binary blend. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction of Cellulose-Based Polymers from Textile Wastes)
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21 pages, 14354 KiB  
Article
Effect of Ink and Pretreatment Conditions on Bioethanol and Biomethane Yields from Waste Banknote Paper
by Omid Yazdani Aghmashhadi, Lisandra Rocha-Meneses, Nemailla Bonturi, Kaja Orupõld, Ghasem Asadpour, Esmaeil Rasooly Garmaroody, Majid Zabihzadeh and Timo Kikas
Polymers 2021, 13(2), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13020239 - 12 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3261
Abstract
Waste banknote paper is a residue from the banking industry that cannot be recycled due to the presence of ink, microbial load and special coating that provides protection against humidity. As a result, waste banknote paper ends up being burned or buried, which [...] Read more.
Waste banknote paper is a residue from the banking industry that cannot be recycled due to the presence of ink, microbial load and special coating that provides protection against humidity. As a result, waste banknote paper ends up being burned or buried, which brings environmental impacts, mainly caused by the presence of heavy metals in its composition. To minimize the environmental impacts that come from the disposal of waste banknote paper, this study proposes to produce value-added products (bioethanol and biogas) from waste banknote paper. For this, the effect of ink and pretreatment conditions on bioethanol and biomethane yields were analyzed. Waste banknote paper provided by the Central Bank of Iran was used. The raw material with ink (WPB) and without ink (WPD) was pretreated using sulfuric acid at different concentrations (1%, 2%, 3%, and 4%) and the nitrogen explosive decompression (NED) at different temperatures (150 °C, 170 °C, 190 °C, and 200 °C). The results show that the use of NED pretreatment in WPD resulted in the highest glucose concentration of all studies (13 ± 0.19 g/L). The acid pretreatment for WPB showed a correlation with the acid concentration. The highest ethanol concentration was obtained from the fermentation using WPD pretreated with NED (6.36 ± 0.72 g/L). The maximum methane yields varied between 136 ± 5 mol/kg TS (2% acid WPB) and 294 ± 4 mol/kg TS (3% acid WPD). Our results show that the presence of ink reduces bioethanol and biogas yields and that the chemical-free NED pretreatment is more advantageous for bioethanol and biogas production than the acid pretreatment method. Waste banknote paper without ink is a suitable feedstock for sustainable biorefinery processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction of Cellulose-Based Polymers from Textile Wastes)
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14 pages, 4635 KiB  
Article
Removal of Cadmium and Chromium by Mixture of Silver Nanoparticles and Nano-Fibrillated Cellulose Isolated from Waste Peels of Citrus Sinensis
by Neha Tavker, Virendra Kumar Yadav, Krishna Kumar Yadav, Marina MS Cabral-Pinto, Javed Alam, Arun Kumar Shukla, Fekri Abdulraqeb Ahmed Ali and Mansour Alhoshan
Polymers 2021, 13(2), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13020234 - 12 Jan 2021
Cited by 48 | Viewed by 4140
Abstract
Nano-fibrillated cellulose (NFC) was extracted by a chemical method involving alkali and acid hydrolysis. The characterisation of the citrus sinensis fruit peel bran and nano-fibrillated cellulose was performed by XRD, FTIR, TEM, and FESEM. XRD confirmed the phase of NFC which showed monoclinic [...] Read more.
Nano-fibrillated cellulose (NFC) was extracted by a chemical method involving alkali and acid hydrolysis. The characterisation of the citrus sinensis fruit peel bran and nano-fibrillated cellulose was performed by XRD, FTIR, TEM, and FESEM. XRD confirmed the phase of NFC which showed monoclinic crystal with spherical to rod shape morphology with a size of 44–50 nm. The crystallinity index of treated NFC increased from 39% to 75%. FTIR showed the removal of lignin and hemicellulose from waste peels due to the alkaline treatment. Silver nanoparticles were also synthesised by utilizing extract of citrus sinensis skins as a reducing agent. Pharmaceutical effluent samples from an industrial area were tested by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Out of the four metals obtained, cadmium and chromium were remediated by silver nanoparticles with nano-fibrillated cellulose via simulated method in 100 mg/L metal-salt concentrations over a time period of 160 min. The highest removal efficiency was found for cadmium, i.e., 83%, by using silver and NFC together as adsorbents. The second highest was for chromium, i.e., 47%, but by using only NFC. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were well fitted for the sorption of Cd (II) and Cr (II) with suitable high R2 values during kinetic simulation. Thus, the isolation of NFC and synthesis of silver nanoparticles proved efficient for heavy metal sorption by the reuse of waste skins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction of Cellulose-Based Polymers from Textile Wastes)
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

36 pages, 9475 KiB  
Review
Cotton Wastes Functionalized Biomaterials from Micro to Nano: A Cleaner Approach for a Sustainable Environmental Application
by Samsul Rizal, Abdul Khalil H. P. S., Adeleke A. Oyekanmi, Olaiya N. Gideon, Che K. Abdullah, Esam B. Yahya, Tata Alfatah, Fatimah A. Sabaruddin and Azhar A. Rahman
Polymers 2021, 13(7), 1006; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13071006 - 24 Mar 2021
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 9060
Abstract
The exponential increase in textile cotton wastes generation and the ineffective processing mechanism to mitigate its environmental impact by developing functional materials with unique properties for geotechnical applications, wastewater, packaging, and biomedical engineering have become emerging global concerns among researchers. A comprehensive study [...] Read more.
The exponential increase in textile cotton wastes generation and the ineffective processing mechanism to mitigate its environmental impact by developing functional materials with unique properties for geotechnical applications, wastewater, packaging, and biomedical engineering have become emerging global concerns among researchers. A comprehensive study of a processed cotton fibres isolation technique and their applications are highlighted in this review. Surface modification of cotton wastes fibre increases the adsorption of dyes and heavy metals removal from wastewater. Cotton wastes fibres have demonstrated high adsorption capacity for the removal of recalcitrant pollutants in wastewater. Cotton wastes fibres have found remarkable application in slope amendments, reinforcement of expansive soils and building materials, and a proven source for isolation of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). Several research work on the use of cotton waste for functional application rather than disposal has been done. However, no review study has discussed the potentials of cotton wastes from source (Micro-Nano) to application. This review critically analyses novel isolation techniques of CNC from cotton wastes with an in-depth study of a parameter variation effect on their yield. Different pretreatment techniques and efficiency were discussed. From the analysis, chemical pretreatment is considered the most efficient extraction of CNCs from cotton wastes. The pretreatment strategies can suffer variation in process conditions, resulting in distortion in the extracted cellulose’s crystallinity. Acid hydrolysis using sulfuric acid is the most used extraction process for cotton wastes-based CNC. A combined pretreatment process, such as sonication and hydrolysis, increases the crystallinity of cotton-based CNCs. The improvement of the reinforced matrix interface of textile fibres is required for improved packaging and biomedical applications for the sustainability of cotton-based CNCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction of Cellulose-Based Polymers from Textile Wastes)
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