Bioactive Polymer Materials with Antibacterial Properties

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomacromolecules, Biobased and Biodegradable Polymers".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2023) | Viewed by 40617

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Guest Editor
Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Biotechnology and Natural Resource, Chung-Ang University, Anseong 17546, Gyeonggi‑do, Republic of Korea
Interests: bioactive materials; nanoparticles; multidrug-resistant microorganisms
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Guest Editor
Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Gachon University, Seongnam 461-701, Republic of Korea
Interests: antimicrobial agents; nanomaterials; food safety
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue entitled “Bioactive Materials with Antibacterial Properties” is devoted to the dissemination of high-quality original research articles or comprehensive reviews. Bioactive materials have a wide range of applications. Bioactive materials with antibacterial properties have attracted significant medical interest. Antibacterial bioactive materials can be obtained from nature or they can be synthesized in different ways. They can be prepared by the simple combination of antibacterial substances with materials such as metals or polymers. The delivery of these bioactive materials kills pathogenic bacteria. The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria due to the uncontrolled, immoderate and multiple uses of antibiotics and chemotherapeutics is a serious threat to the world population. The development of a new antibacterial agent is the decisive solution for this issue. Therefore, bioactive materials with antibacterial properties could be promising agents to control these MDR bacteria. 

We would like to invite researchers to contribute to this Special Issue. Research topics of interest cover one or several of the topics included in the keywords below (but are not limited to the following): synthesis/biosynthesis of different bioactive materials, natural compounds with antibacterial properties, synthesis of various nanoparticles with antibacterial properties, anti-biofilm activity, mode of action, mechanisms of antibacterial activity, etc. 

Dr. Md. Amdadul Huq
Dr. Shahina Akter
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • bioactive materials
  • antibacterial properties
  • nanoparticles
  • anti-biofilm activity
  • mechanisms of antibacterial activity

Published Papers (17 papers)

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12 pages, 3390 KiB  
Article
Antibacterial Activity against Escherichia coli and Cytotoxicity of Maillard Reaction Product of Chitosan and Glucosamine Prepared by Gamma Co-60 Ray Irradiation
by Anh Quoc Le, Van Phu Dang, Ngoc Duy Nguyen, Chi Thuan Nguyen and Quoc Hien Nguyen
Polymers 2023, 15(22), 4397; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15224397 - 13 Nov 2023
Viewed by 849
Abstract
In this study, the gamma ray-induced Maillard reaction method was carried out for chitosan (CTS) and glucosamine (GA) to improve the water solubility and antibacterial activity. The mixture solution of CTS and GA was exposed to gamma rays at a dose of 25 [...] Read more.
In this study, the gamma ray-induced Maillard reaction method was carried out for chitosan (CTS) and glucosamine (GA) to improve the water solubility and antibacterial activity. The mixture solution of CTS and GA was exposed to gamma rays at a dose of 25 kGy and freeze-dried to obtain a Maillard reaction product (MRP) powder. The physicochemical and biological properties of the CTS-GA MRP powder were investigated. The CTS-GA MRP powder expressed good solubility at a concentration of 0.05 g/mL. In addition, the result of the antibacterial activity test against Escherichia coli revealed that the CTS-GA MRP powder exhibited highly antibacterial activity at pH 7; in particular, bacterial density was reduced by over 4 logs. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity test of the CTS-GA MRP powder on mouse fibroblast cells (L929) showed non-cytotoxicity with high cell viability (>90%) at concentrations of 0.1–1 mg/mL. Owing to the high antibacterial activity and low cytotoxicity, the water-soluble CTS-GA MRP powder can be used as a favorable natural preservative for food and cosmetics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Polymer Materials with Antibacterial Properties)
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13 pages, 2974 KiB  
Article
Preparation and Antimicrobial Characterization of Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate)/Kaolin Clay Biocomposites
by Raja Venkatesan, Krishnapandi Alagumalai and Seong-Cheol Kim
Polymers 2023, 15(7), 1710; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15071710 - 29 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1605
Abstract
The biodegradable polymer poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) starts decomposing at room temperature. Kaolin clay (KO) was dispersed and blended into PBAT composites using a solution-casting method. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used [...] Read more.
The biodegradable polymer poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) starts decomposing at room temperature. Kaolin clay (KO) was dispersed and blended into PBAT composites using a solution-casting method. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to evaluate the structure and morphology of the composite materials. PBAT/kaolin clay composites were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The PBAT composite loaded with 5.0 wt% kaolin clay shows the best characteristics. The biocomposites of PBAT/kaolin [PBC-5.0 (37.6MPa)] have a good tensile strength when compared to virgin PBAT (18.3MPa). The oxygen transmission rate (OTR), with ranges from 1080.2 to 311.7 (cc/m2/day), leads the KO content. By including 5.0 wt% kaolin 43.5 (g/m2/day), the water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of the PBAT/kaolin composites was decreased. The pure PBAT must have a WVTR of 152.4 (g/m2/day). Gram-positive (S. aureus) and Gram-negative (E. coli) food-borne bacteria are significantly more resistant to the antimicrobial property of composites. The results show that PBAT/kaolin composites have great potential as food packaging materials due to their ability to decrease the growth of bacteria and improve the shelf life of packaged foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Polymer Materials with Antibacterial Properties)
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15 pages, 8920 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Properties of Poly(Alkenoate) Cement Modified with Propolis as an Antiseptic
by David Alejandro Aguilar-Perez, Cindy Maria Urbina-Mendez, Beatriz Maldonado-Gallegos, Omar de Jesus Castillo-Cruz, Fernando Javier Aguilar-Ayala, Martha Gabriela Chuc-Gamboa, Rossana Faride Vargas-Coronado and Juan Valerio Cauich-Rodriguez
Polymers 2023, 15(7), 1676; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15071676 - 28 Mar 2023
Viewed by 940
Abstract
Background: We assessed the effect of propolis on the antibacterial, mechanical, and adhesive properties of a commercial poly(alkenoate) cement. Methods: The cement was modified with various concentrations of propolis, and antibacterial assays were performed against S. mutans by both MTT assays and [...] Read more.
Background: We assessed the effect of propolis on the antibacterial, mechanical, and adhesive properties of a commercial poly(alkenoate) cement. Methods: The cement was modified with various concentrations of propolis, and antibacterial assays were performed against S. mutans by both MTT assays and agar diffusion tests. The compressive, flexural, and adhesive properties were also evaluated. Results: the modified cement showed activity against S. mutans in both assays, although reductions in compressive (from 211.21 to 59.3 MPa) and flexural strength (from 11.1 to 6.2 MPa) were noted with the addition of propolis, while adhesive strength (shear bond strength and a novel pull-out method) showed a statistical difference (p < 0.05). Conclusion: the antiseptic potential of modified material against S. mutans will allow this material to be used in cases in which low mechanical resistance is required (in addition to its anti-inflammatory properties) when using atraumatic restorative techniques, especially in deep cavities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Polymer Materials with Antibacterial Properties)
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14 pages, 4139 KiB  
Article
Imidazolium Salts for Candida spp. Antibiofilm High-Density Polyethylene-Based Biomaterials
by Clarissa Martins Leal Schrekker, Yuri Clemente Andrade Sokolovicz, Maria Grazia Raucci, Claudio Alberto Martins Leal, Luigi Ambrosio, Mário Lettieri Teixeira, Alexandre Meneghello Fuentefria and Henri Stephan Schrekker
Polymers 2023, 15(5), 1259; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15051259 - 01 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1426
Abstract
The species of Candida present good capability to form fungal biofilms on polymeric surfaces and are related to several human diseases since many of the employed medical devices are designed using polymers, especially high-density polyethylene (HDPE). Herein, HDPE films containing 0; 0.125; 0.250 [...] Read more.
The species of Candida present good capability to form fungal biofilms on polymeric surfaces and are related to several human diseases since many of the employed medical devices are designed using polymers, especially high-density polyethylene (HDPE). Herein, HDPE films containing 0; 0.125; 0.250 or 0.500 wt% of 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (C16MImCl) or its analog 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium methanesulfonate (C16MImMeS) were obtained by melt blending and posteriorly mechanically pressurized into films. This approach resulted in more flexible and less brittle films, which impeded the Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis biofilm formation on their surfaces. The employed imidazolium salt (IS) concentrations did not present any significant cytotoxic effect, and the good cell adhesion/proliferation of human mesenchymal stem cells on the HDPE-IS films indicated good biocompatibility. These outcomes combined with the absence of microscopic lesions in pig skin after contact with HDPE-IS films demonstrated their potential as biomaterials for the development of effective medical device tools that reduce the risk of fungal infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Polymer Materials with Antibacterial Properties)
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15 pages, 2949 KiB  
Article
Antimicrobial Efficacy of Quercetin against Vibrio parahaemolyticus Biofilm on Food Surfaces and Downregulation of Virulence Genes
by Pantu Kumar Roy, Sung-Hee Park, Min Gyu Song and Shin Young Park
Polymers 2022, 14(18), 3847; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14183847 - 14 Sep 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2247
Abstract
For the seafood industry, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, one of the most prevalent food-borne pathogenic bacteria that forms biofilms, is a constant cause of concern. There are numerous techniques used throughout the food supply chain to manage biofilms, but none are entirely effective. Through [...] Read more.
For the seafood industry, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, one of the most prevalent food-borne pathogenic bacteria that forms biofilms, is a constant cause of concern. There are numerous techniques used throughout the food supply chain to manage biofilms, but none are entirely effective. Through assessing its antioxidant and antibacterial properties, quercetin will be evaluated for its ability to prevent the growth of V. parahaemolyticus biofilm on shrimp and crab shell surfaces. With a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 220 µg/mL, the tested quercetin exhibited the lowest bactericidal action without visible growth of bacteria. In contrast, during various experiments in this work, the inhibitory efficacy of quercetin without (control) and with sub-MICs levels (1/2, 1/4, and 1/8 MIC) against V. parahaemolyticus was examined. With increasing quercetin concentration, swarming and swimming motility, biofilm formation, and expression levels of related genes linked to flagella motility (flaA and flgL), biofilm formation (vp0952 and vp0962), and quorum-sensing (luxS and aphA) were all dramatically reduced (p < 0.05). Quercetin (0–110 μg/mL) was investigated on shrimp and crab shell surfaces, the inhibitory effects were 0.68–3.70 and 0.74–3.09 log CFU/cm2, respectively (p < 0.05). The findings were verified using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), which revealed quercetin prevented the development of biofilms by severing cell-to-cell contacts and induced cell lysis, which resulted in the loss of normal cell shape. Furthermore, there was a substantial difference in motility between the treatment and control groups (swimming and swarming). According to our findings, plant-derived quercetin should be used as an antimicrobial agent in the food industry to inhibit the establishment of V. parahaemolyticus biofilms. These findings suggest that bacterial targets are of interest for biofilm reduction with alternative natural food agents in the seafood sector along the entire food production chain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Polymer Materials with Antibacterial Properties)
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16 pages, 4189 KiB  
Article
Antibacterial Activity of Silver Nanoflake (SNF)-Blended Polysulfone Ultrafiltration Membrane
by Gunawan Setia Prihandana, Tutik Sriani, Aisyah Dewi Muthi’ah, Siti Nurmaya Musa, Mohd Fadzil Jamaludin and Muslim Mahardika
Polymers 2022, 14(17), 3600; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14173600 - 31 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1581
Abstract
The aim of this research was to study the possibility of using silver nanoflakes (SNFs) as an antibacterial agent in polysulfone (PSF) membranes. SNFs at different concentrations (0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 wt.%) were added to a PSF membrane dope solution. To investigate [...] Read more.
The aim of this research was to study the possibility of using silver nanoflakes (SNFs) as an antibacterial agent in polysulfone (PSF) membranes. SNFs at different concentrations (0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 wt.%) were added to a PSF membrane dope solution. To investigate the effect of SNFs on membrane performance and properties, the water contact angle, protein separation, average pore size and molecular weight cutoffs were measured, and water flux and antibacterial tests were conducted. The antimicrobial activities of the SNFs were investigated using Escherichia coli taken from river water. The results showed that PSF membranes blended with 0.1 wt.% SNFs have contact angles of 55°, which is less than that of the pristine PSF membrane (81°), exhibiting the highest pure water flux. Molecular weight cutoff values of the blended membranes indicated that the presence of SNFs does not lead to enlargement of the membrane pore size. The rejection of protein (egg albumin) was improved with the addition of 0.1 wt.% SNFs. The SNFs showed antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, where the killing rate was dependent on the SNF concentration in the membranes. The identified bacterial colonies that appeared on the membranes decreased with increasing SNF concentration. PSF membranes blended with SNF, to a great degree, possess quality performance across several indicators, showing great potential to be employed as water filtration membranes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Polymer Materials with Antibacterial Properties)
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19 pages, 3377 KiB  
Article
Light-Emitting-Diode-Assisted, Fungal-Pigment-Mediated Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Their Antibacterial Activity
by Nobchulee Nuanaon, Sharad Bhatnagar, Tatsuya Motoike and Hideki Aoyagi
Polymers 2022, 14(15), 3140; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14153140 - 01 Aug 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1886
Abstract
Nanoparticle synthesis, such as green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using biogenic extracts, is affected by light, which changes the characteristics of particles. However, the effect of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on AgNP biosynthesis using fungal pigment has not been examined. In this study, [...] Read more.
Nanoparticle synthesis, such as green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using biogenic extracts, is affected by light, which changes the characteristics of particles. However, the effect of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on AgNP biosynthesis using fungal pigment has not been examined. In this study, LEDs of different wavelengths were used in conjunction with Talaromyces purpurogenus extracellular pigment for AgNP biosynthesis. AgNPs were synthesized by mixing 10 mL of fungal pigment with AgNO3, followed by 24 h exposure to LEDs of different wavelengths, such as blue, green, orange, red, and infrared. All treatments increased the yield of AgNPs. The solutions exposed to blue, green, and infrared LEDs exhibited a significant increase in AgNP synthesis. All AgNPs were then synthesized to determine the optimum precursor (AgNO3) concentration and reaction rate. The results indicated 5 mM AgNO3 as the optimum precursor concentration; furthermore, AgNPs-blue LED had the highest reaction rate. Dynamic light scattering analysis, zeta potential measurement, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the AgNPs. All LED-synthesized AgNPs exhibited an antimicrobial potential against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The combination of LED-synthesized AgNPs and the antibiotic streptomycin demonstrated a synergistic antimicrobial activity against both bacterial species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Polymer Materials with Antibacterial Properties)
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21 pages, 13408 KiB  
Article
The Composites of Polyamide 12 and Metal Oxides with High Antimicrobial Activity
by Paulina Latko-Durałek, Michał Misiak, Monika Staniszewska, Karina Rosłoniec, Marta Grodzik, Robert P. Socha, Marcel Krzan, Barbara Bażanów, Aleksandra Pogorzelska and Anna Boczkowska
Polymers 2022, 14(15), 3025; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14153025 - 26 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2065
Abstract
The lack of resistance of plastic objects to various pathogens and their increasing activity in our daily life have made researchers develop polymeric materials with biocidal properties. Hence, this paper describes the thermoplastic composites of Polyamide 12 mixed with 1–5 wt % of [...] Read more.
The lack of resistance of plastic objects to various pathogens and their increasing activity in our daily life have made researchers develop polymeric materials with biocidal properties. Hence, this paper describes the thermoplastic composites of Polyamide 12 mixed with 1–5 wt % of the nanoparticles of zinc, copper, and titanium oxides prepared by a twin-screw extrusion process and injection moulding. A satisfactory biocidal activity of polyamide 12 nanocomposites was obtained thanks to homogenously dispersed metal oxides in the polymer matrix and the wettability of the metal oxides by PA12. At 4 wt % of the metal oxides, the contact angles were the lowest and it resulted in obtaining the highest reduction rate of the Escherichia coli (87%), Candida albicans (53%), and Herpes simplex 1 (90%). The interactions of the nanocomposites with the fibroblasts show early apoptosis (11.85–27.79%), late apoptosis (0.81–5.04%), and necrosis (0.18–0.31%), which confirms the lack of toxicity of used metal oxides. Moreover, the used oxides affect slightly the thermal and rheological properties of PA12, which was determined by oscillatory rheology, thermogravimetric analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Polymer Materials with Antibacterial Properties)
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21 pages, 10953 KiB  
Article
Fabrication of Silver Nanoparticles Using Cordyline fruticosa L. Leave Extract Endowing Silk Fibroin Modified Viscose Fabric with Durable Antibacterial Property
by Ngoc-Thang Nguyen and Thi-Lan-Huong Vo
Polymers 2022, 14(12), 2409; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14122409 - 14 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2541
Abstract
The current work presented a green synthetic route for the fabrication of silver nanoparticles obtained from aqueous solutions of silver nitrate using Cordyline fruticosa L. leaf extract (Col) as a reducing and capping agent for the first time. The bio-synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgCol) [...] Read more.
The current work presented a green synthetic route for the fabrication of silver nanoparticles obtained from aqueous solutions of silver nitrate using Cordyline fruticosa L. leaf extract (Col) as a reducing and capping agent for the first time. The bio-synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgCol) were investigated using UV–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The obtained data demonstrated that AgCol in spherical shape with an average size of 28.5 nm were highly crystalline and well capped by phytocompounds from the Col extract. Moreover, the bio-synthesized AgCol also exhibited the effective antibacterial activities against six pathogenic bacteria, including Escherichia coli (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), Salmonella enterica (S. enterica), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) and Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis). The AgCol were applied as an antibacterial finishing agent for viscose fabric using a pad-dry curing technique. The AgCol-treated viscose fabrics exhibited a good synergistic antimicrobial activity against E. coli and S. aureus bacteria. Furthermore, the silk fibroin regenerated from Bombyx mori cocoon waste was utilized as an ecofriendly binder for the immobilization of AgCol on the viscose fabric. Thus, the antimicrobial efficacy of the AgCol and fibroin modified viscose fabric still reached 99.99% against the tested bacteria, even after 30 washing cycles. The colorimetric property, morphology, elemental composition, and distribution of AgCol on the treated fabrics were investigated using several analysis tools, including colorimetry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), Kjeldahl, and FTIR. Because of the excellent antimicrobial efficiency and laundering durability, as well as the green synthesis method, the AgCol and fibroin modified viscose fabric could be utilized as an antibacterial material in sportswear and medical textile applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Polymer Materials with Antibacterial Properties)
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29 pages, 6185 KiB  
Article
Antimicrobial Biomaterial on Sutures, Bandages and Face Masks with Potential for Infection Control
by Zehra Edis, Samir Haj Bloukh, Hamed Abu Sara and Nur Izyan Wan Azelee
Polymers 2022, 14(10), 1932; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14101932 - 10 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1957
Abstract
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a challenge for the survival of the human race. The steady rise of resistant microorganisms against the common antimicrobials results in increased morbidity and mortality rates. Iodine and a plethora of plant secondary metabolites inhibit microbial proliferation. Antiseptic iodophors [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a challenge for the survival of the human race. The steady rise of resistant microorganisms against the common antimicrobials results in increased morbidity and mortality rates. Iodine and a plethora of plant secondary metabolites inhibit microbial proliferation. Antiseptic iodophors and many phytochemicals are unaffected by AMR. Surgical site and wound infections can be prevented or treated by utilizing such compounds on sutures and bandages. Coating surgical face masks with these antimicrobials can reduce microbial infections and attenuate their burden on the environment by re-use. The facile combination of Aloe Vera Barbadensis Miller (AV), Trans-cinnamic acid (TCA) and Iodine (I2) encapsulated in a polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) matrix seems a promising alternative to common antimicrobials. The AV-PVP-TCA-I2 formulation was impregnated into sterile discs, medical gauze bandages, surgical sutures and face masks. Morphology, purity and composition were confirmed by several analytical methods. Antimicrobial activity of AV-PVP-TCA-I2 was investigated by disc diffusion methods against ten microbial strains in comparison to gentamycin and nystatin. AV-PVP-TCA-I2 showed excellent antifungal and strong to intermediate antibacterial activities against most of the selected pathogens, especially in bandages and face masks. The title compound has potential use for prevention or treatment of surgical site and wound infections. Coating disposable face masks with AV-PVP-TCA-I2 may be a sustainable solution for their re-use and waste management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Polymer Materials with Antibacterial Properties)
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13 pages, 3311 KiB  
Article
Synthetic Polypeptides with Cationic Arginine Moieties Showing High Antimicrobial Activity in Similar Mineral Environments to Blood Plasma
by Kuen Hee Eom, Shuwei Li, Eun Gyeong Lee, Jae Ho Kim, Jung Rae Kim and Il Kim
Polymers 2022, 14(9), 1868; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14091868 - 02 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1933
Abstract
Translocation of cell-penetrating peptides is promoted by incorporated arginine or other guanidinium groups. However, relatively little research has considered the role of these functional groups on antimicrobial peptide activity. A series of cationic linear-, star- and multi-branched-poly(L-arginine-co-L-phenylalanine) [...] Read more.
Translocation of cell-penetrating peptides is promoted by incorporated arginine or other guanidinium groups. However, relatively little research has considered the role of these functional groups on antimicrobial peptide activity. A series of cationic linear-, star- and multi-branched-poly(L-arginine-co-L-phenylalanine) have been synthesized via the ring-opening copolymerizations of corresponding N-carboxyanhydride monomers followed by further modifications using the N-heterocyclic carbene organocatalyst. All the polymers are characterized by the random coiled microstructure. Antibacterial efficacy, tested by the gram-positive B. subtilis bacteria and the gram-negative E. coli bacteria, was sensitive to the structure and relative composition of the copolymer and increased in the order of linear- < star- < multi-branched structure. The multi-branched-p[(L-arginine)23-co-(L-phenylalanine)7]8 polymer showed the best antibacterial property with the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration values of 48 μg mL−1 for E. coli and 32 μg mL−1 for B. subtilis. The efficacy was prominent for B. subtilis due to the anionic nature of its membrane. All of the resultant arginine moiety-containing polypeptides showed excellent blood compatibility. The antibiotic effect of the copolymers with arginine moieties was retained even in the environment bearing Ca2+, Mg2+, and Na+ ions similar to blood plasma. The cationic arginine-bearing copolypeptides were also effective for the sterilization of naturally occurring sources of water such as lakes, seas, rain, and sewage, showing a promising range of applicability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Polymer Materials with Antibacterial Properties)
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18 pages, 4049 KiB  
Article
Probiotic-Mediated Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Their Antibacterial Applications against Pathogenic Strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7
by Xiaoqing Wang, Sun-Young Lee, Shahina Akter and Md. Amdadul Huq
Polymers 2022, 14(9), 1834; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14091834 - 29 Apr 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2287
Abstract
The present study aimed to suggest a simple and environmentally friendly biosynthesis method of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using the strain Bacillus sonorensis MAHUQ-74 isolated from kimchi. Antibacterial activity and mechanisms of AgNPs against antibiotic-resistant pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 were investigated. The [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to suggest a simple and environmentally friendly biosynthesis method of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using the strain Bacillus sonorensis MAHUQ-74 isolated from kimchi. Antibacterial activity and mechanisms of AgNPs against antibiotic-resistant pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 were investigated. The strain MAHUQ-74 had 99.93% relatedness to the B. sonorensis NBRC 101234T strain. The biosynthesized AgNPs had a strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak at 430 nm. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) image shows the spherical shape and size of the synthesized AgNPs is 13 to 50 nm. XRD analysis and SAED pattern revealed the crystal structure of biosynthesized AgNPs. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) data showed various functional groups associated with the reduction of silver ions to AgNPs. The resultant AgNPs showed strong antibacterial activity against nine E. coli O157:H7 pathogens. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the AgNPs synthesized by strain MAHUQ-74 were 3.12 μg/mL for eight E. coli O157:H7 strains and 12.5 μg/mL for strain E. coli ATCC 25922. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were 25 μg/mL for E. coli O157:H7 ATCC 35150, E. coli O157:H7 ATCC 43895, E. coli O157:H7 ATCC 43890, E. coli O157:H7 ATCC 43889, and E. coli ATCC 25922; and 50 μg/mL for E. coli O157:H7 2257, E. coli O157: NM 3204-92, E. coli O157:H7 8624 and E. coli O157:H7 ATCC 43894. FE-SEM analysis demonstrated that the probiotic-mediated synthesized AgNPs produced structural and morphological changes and destroyed the membrane integrity of pathogenic E. coli O157:H7. Therefore, AgNPs synthesized by strain MAHUQ-74 may be potential antibacterial agents for the control of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic strains of E. coli O157:H7. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Polymer Materials with Antibacterial Properties)
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20 pages, 3457 KiB  
Article
Biogenic Synthesis and Characterization of Chitosan-CuO Nanocomposite and Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity against Gram-Positive and -Negative Bacteria
by Peace Saviour Umoren, Doga Kavaz, Alexis Nzila, Saravanan Sankaran Sankaran and Saviour A. Umoren
Polymers 2022, 14(9), 1832; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14091832 - 29 Apr 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2192
Abstract
Chitosan-copper oxide (CHT-CuO) nanocomposite was synthesized using olive leaf extract (OLE) as reducing agent and CuSO4⋅5H2O as precursor. CHT-CuO nanocomposite was prepared using an in situ method in which OLE was added to a solution of chitosan and CuSO [...] Read more.
Chitosan-copper oxide (CHT-CuO) nanocomposite was synthesized using olive leaf extract (OLE) as reducing agent and CuSO4⋅5H2O as precursor. CHT-CuO nanocomposite was prepared using an in situ method in which OLE was added to a solution of chitosan and CuSO4⋅5H2O mixture in the ratio of 1:5 (v/v) and heated at a temperature of 90 °C. The obtained CHT-CuO nanocomposite was characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM results indicated that CHT-CuO nanocomposite are spherical in shape with size ranging from 3.5 to 6.0 nm. Antibacterial activity of the synthesized nanocomposites was evaluated against Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Staphyloccous haemolytica and Micrococcus Luteus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas citronellolis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, kliebisella sp., Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Ralstonia pickettii) species by cup platting or disc diffusion method. Overall, against all tested bacterial strains, the diameters of the inhibition zone of the three nanocomposites fell between 6 and 24 mm, and the order of the antimicrobial activity was as follows: CuO-1.0 > CuO-0.5 > CuO-2.0. The reference antibiotic amoxicillin and ciprofloxacin showed greater activity based on the diameter of zones of inhibition (between 15–32 mm) except for S. heamolytica and P. citronellolis bacteria strains. The nanocomposites MIC/MBC were between 0.1 and 0.01% against all tested bacteria, except S. heamolityca (>0.1%). Based on MIC/MBC values, CuO-0.5 and CuO-1.0 were more active than CuO-2.0, in line with the observations from the disc diffusion experiment. The findings indicate that these nanocomposites are efficacious against bacteria; however, Gram-positive bacteria were less susceptible. The synthesized CHT-CuO nanocomposite shows promising antimicrobial activities and could be utilized as an antibacterial agent in packaging and medical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Polymer Materials with Antibacterial Properties)
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16 pages, 4338 KiB  
Article
Gelatin/Chitosan Films Incorporated with Curcumin Based on Photodynamic Inactivation Technology for Antibacterial Food Packaging
by Fan Wang, Ronghan Wang, Yingjie Pan, Ming Du, Yong Zhao and Haiquan Liu
Polymers 2022, 14(8), 1600; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14081600 - 14 Apr 2022
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 2810
Abstract
Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) is a new type of non-thermal sterilization technology that combines visible light with photosensitizers to generate a bioactive effect against foodborne pathogenic bacteria. In the present investigation, gelatin (GEL)/chitosan (CS)-based functional films with PDI potency were prepared by incorporating curcumin [...] Read more.
Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) is a new type of non-thermal sterilization technology that combines visible light with photosensitizers to generate a bioactive effect against foodborne pathogenic bacteria. In the present investigation, gelatin (GEL)/chitosan (CS)-based functional films with PDI potency were prepared by incorporating curcumin (Cur) as a photosensitizer. The properties of GEL/CS/Cur (0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 mmol/L) films were investigated by evaluating the surface morphology, chemical structure, light transmittance, and mechanical properties, as well as the photochemical and thermal stability. The results showed a strong interaction and good compatibility between the molecules present in the GEL/CS/Cur films. The addition of Cur improved different film characteristics, including thickness, mechanical properties, and solubility. More importantly, when Cur was present at a concentration of 0.1 mM, the curcumin-mediated PDI inactivated >4.5 Log CFU/mL (>99.99%) of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, and Shewanella putrefaciens after 70 min (15.96 J/cm2) of irradiation with blue LED (455 ± 5) nm. Moreover, Listeria monocytogenes and Shewanella putrefaciens were completely inactivated after 70 min of light exposure when the Cur concentration was 0.2 mM. In contrast, the highest inactivation effect was observed in Vibrio parahaemolyticus. This study showed that the inclusion of Cur in the biopolymer-based film transport system in combination with photodynamic activation represents a promising option for the preparation of food packaging films. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Polymer Materials with Antibacterial Properties)
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Review

Jump to: Research

24 pages, 4630 KiB  
Review
Recent Advances of Natural-Polymer-Based Hydrogels for Wound Antibacterial Therapeutics
by Yue Zhao, Xiaoyu Wang, Ruilian Qi and Huanxiang Yuan
Polymers 2023, 15(15), 3305; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15153305 - 04 Aug 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1920
Abstract
Hydrogels have a three-dimensional network structure and high-water content, are similar in structure to the extracellular matrix, and are often used as wound dressings. Natural polymers have excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability and are commonly utilized to prepare hydrogels. Natural-polymer-based hydrogels can have excellent [...] Read more.
Hydrogels have a three-dimensional network structure and high-water content, are similar in structure to the extracellular matrix, and are often used as wound dressings. Natural polymers have excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability and are commonly utilized to prepare hydrogels. Natural-polymer-based hydrogels can have excellent antibacterial and bioactive properties by loading antibacterial agents or being combined with therapeutics such as phototherapy, which has great advantages in the field of treatment of microbial infections. In the published reviews of hydrogels used in the treatment of infectious wounds, the common classification criteria of hydrogels include function, source of antibacterial properties, type of antibacterial agent, etc. However, there are few reviews on the classification of hydrogels based on raw materials, and the description of natural-polymer-based hydrogels is not comprehensive and detailed. In this paper, based on the principle of material classification, the characteristics of seven types of natural polymers that can be used to prepare hydrogels are discussed, respectively, and the application of natural-polymer-based hydrogels in the treatment of infectious wounds is described in detail. Finally, the research status, limitations, and prospects of natural-polymer-based hydrogels are briefly discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Polymer Materials with Antibacterial Properties)
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19 pages, 2535 KiB  
Review
Chitosan-Coated Polymeric Silver and Gold Nanoparticles: Biosynthesis, Characterization and Potential Antibacterial Applications: A Review
by Md. Amdadul Huq, Md. Ashrafudoulla, Md. Anowar Khasru Parvez, Sri Renukadevi Balusamy, Md. Mizanur Rahman, Ji Hyung Kim and Shahina Akter
Polymers 2022, 14(23), 5302; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14235302 - 04 Dec 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2446
Abstract
Biosynthesized metal nanoparticles, especially silver and gold nanoparticles, and their conjugates with biopolymers have immense potential in various fields of science due to their enormous applications, including biomedical applications. Polymeric nanoparticles are particles of small sizes from 1 nm to 1000 nm. Among [...] Read more.
Biosynthesized metal nanoparticles, especially silver and gold nanoparticles, and their conjugates with biopolymers have immense potential in various fields of science due to their enormous applications, including biomedical applications. Polymeric nanoparticles are particles of small sizes from 1 nm to 1000 nm. Among different polymeric nanoparticles, chitosan-coated silver and gold nanoparticles have gained significant interest from researchers due to their various biomedical applications, such as anti-cancer, antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, anti-inflammatory technologies, as well as targeted drug delivery, etc. Multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria have become a serious threat to public health day by day. Novel, effective, and safe antibacterial agents are required to control these multidrug-resistant pathogenic microorganisms. Chitosan-coated silver and gold nanoparticles could be effective and safe agents for controlling these pathogens. It is proven that both chitosan and silver or gold nanoparticles have strong antibacterial activity. By the conjugation of biopolymer chitosan with silver or gold nanoparticles, the stability and antibacterial efficacy against multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria will be increased significantly, as well as their toxicity in humans being decreased. In recent years, chitosan-coated silver and gold nanoparticles have been increasingly investigated due to their potential applications in nanomedicine. This review discusses the biologically facile, rapid, and ecofriendly synthesis of chitosan-coated silver and gold nanoparticles; their characterization; and potential antibacterial applications against multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Polymer Materials with Antibacterial Properties)
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22 pages, 3867 KiB  
Review
Green Synthesis and Potential Antibacterial Applications of Bioactive Silver Nanoparticles: A Review
by Md. Amdadul Huq, Md. Ashrafudoulla, M. Mizanur Rahman, Sri Renukadevi Balusamy and Shahina Akter
Polymers 2022, 14(4), 742; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14040742 - 15 Feb 2022
Cited by 116 | Viewed by 7566
Abstract
Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using biological resources is the most facile, economical, rapid, and environmentally friendly method that mitigates the drawbacks of chemical and physical methods. Various biological resources such as plants and their different parts, bacteria, fungi, algae, etc. could [...] Read more.
Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using biological resources is the most facile, economical, rapid, and environmentally friendly method that mitigates the drawbacks of chemical and physical methods. Various biological resources such as plants and their different parts, bacteria, fungi, algae, etc. could be utilized for the green synthesis of bioactive AgNPs. In recent years, several green approaches for non-toxic, rapid, and facile synthesis of AgNPs using biological resources have been reported. Plant extract contains various biomolecules, including flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, and vitamins that act as reducing and capping agents during the biosynthesis process. Similarly, microorganisms produce different primary and secondary metabolites that play a crucial role as reducing and capping agents during synthesis. Biosynthesized AgNPs have gained significant attention from the researchers because of their potential applications in different fields of biomedical science. The widest application of AgNPs is their bactericidal activity. Due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant microorganisms, researchers are exploring the therapeutic abilities of AgNPs as potential antibacterial agents. Already, various reports have suggested that biosynthesized AgNPs have exhibited significant antibacterial action against numerous human pathogens. Because of their small size and large surface area, AgNPs have the ability to easily penetrate bacterial cell walls, damage cell membranes, produce reactive oxygen species, and interfere with DNA replication as well as protein synthesis, and result in cell death. This paper provides an overview of the green, facile, and rapid synthesis of AgNPs using biological resources and antibacterial use of biosynthesized AgNPs, highlighting their antibacterial mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Polymer Materials with Antibacterial Properties)
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