Functional Alginate-Based Materials III

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomacromolecules, Biobased and Biodegradable Polymers".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2024 | Viewed by 12365

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Guest Editor
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Seobu-ro 2066, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 16419, Republic of Korea
Interests: hydrogels; polyphenols; hemostasis; tissue-adhesive; polymeric biomaterials
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Alginate is a natural polysaccharide derived from brown seaweed that has been used in a variety of applications in the biomedical, energy, and industrial fields, including in food, textile printing, and others. This Special Issue will highlight new polymeric formulations consisting of alginate or chemically modified alginate for (1) diverse biomedical research, such as that into controllable drug delivery, enhanced tissue sealing, and therapeutic responses applicable for acute/chronic diseases; and (2) industrial manufacturing (e.g., 3D/4D printing). The articles will focus on preparation methods and the unique physicochemical properties and mechanical stability of these alginate formulations (e.g., hydrogels, films, and particles), as well as descriptions of their multi-functionality for further design applications.

Dr. Mikyung Shin
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • alginate
  • polysaccharide
  • formulations
  • multi-functionality
  • biomedical applications
  • manufacturing

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 4573 KiB  
Article
Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis and Empirical Evaluation of Carboxymethylcellulose/Alginate 3D Bioprinting Inks for Screw-Based Microextrusion
by Sungmin Lee, Minjae Son, Juo Lee, Iksong Byun, Jin-Woo Kim, Jungsil Kim and Hoon Seonwoo
Polymers 2024, 16(8), 1137; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym16081137 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 305
Abstract
Three-dimensional microextrusion bioprinting technology uses pneumatics, pistons, or screws to transfer and extrude bioinks containing biomaterials and cells to print biological tissues and organs. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis can simulate the flow characteristics of bioinks in a control volume, and the effect [...] Read more.
Three-dimensional microextrusion bioprinting technology uses pneumatics, pistons, or screws to transfer and extrude bioinks containing biomaterials and cells to print biological tissues and organs. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis can simulate the flow characteristics of bioinks in a control volume, and the effect on cell viability can be predicted by calculating the physical quantities. In this study, we developed an analysis system to predict the effect of a screw-based dispenser system (SDS) on cell viability in bioinks through rheological and CFD analyses. Furthermore, carboxymethylcellulose/alginate-based bioinks were used for the empirical evaluation of high-viscous bioinks. The viscosity of bioinks was determined by rheological measurement, and the viscosity coefficient for the CFD analysis was derived from a correlation equation by non-linear regression analysis. The mass flow rate derived from the analysis was successfully validated by comparison with that from the empirical evaluation. Finally, the cell viability was confirmed after bioprinting with bioinks containing C2C12 cells, suggesting that the developed SDS may be suitable for application in the field of bioengineering. Consequently, the developed bioink analysis system is applicable to a wide range of systems and materials, contributing to time and cost savings in the bioengineering industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Alginate-Based Materials III)
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15 pages, 4591 KiB  
Article
Coloration on Bluish Alginate Films with Amorphous Heterogeneity Thereof
by Soo-Yeon Yang, Dong-Soo Kang and Chang-Yull Lee
Polymers 2023, 15(17), 3627; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15173627 - 01 Sep 2023
Viewed by 973
Abstract
Using sodium alginate (Alg) aqueous solution containing indigo carmine (IdC) at various concentrations we characterized the rippled surface pattern with micro-spacing on a flexible film as intriguing bluish Alg–IdC iridescence. The characterization was performed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, field emission scanning [...] Read more.
Using sodium alginate (Alg) aqueous solution containing indigo carmine (IdC) at various concentrations we characterized the rippled surface pattern with micro-spacing on a flexible film as intriguing bluish Alg–IdC iridescence. The characterization was performed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction analysis, and photoluminescence detection. The edge pattern on the film had a maximum depth of 825 nm, a peak-to-peak distance of 63.0 nm, and an average distance of 2.34 nm. The center of the pattern had a maximum depth of 343 nm and a peak-to-peak distance of 162 nm. The pattern spacing rippled irregularly, widening toward the center and narrowing toward the edges. The rippled nano-patterned areas effectively generated iridescence. The ultraviolet absorption spectra of the mixture in the 270 and 615 nm ranges were the same for both the iridescent and non-iridescent film surfaces. By adding Ag+ ions to Alg–IdC, self-assembled microspheres were formed, and conductivity was improved. Cross-linked bluish materials were immediately formed by the addition of Ca2+ ions, and the film was prepared by controlling their concentration. This flexible film can be used in applications such as eco-friendly camouflage, anti-counterfeiting, QR code materials for imaging/sensing, and smart hybrid displays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Alginate-Based Materials III)
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11 pages, 1312 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Properties of Alginate Hydrogels Cross-Linked with Multivalent Cations
by Haniyeh Malektaj, Aleksey D. Drozdov and Jesper deClaville Christiansen
Polymers 2023, 15(14), 3012; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15143012 - 12 Jul 2023
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 5241
Abstract
Ionically, cross-linked alginate gels have a potential to be used in a wide range of biomedical, environmental and catalytic applications. The study deals with preparation of alginate hydrogels cross-linked with various cations and the analysis of their equilibrium swelling and mechanical properties. It [...] Read more.
Ionically, cross-linked alginate gels have a potential to be used in a wide range of biomedical, environmental and catalytic applications. The study deals with preparation of alginate hydrogels cross-linked with various cations and the analysis of their equilibrium swelling and mechanical properties. It is shown that the type of cations used in the cross-linking process affects the elastic moduli and the equilibrium degree of swelling of the gels. The experimental data in small-amplitude oscillatory tests are fitted with a model that involves two material parameters: the elastic modulus of a polymer network and a measure of its inhomogeneity. The influence of cations on these quantities is studied numerically. It is revealed that the dependence of the elastic modulus of ionically cross-linked alginate gels on their equilibrium degree of swelling differs from that predicted by the conventional theory for covalently cross-linked gels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Alginate-Based Materials III)
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24 pages, 4509 KiB  
Article
Formulation and In-Vitro/Ex-Vivo Characterization of Pregelled Hybrid Alginate–Chitosan Microparticles for Ocular Delivery of Ketorolac Tromethamine
by Zeinab Fathalla, Adel Al Fatease and Hamdy Abdelkader
Polymers 2023, 15(13), 2773; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15132773 - 21 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 807
Abstract
Innovative hybrid chitosan–sodium alginate (Ch–Ag) microparticles (MPs) were fabricated using both the ionic gelation method as well as the pre-gelation technique. The hybrid Ch–Ag MPs were studied for size, zeta potential, morphology, mucoadhesion, in-vitro release, corneal permeation, and ocular irritation using lens and [...] Read more.
Innovative hybrid chitosan–sodium alginate (Ch–Ag) microparticles (MPs) were fabricated using both the ionic gelation method as well as the pre-gelation technique. The hybrid Ch–Ag MPs were studied for size, zeta potential, morphology, mucoadhesion, in-vitro release, corneal permeation, and ocular irritation using lens and corneal epithelial cell lines. The average particle size ranged from 1322 nm to 396 nm. The zeta potential for the prepared formulations showed an increase with increasing Ch concentrations up to a value of >35 mV; the polydispersity index (PDI) of some optimized MPs was around 0.1. Compared to drug-free MPs, ketorolac-loaded Ch–Ag MPs demonstrated a drug proportion-dependent increase in their size. SEM, as well as TEM of KT-loaded MPs, confirmed that the formed particles were quasi-spherical to elliptical in shape. The KT release from the MPs demonstrated a prolonged release profile in comparison to the control KT solution. Further, mucoadhesion studies with porcine mucin revealed that the KT-loaded MPs had effective mucoadhesive properties, and polymeric particles were stable in the presence of mucin. Corneal permeation was studied on bovine eyes, and the results revealed that Ch-based MPs were capable of showing more sustained KT release across the cornea compared with that for the control drug solution. Conclusively, the cytotoxicity assay confirmed that the investigated MPs were non-irritant and could confer protection from direct drug irritation of KT on the ocular surface. The MTT cytotoxicity assay confirmed that KT-loaded MPs showed acceptable and reasonable tolerability with both human lens and corneal epithelial cell lines compared to the control samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Alginate-Based Materials III)
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19 pages, 4678 KiB  
Article
CuO Nanorods Immobilized Agar-Alginate Biopolymer: A Green Functional Material for Photocatalytic Degradation of Amaranth Dye
by Akshara Bassi, Kushal Qanungo, Imran Hasan, Alanoud Abdullah Alshayiqi, Alanood Sulaiman Ababtain and Fahad A. Alharthi
Polymers 2023, 15(3), 553; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15030553 - 21 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1543
Abstract
The contamination of water is increasing day by day due to the increase of urbanization and population. Textile industries contribute to this by discarding their waste directly into water streams without proper treatment. A recent study explores the treatment potential of copper oxide [...] Read more.
The contamination of water is increasing day by day due to the increase of urbanization and population. Textile industries contribute to this by discarding their waste directly into water streams without proper treatment. A recent study explores the treatment potential of copper oxide nanorods (CuO NRs) synthesized on a green basis in the presence of a biopolymer matrix of agar (AA) and alginate (Alg), in terms of cost effectiveness and environmental impact. The synthesized bio nanocomposite (BNC) was characterized by using different instrumental techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultra-violet spectroscopy (UV-Vis), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray-elemental analysis (SEM-EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area diffraction pattern (SAED) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The optical studies revealed that immobilization of CuO NRs with Alg-Agar biopolymer blend resulted in an increase in light absorption capacity by decreasing the energy bandgap from 2.53 eV to 2.37 eV. The bio nanocomposite was utilized as a photocatalyst for the degradation of amaranth (AN) dye from an aquatic environment under visible light irradiation. A statistical tool known as central composite design (CCD) associated with response surface methodology (RSM) was taken into consideration to evaluate the optimized values of process variables and their synergistic effect on photocatalytic efficiency. The optimized values of process variables were found to be irradiation time (45 min), AN concentration (80 ppm), catalyst dose (20 mg), and pH (4), resulting in 95.69% of dye degradation at 95% confidence level with desirability level 1. The rate of AN degradation was best defined by pseudo-first-order reaction based on the correlation coefficient value (R2 = 0.99) suggesting the establishment of adsorption-desorption equilibrium initially at the catalyst surface then photogenerated O2 radicals interacting with AN molecule to mineralize them into small non-toxic entities like CO2, H2O. The material used has high efficiency and stability in photocatalytic degradation experiments up to four cycles of reusability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Alginate-Based Materials III)
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15 pages, 2727 KiB  
Article
Stretchable Surface Electrode Arrays Using an Alginate/PEDOT:PSS-Based Conductive Hydrogel for Conformal Brain Interfacing
by Sungjun Lee, Kyuha Park, Jeungeun Kum, Soojung An, Ki Jun Yu, Hyungmin Kim, Mikyung Shin and Donghee Son
Polymers 2023, 15(1), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15010084 - 25 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2890
Abstract
An electrocorticogram (ECoG) is the electrical activity obtainable from the cerebral cortex and an informative source with considerable potential for future advanced applications in various brain-interfacing technologies. Considerable effort has been devoted to developing biocompatible, conformal, soft, and conductive interfacial materials for bridging [...] Read more.
An electrocorticogram (ECoG) is the electrical activity obtainable from the cerebral cortex and an informative source with considerable potential for future advanced applications in various brain-interfacing technologies. Considerable effort has been devoted to developing biocompatible, conformal, soft, and conductive interfacial materials for bridging devices and brain tissue; however, the implementation of brain-adaptive materials with optimized electrical and mechanical characteristics remains challenging. Herein, we present surface electrode arrays using the soft tough ionic conductive hydrogel (STICH). The newly proposed STICH features brain-adaptive softness with Young’s modulus of ~9.46 kPa, which is sufficient to form a conformal interface with the cortex. Additionally, the STICH has high toughness of ~36.85 kJ/mm3, highlighting its robustness for maintaining the solid structure during interfacing with wet brain tissue. The stretchable metal electrodes with a wavy pattern printed on the elastomer were coated with the STICH as an interfacial layer, resulting in an improvement of the impedance from 60 kΩ to 10 kΩ at 1 kHz after coating. Acute in vivo experiments for ECoG monitoring were performed in anesthetized rodents, thereby successfully realizing conformal interfacing to the animal’s cortex and the sensitive recording of electrical activity using the STICH-coated electrodes, which exhibited a higher visual-evoked potential (VEP) amplitude than that of the control device. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Alginate-Based Materials III)
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