Bio-Based Polymers: Preparation, Characterization and Applications

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomacromolecules, Biobased and Biodegradable Polymers".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2024 | Viewed by 4855

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Chemistry and Biochemistry Department, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX, USA
Interests: polymers; material synthesis and characterization; protein misfolding; neurodegenerative disorders; oxidative stress; tissue engineering and toxicology

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Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP), El Paso, TX 79968, USA
Interests: protein folding; docking; halogen bonding; reactive oxygen species; neurodegenerative disorders; drug-discovery; chemical education
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Biodegradable polymers (biopolymers), together with nanotechnology, have found broad applications in the biomedical and pharmaceutical world. Biopolymeric systems include, but are not limited to, hydrogels, stimuli-responsive polymers, polymeric nanomaterials, liposomes, nanocomposites, scaffolds, polymeric micelles, dendrimers, and graft co-polymers, which mostly have therapeutic or diagnostic applications. These biopolymers have been the focus of recent research, owing to their excellent properties, such as low toxicity, biodegradability, biocompatibility, and stability. These polymers have a multifaceted role, as they can function as matrix formers, emulsifiers, solubilizers (excipients), viscosity enhancers, drug release modifiers, gelling agents, and bio adhesives. Biopolymers play an important role in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering, as these can be degraded to non-toxic components inside the body. However, a more in-depth understanding of the surface and bulk properties of these polymers is crucial in expanding their use in pharmaceutical and medicinal industries. Therefore, this Special Issue invites authors to contribute their most recent findings and innovations in this budding area of research.

Dr. Jyoti Ahlawat
Prof. Dr. Mahesh Narayan
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • polymers
  • biodegradable
  • physicochemical properties
  • therapeutic and diagnostic applications
  • tissue engineering
  • diseases
  • regenerative medicine

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

18 pages, 6319 KiB  
Article
Long-Chain Bio-Based Nylon 514 Salt: Crystal Structure, Phase Transformation, and Polymerization
by Zihan Li, Lei Zhang, Xiaohan Zhang, Tianpeng Chen, Pengpeng Yang, Yong Chen, Huajie Lin, Wei Zhuang, Jinglan Wu and Hanjie Ying
Polymers 2024, 16(4), 480; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym16040480 - 8 Feb 2024
Viewed by 755
Abstract
Nylon 514 is one of the new long-chain bio-based nylon materials; its raw material, 1,5-pentanediamine (PDA), is prepared by biological techniques, using biomass as the raw material. The high-performance monomer of nylon 514, 1,5-pentanediamine-tetradecanedioate (PDA-TDA) salt, was obtained through efficient crystallization methods. Here, [...] Read more.
Nylon 514 is one of the new long-chain bio-based nylon materials; its raw material, 1,5-pentanediamine (PDA), is prepared by biological techniques, using biomass as the raw material. The high-performance monomer of nylon 514, 1,5-pentanediamine-tetradecanedioate (PDA-TDA) salt, was obtained through efficient crystallization methods. Here, two crystal forms of PDA-TDA, anhydrous and dihydrate, were identified and studied in this paper. From the characterization data, their crystal structures and thermal behaviors were investigated. Lattice energy was calculated to gain further insight into the relationship between thermal stability and crystal structures. The contribution of hydrogen bonds and other intermolecular interactions to the crystal structure stability have been quantified according to detailed Hirshfeld and IRI analyses. Additionally, the transformation mechanism of the anhydrate and dihydrate was established through a series of well-designed stability experiments, in which the temperature and water activity play a significant role in the structural stability of crystalline forms. Eventually, we obtained nylon 514 products with good thermal stability and low absorption using stable dihydrate powders as monomers. The properties of nylon 514 products prepared by different polymerization methods were also compared. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Based Polymers: Preparation, Characterization and Applications)
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15 pages, 7208 KiB  
Article
Development of an In Situ Photo-Crosslinking Antimicrobial Collagen Hydrogel for the Treatment of Infected Wounds
by Song-Yi Wu and Wei-Bor Tsai
Polymers 2023, 15(24), 4701; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15244701 - 13 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1087
Abstract
Antimicrobial hydrogels have received considerable attention in the treatment of bacteria-infected wounds. Herein, we develop a neutral, soluble collagen via modification with maleic anhydride, serving as a hydrogel precursor. Maleic anhydride-modified collagen (ColME) could form a gel after exposure to UV light and [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial hydrogels have received considerable attention in the treatment of bacteria-infected wounds. Herein, we develop a neutral, soluble collagen via modification with maleic anhydride, serving as a hydrogel precursor. Maleic anhydride-modified collagen (ColME) could form a gel after exposure to UV light and be loaded with the antimicrobial agents, nisin and levofloxacin, to acquire antimicrobial ability. The ColME hydrogel containing nisin and levofloxacin had good cytocompatibility and effectively killed pathogenic bacterial strains, such as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The antimicrobial ColME hydrogels effectively supported the healing of a full-thickness skin wound infected with S. aureus in a mouse model. Our results demonstrate the potential of antimicrobial hydrogels as effective wound dressings via in situ photogelation for the healing of infected wounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Based Polymers: Preparation, Characterization and Applications)
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11 pages, 3789 KiB  
Article
Re-Assemblable, Recyclable, and Self-Healing Epoxy Resin Adhesive Based on Dynamic Boronic Esters
by Zhiyong Liu, Zhiguo Song, Benrong Lv and Zumin Qiu
Polymers 2023, 15(16), 3488; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15163488 - 21 Aug 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1185
Abstract
Thermosetting adhesives are commonly utilized in various applications. However, covalent cross-linked networks prevent thermosetting adhesives from being re-assembled, which necessitates higher machining precision. Additionally, the primary raw materials used in adhesive preparation are derived from non-renewable petroleum resources, which further constrain adhesive development. [...] Read more.
Thermosetting adhesives are commonly utilized in various applications. However, covalent cross-linked networks prevent thermosetting adhesives from being re-assembled, which necessitates higher machining precision. Additionally, the primary raw materials used in adhesive preparation are derived from non-renewable petroleum resources, which further constrain adhesive development. In this study, a recyclable adhesive was developed by incorporating dynamic boronic esters into epoxy resin derived from soybean oil. The successful synthesis of epoxidized soybean oil and boronic esters was confirmed through the analysis of proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra and differential scanning calorimetry results. Swelling tests and tensile curves demonstrated the presence of covalently cross-linked networks. Self-healing and reprocessing experiments indicated that the cross-linked network topology could be re-assembled under mild conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Based Polymers: Preparation, Characterization and Applications)
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12 pages, 2527 KiB  
Article
Electrochemistry Study of Bio-Based Composite Biopolymer Electrolyte—Starch/Cardol
by Alvaro A. Arrieta, Yamid Nuñez de la Rosa and Manuel Palencia
Polymers 2023, 15(9), 1994; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15091994 - 23 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1440
Abstract
The environmental problems generated by pollution due to polymers of petrochemical origin have led to the search for eco-friendly alternatives such as the development of biopolymers or bio-based polymers. The aim of this work was to evaluate the electrochemical behavior of a biopolymer [...] Read more.
The environmental problems generated by pollution due to polymers of petrochemical origin have led to the search for eco-friendly alternatives such as the development of biopolymers or bio-based polymers. The aim of this work was to evaluate the electrochemical behavior of a biopolymer composite made from cassava starch and cardol extracted from cashew nut shell liquid. The biopolymers were prepared using the thermochemical method, varying the synthesis pH and the cardol amounts. The biopolymers were synthesized in the form of films and characterized by cyclic voltamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The biopolymers showed a rich electroactivity, with three oxidation–reduction processes evidenced in the voltamperograms. On the other hand, the equivalent circuit corresponding to the impedance behavior of biopolymers integrated the processes of electron transfer resistance, electric double layer, redox reaction process, and resistance of the biopolymeric matrix. The results allowed us to conclude that the cardol content and the synthesis pH were factors that affect the electrochemical behavior of biopolymer composite films. Electrochemical processes in biopolymers were reversible and involved two-electron transfer and were diffusion-controlled processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Based Polymers: Preparation, Characterization and Applications)
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