Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This special issue belongs to the section "Phytochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2020) | Viewed by 135737

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor


E-Mail
Guest Editor
Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Siena, via Aldo Moro 2, 53100 Siena, Italy
Interests: drug discovery; natural products; bioactive molecules; functional foods; nutraceuticals; in vitro biological tests; carriers for bioactive molecules; bioactivity
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The journal Plants will be publishing a Special Issue on Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants. Plant extracts are extremely complex pools of phytochemicals and, together with their metabolites, are useful for a multitude of applications in different fields. Natural products from plants, either as pure compounds or as standardized extracts, provide unlimited opportunities for new drug leads because of the unmatched availability of chemical diversity. Their pharmacological interest is twofold: as a source of novel compounds that can be used as therapeutic agents able to overcome negative side effects of synthetic drugs, and as a model for the synthesis of new drugs with the best efficacy. Plant extracts, however, have an increasing importance also in the food market because they can be added in processed foods, contributing to the creation of an alternative to synthetic antioxidants, to improve food preservation and/or nutritional content, and to formulate functional products for people who need special diets. Even the cosmetic industry has an increasing interest in plant extracts. The inclusion of antioxidants in topical formulations can contribute to minimize oxidative stress in the skin, which has been associated with aging.

The use of plant extracts in all these areas depends on their bioactivity and, therefore, their composition, which is closely related to the extraction method. Extraction is in fact the most important step in plant extract preparations, and the use of different extraction techniques determines the bioactive compounds present. Since bioactive compounds occurring in plant material consist of multicomponent mixtures, their separation and identification are fundamental processes in the structural analysis of extracts. Finally, the analysis of the plant extracts and/or purified bioactive compounds, involving the applications of common phytochemical and in vitro biological screening assays, is essential for the correlation of structure with function of extracts in order to identify their bioactivity for targeted applications.

Thus, considering the great interest in plant extracts, this Special Issue will cover several aspects of their structural and functional analysis in order to correlate extraction techniques with chemical composition of extracts and their bioactivity for elucidating the characteristics of plant-derived compounds that might be used as active substances in a wide variety of areas.

Dr. Stefania Lamponi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Plants is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • plant extracts
  • phytochemicals
  • natural food additives
  • bioactive compounds
  • in vitro biological screenin

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (30 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

4 pages, 212 KiB  
Editorial
The importance of Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants
by Stefania Lamponi
Plants 2021, 10(6), 1225; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10061225 - 16 Jun 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1697
Abstract
Plants and their extracts have traditionally been used against various pathologies and in some regions are the only therapeutic source for the treatment and prevention of many chronic diseases [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

13 pages, 1271 KiB  
Article
Underutilized Mexican Plants: Screening of Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Properties of Mexican Cactus Fruit Juices
by Elda M. Melchor Martínez, Luisaldo Sandate-Flores, José Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Magdalena Rostro-Alanis, Lizeth Parra-Arroyo, Marilena Antunes-Ricardo, Sergio O. Serna-Saldívar, Hafiz M. N. Iqbal and Roberto Parra-Saldívar
Plants 2021, 10(2), 368; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10020368 - 14 Feb 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2767
Abstract
Cacti fruits are known to possess antioxidant and antiproliferative activities among other health benefits. The following paper evaluated the antioxidant capacity and bioactivity of five clarified juices from different cacti fruits (Stenocereus spp., Opuntia spp. and M. geomettizans) on four cancer [...] Read more.
Cacti fruits are known to possess antioxidant and antiproliferative activities among other health benefits. The following paper evaluated the antioxidant capacity and bioactivity of five clarified juices from different cacti fruits (Stenocereus spp., Opuntia spp. and M. geomettizans) on four cancer cell lines as well as one normal cell line. Their antioxidant compositions were measured by three different protocols. Their phenolic compositions were quantified through high performance liquid chromatography and the percentages of cell proliferation of fibroblasts as well as breast, prostate, colorectal, and liver cancer cell lines were evaluated though in vitro assays. The results were further processed by principal component analysis. The clarified juice from M. geomettizans fruit showed the highest concentration of total phenolic compounds and induced cell death in liver and colorectal cancer cells lines as well as fibroblasts. The clarified juice extracted from yellow Opuntia ficus-indica fruit displayed antioxidant activity as well as a selective cytotoxic effect on a liver cancer cell line with no toxic effect on fibroblasts. In conclusion, the work supplies evidence on the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities that cacti juices possess, presenting potential as cancer cell proliferation preventing agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 1936 KiB  
Article
Comparative Study of Anti-Gouty Arthritis Effects of Sam-Myo-Whan according to Extraction Solvents
by Yun Mi Lee, Eunjung Son and Dong-Seon Kim
Plants 2021, 10(2), 278; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10020278 - 1 Feb 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2487
Abstract
Sam-Myo-Whan (SMW) has been used in Korean and Chinese traditional medicine to help treat gout, by reducing swelling and inflammation and relieving pain. This study compared the effects of SMW extracted by using different solvents, water (SMWW) and 30% EtOH (SMWE), in the [...] Read more.
Sam-Myo-Whan (SMW) has been used in Korean and Chinese traditional medicine to help treat gout, by reducing swelling and inflammation and relieving pain. This study compared the effects of SMW extracted by using different solvents, water (SMWW) and 30% EtOH (SMWE), in the treatment of gouty arthritis. To this end, we analyzed the main components of SMWW and SMWE, using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Anti-hyperuricemic activity was evaluated by measuring serum uric acid levels in hyperuricemic rats. The effects of SMWW and SMWE on swelling, pain, and inflammation in gouty arthritis were investigated by measuring affected limb swelling and weight-bearing, as well as by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, to assess the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and myeloperoxidase (MPO). In potassium oxonate (PO)-induced hyperuricemic rats, SMWW and SMWE both significantly decreased serum uric acid to similar levels. In monosodium urate (MSU)-induced gouty arthritis mice, SMWE more efficiently decreased paw swelling and attenuated joint pain compare to SMWW. Moreover, SMWE and SMWW suppressed the level of inflammation by downregulating proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6) and MPO activity. HPLC analysis further revealed that berberine represented one of the major active ingredients demonstrating the greatest change in concentration between SMWW and SMWE. Our data demonstrate that SMWE retains a more effective therapeutic concentration compared to SMWW, in a mouse model of gouty arthritis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 1433 KiB  
Article
Chemical Profile, Antioxidant, Anti-Proliferative, Anticoagulant and Mutagenic Effects of a Hydroalcoholic Extract of Tuscan Rosmarinus officinalis
by Stefania Lamponi, Maria Camilla Baratto, Elisabetta Miraldi, Giulia Baini and Marco Biagi
Plants 2021, 10(1), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10010097 - 6 Jan 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3416
Abstract
This study aimed to characterize the chemical profile of an ethanolic extract of Tuscan Rosmarinus officinalis (Roex) and to determine its in vitro bioactivity. The content of phenolic and flavonoid compounds, hydroxycinnamic acids and triterpenoids was determined, and high-performance liquid chromatography-diode [...] Read more.
This study aimed to characterize the chemical profile of an ethanolic extract of Tuscan Rosmarinus officinalis (Roex) and to determine its in vitro bioactivity. The content of phenolic and flavonoid compounds, hydroxycinnamic acids and triterpenoids was determined, and high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) analysis revealed that rosmarinic acid and other hydroxycinnamic derivatives were the main constituents of the extract. Roex demonstrated to have both antioxidant activity and the capability to scavenge hydrogen peroxide in a concentration dependent manner. Moreover, NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts and human breast adenocarcinoma cells MDA-MB-231 viability was influenced by the extract with an IC50 of 2.4 × 10−1 mg/mL and 4.8 × 10−1 mg/mL, respectively. The addition of Roex to the culture medium of both the above cell lines, resulted also in the reduction of cell death after H2O2 pre-treatment. The Ames test demonstrated that Roex was not genotoxic towards both TA98 and TA100 strains, with and without S9 metabolic activation. The extract, by inactivating thrombin, showed to also have an anti-coagulating effect at low concentration values. All these biological activities exerted by Roex are tightly correlated to its phytochemical profile, rich in bioactive compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 1791 KiB  
Article
Application of Deep Eutectic Solvents for the Extraction of Carnosic Acid and Carnosol from Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) with Response Surface Methodology Optimization
by Martina Jakovljević, Stela Jokić, Maja Molnar and Igor Jerković
Plants 2021, 10(1), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10010080 - 2 Jan 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3011
Abstract
Salvia officinalis L. is a good source of antioxidant compounds such as phenolic diterpenes carnosic acid and carnosol. From 17 deep eutectic solvents (DESs) used, choline chloride: lactic acid (1:2 molar ratio) was found to be the most suitable for the extraction of [...] Read more.
Salvia officinalis L. is a good source of antioxidant compounds such as phenolic diterpenes carnosic acid and carnosol. From 17 deep eutectic solvents (DESs) used, choline chloride: lactic acid (1:2 molar ratio) was found to be the most suitable for the extraction of targeted compounds. The influence of H2O content, extraction time, and temperature (for stirring and heating and for ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE)), H2O content, extraction time, and vibration speed for mechanochemical extraction on the content of targeted compounds were investigated. Carnosic acid content obtained by the extraction assisted by stirring and heating was from 2.55 ± 0.04 to 14.43 ± 0.28 µg mg−1, for UAE it was from 1.62 ± 0.29 to 14.00 ± 0.02 µg mg−1, and for mechanochemical extraction the yield was from 1.80 ± 0.02 to 8.26 ± 0.45 µg mg−1. Determined carnosol content was in the range 0.81 ± 0.01 to 4.83 ± 0.09 µg mg−1 for the extraction with stirring and for UAE it was from 0.56 ± 0.02 to 4.18 ± 0.05 µg mg−1, and for mechanochemical extraction the yield was from 0.57 ± 0.11 to 2.01 ± 0.16 µg mg−1. Optimal extraction conditions determined by response surface methodology (RSM) were in accordance with experimentally demonstrated values. In comparison with previously published or own results using conventional solvents or supercritical CO2, used DES provided more efficient extraction of both targeted compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 1888 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Different Extraction Protocols on Brassica oleracea var. acephala Antioxidant Activity, Bioactive Compounds, and Sugar Profile
by Nikola Major, Bernard Prekalj, Josipa Perković, Dean Ban, Zoran Užila and Smiljana Goreta Ban
Plants 2020, 9(12), 1792; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9121792 - 17 Dec 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2928
Abstract
The extraction of glucosinolates in boiling aqueous methanol from freeze dried leaf tissues is the most common method for myrosinase inactivation but can be hazardous because of methanol toxicity. Although freeze drying is the best dehydration method in terms of nutritional quality preservation, [...] Read more.
The extraction of glucosinolates in boiling aqueous methanol from freeze dried leaf tissues is the most common method for myrosinase inactivation but can be hazardous because of methanol toxicity. Although freeze drying is the best dehydration method in terms of nutritional quality preservation, the main drawbacks are a limited sample quantity that can be processed simultaneously, a long processing time, and high energy consumption. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of applying high temperature for myrosinase inactivation via hot air drying prior to the extraction step, as well as the effects of cold aqueous methanol extraction on total antioxidant activity, total glucosinolates, total phenolic content, and sugar profile in 36 landraces of kale. The results from our study indicate that cold aqueous methanol can be used instead of boiling aqueous methanol with no adverse effects on total glucosinolate content. Our results also show that hot air drying, compared to freeze drying, followed by cold extraction has an adverse effect on antioxidant activity measured by DPPH radical scavenging, total glucosinolate content, as well as on the content of all investigated sugars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 1172 KiB  
Article
The Impact of the Method Extraction and Different Carrot Variety on the Carotenoid Profile, Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Properties of Juices
by Aleksandra Purkiewicz, Joanna Ciborska, Małgorzata Tańska, Agnieszka Narwojsz, Małgorzata Starowicz, Katarzyna E. Przybyłowicz and Tomasz Sawicki
Plants 2020, 9(12), 1759; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9121759 - 11 Dec 2020
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 4404
Abstract
The study assesses the antioxidant activity (AA), carotenoid profile and total phenolic content (TPC) of carrot juices obtained from three different varieties (black, orange and yellow) and prepared using high- (HSJ) and low-speed juicer (LSJ). The AA assessment was carried out using four [...] Read more.
The study assesses the antioxidant activity (AA), carotenoid profile and total phenolic content (TPC) of carrot juices obtained from three different varieties (black, orange and yellow) and prepared using high- (HSJ) and low-speed juicer (LSJ). The AA assessment was carried out using four assays (DPPH, ABTS, PCL ACW and PCL ACL). The content of carotenoids was conducted by high performance liquid chromatography equipped with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method, while the total phenolic content by the spectrophotometric method. It was shown that orange carrot juices contain more carotenoids than yellow and black carrot juices, approximately ten and three times more, respectively. The total carotenoid content in orange carrot juice made by the HSJ was higher (by over 11%) compared to juice prepared by the LSJ. The highest total phenolic content was noticed in black carrot juices, while the lowest in orange carrot juices. In black carrot juices, a higher range of TPC was found in juices made by HSJ, while in the case of the orange and yellow carrots, the highest content of TPC was detected in juices prepared by the LSJ. AA of the juices was highly dependent on the carrot variety, juice extraction method. The most assays confirmed the highest AA values in black carrot juices. Furthermore, it was shown that the HSJ method is more preferred to obtain orange and yellow carrot juices with higher antioxidant properties, while the LSJ method is more suitable for black carrot juice extraction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 3733 KiB  
Article
Extraction of Anthraquinones from Japanese Knotweed Rhizomes and Their Analyses by High Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry
by Vesna Glavnik and Irena Vovk
Plants 2020, 9(12), 1753; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9121753 - 11 Dec 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4078
Abstract
Anthraquinones (yellow dyes) were extracted from Japanese knotweed rhizomes with twelve extraction solvents (water; ethanol(aq) (20%, 40%, 60%, 70% and 80%), ethanol, 70% methanol(aq), methanol, 70% acetone(aq), acetone and dichloromethane). The obtained sample test solutions (STSs) were analyzed [...] Read more.
Anthraquinones (yellow dyes) were extracted from Japanese knotweed rhizomes with twelve extraction solvents (water; ethanol(aq) (20%, 40%, 60%, 70% and 80%), ethanol, 70% methanol(aq), methanol, 70% acetone(aq), acetone and dichloromethane). The obtained sample test solutions (STSs) were analyzed using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) coupled to densitometry and mass spectrometry (HPTLC–MS/MS) on HPTLC silica gel plates. Identical qualitative densitometric profiles (with anthraquinone aglycones and glycosylated anthraquinones) were obtained for STSs in all the solvents except for the STS in dichloromethane, which enabled the most selective extractions of anthraquinone aglycones emodin and physcion. The highest extraction efficiency, evaluated by comparison of the total peak areas in the densitograms of all STSs scanned at 442 nm, was achieved for 70% acetone(aq). In STS prepared with 70% acetone(aq), the separation of non-glycosylated and glycosylated anthraquinones was achieved with developing solvents toluene–acetone–formic acid (6:6:1, 3:6:1 and 3:3:1 v/v) and dichloromethane–acetone–formic acid (1:1:0.1, v/v). Non-glycosylated anthraquinones were separated only with toluene–acetone–formic acid, among which the best resolution between emodin and physcion gave the ratio 6:6:1 (v/v). This solvent and dichloromethane–acetone–formic acid (1:1:0.1, v/v) enabled the best separation of glycosylated anthraquinones. Four HPTLC-MS/MS methods enabled the identification of emodin and tentative identification of its three glycosylated analogs (emodin-8-O-hexoside, emodin-O-acetyl-hexoside and emodin-O-malonyl-hexoside), while only the HPTLC-MS/MS method with toluene-acetone-formic acid (6:6:1, v/v) enabled the identification of physcion. Changes of the shapes and the absorption maxima (bathochromic shifts) in the absorption spectra after post-chromatographic derivatization provided additional proof for the detection of physcion and rejection of the presence of chrysophanol in STS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 2151 KiB  
Article
Accumulation of Anthocyanins and Other Phytochemicals in American Elderberry Cultivars during Fruit Ripening and its Impact on Color Expression
by Yucheng Zhou, Yu Gary Gao and M. Monica Giusti
Plants 2020, 9(12), 1721; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9121721 - 7 Dec 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2794
Abstract
American elderberry (Sambucus canadensis) is a plant native to North America with anthocyanin-rich fruits. Our objective was to investigate the effects of cultivar and ripeness on the phytochemical characteristics of its fruits and the corresponding color performance. Cultivars ‘Adams’, ‘Johns’, ‘Nova’, [...] Read more.
American elderberry (Sambucus canadensis) is a plant native to North America with anthocyanin-rich fruits. Our objective was to investigate the effects of cultivar and ripeness on the phytochemical characteristics of its fruits and the corresponding color performance. Cultivars ‘Adams’, ‘Johns’, ‘Nova’, ‘Wyldewood’, and ‘York’ were examined for their °Brix, pH, anthocyanin (pH-differential method), and phenolic content (Folin-Ciocalteau method). Extract composition were analyzed by uHPLC-PDA-MS/MS. Color and spectra were determined using a plate reader. All characteristics evaluated were significantly affected by ripeness and cultivar, except for °Brix and total phenolic content, which did not vary significantly among cultivars. Most anthocyanins (63–72%) were acylated with p-coumaric acid, with cyanidin-3-(trans)-coumaroylsambubioside-5-glucoside the most predominant. The proportion of acylated anthocyanins was the only characteristic evaluated that decreased during ripening (from 80 to 70%). Extract from fully-ripened fruits exhibited red (lvis-max ~520 nm) and blue hues (lvis-max ~600 nm) at acidic and alkaline pH, respectively. Extracts from half-ripe fruit rendered yellowish tones and overall dull color. C-18 semi-purified extracts displayed higher color saturation (smaller L* and larger C*ab) than crude extracts. The vibrant and broad color expression of fully-ripened fruit extract, especially after C-18 purification, suggests this North American native plant as a promising natural colorant source. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

19 pages, 6331 KiB  
Article
Biotechnological Potential of Araucaria angustifolia Pine Nuts Extract and the Cysteine Protease Inhibitor AaCI-2S
by Roberto Carlos Sallai, Bruno Ramos Salu, Rosemeire Aparecida Silva-Lucca, Flávio Lopes Alves, Thiago Henrique Napoleão, Patrícia Maria Guedes Paiva, Rodrigo da Silva Ferreira, Misako Uemura Sampaio and Maria Luiza Vilela Oliva
Plants 2020, 9(12), 1676; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9121676 - 30 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2346
Abstract
Protease inhibitors are involved in the regulation of endogenous cysteine proteases during seed development and play a defensive role because of their ability to inhibit exogenous proteases such as those present in the digestive tracts of insects. Araucaria angustifolia seeds, which can be [...] Read more.
Protease inhibitors are involved in the regulation of endogenous cysteine proteases during seed development and play a defensive role because of their ability to inhibit exogenous proteases such as those present in the digestive tracts of insects. Araucaria angustifolia seeds, which can be used in human and animal feed, were investigated for their potential for the development of agricultural biotechnology and in the field of human health. In the pine nuts extract, which blocked the activities of cysteine proteases, it was detected potent insecticidal activity against termites (Nasutitermes corniger) belonging to the most abundant termite genus in tropical regions. The cysteine inhibitor (AaCI-2S) was purified by ion-exchange, size exclusion, and reversed-phase chromatography. Its functional and structural stability was confirmed by spectroscopic and circular dichroism studies, and by detection of inhibitory activity at different temperatures and pH values. Besides having activity on cysteine proteases from C. maculatus digestive tract, AaCI-2S inhibited papain, bromelain, ficin, and cathepsin L and impaired cell proliferation in gastric and prostate cancer cell lines. These properties qualify A. angustifolia seeds as a protein source with value properties of natural insecticide and to contain a protease inhibitor with the potential to be a bioactive molecule on different cancer cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 2385 KiB  
Article
Three Scrophularia Species (Scrophularia buergeriana, S. koraiensis, and S. takesimensis) Inhibit RANKL-Induced Osteoclast Differentiation in Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages
by Hyeon-Hwa Nam, A Yeong Lee, Yun-Soo Seo, Inkyu Park, Sungyu Yang, Jin Mi Chun, Byeong Cheol Moon, Jun-Ho Song and Joong-Sun Kim
Plants 2020, 9(12), 1656; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9121656 - 26 Nov 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2000
Abstract
Scrophulariae Radix, derived from the dried roots of Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. or S. buergeriana Miq, is a traditional herbal medicine used in Asia to treat rheumatism, arthritis, and pharyngalgia. However, the effects of Scrophularia buergeriana, S. koraeinsis, and S. takesimensis on [...] Read more.
Scrophulariae Radix, derived from the dried roots of Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. or S. buergeriana Miq, is a traditional herbal medicine used in Asia to treat rheumatism, arthritis, and pharyngalgia. However, the effects of Scrophularia buergeriana, S. koraeinsis, and S. takesimensis on osteoclast formation and bone resorption remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the morphological characteristics and harpagoside content of S. buergeriana, S. koraiensis, and S. takesimensis, and compared the effects of ethanol extracts of these species using nuclear factor (NF)-κB ligand (RANKL)-mediated osteoclast differentiation. The harpagoside content of the three Scrophularia species was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS). Their therapeutic effects were evaluated by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive cell formation and bone resorption in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) harvested from ICR mice. We confirmed the presence of harpagoside in the Scrophularia species. The harpagoside content of S. buergeriana, S. koraiensis, and S. takesimensis was 1.94 ± 0.24 mg/g, 6.47 ± 0.02 mg/g, and 5.50 ± 0.02 mg/g, respectively. Treatment of BMMs with extracts of the three Scrophularia species inhibited TRAP-positive cell formation in a dose-dependent manner. The area of hydroxyapatite-absorbed osteoclasts was markedly decreased after treatment with the three Scrophularia species extracts. Our results indicated that the three species of the genus Scrophularia might exert preventive effects on bone disorders by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption, suggesting that these species may have medicinal and functional value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 2292 KiB  
Article
Functional Attributes and Anticancer Potentialities of Chico (Pachycereus Weberi) and Jiotilla (Escontria Chiotilla) Fruits Extract
by Luisaldo Sandate-Flores, Eduardo Romero-Esquivel, José Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Magdalena Rostro-Alanis, Elda M. Melchor-Martínez, Carlos Castillo-Zacarías, Patricia Reyna Ontiveros, Marcos Fredy Morales Celaya, Wei-Ning Chen, Hafiz M. N. Iqbal and Roberto Parra-Saldívar
Plants 2020, 9(11), 1623; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9111623 - 22 Nov 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4258
Abstract
Mexico has a great diversity of cacti, however, many of their fruits have not been studied in greater depth. Several bioactive compounds available in cacti juices extract have demonstrated nutraceutical properties. Two cactus species are interesting for their biologically active pigments, which are [...] Read more.
Mexico has a great diversity of cacti, however, many of their fruits have not been studied in greater depth. Several bioactive compounds available in cacti juices extract have demonstrated nutraceutical properties. Two cactus species are interesting for their biologically active pigments, which are chico (Pachycereus weberi (J. M. Coult.) Backeb)) and jiotilla (Escontria chiotilla (Weber) Rose)). Hence, the goal of this work was to evaluate the bioactive compounds, i.e., betalains, total phenolic, vitamin C, antioxidant, and mineral content in the extract of the above-mentioned P. weberi and E. chiotilla. Then, clarified extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity (cancer cell lines) potentialities. Based on the obtained results, Chico fruit extract was found to be a good source of vitamin C (27.19 ± 1.95 mg L-Ascorbic acid/100 g fresh sample). Moreover, chico extract resulted in a high concentration of micronutrients, i.e., potassium (517.75 ± 16.78 mg/100 g) and zinc (2.46 ± 0.65 mg/100 g). On the other hand, Jiotilla has a high content of biologically active pigment, i.e., betaxanthins (4.17 ± 0.35 mg/g dry sample). The antioxidant activities of clarified extracts of chico and jiotilla were 80.01 ± 5.10 and 280.88 ± 7.62 mg/100 g fresh sample (DPPH method), respectively. From the cytotoxicity perspective against cancer cell lines, i.e., CaCo-2, MCF-7, HepG2, and PC-3, the clarified extracts of chico showed cytotoxicity (%cell viability) in CaCo-2 (49.7 ± 0.01%) and MCF-7 (45.56 ± 0.05%). A normal fibroblast cell line (NIH/3T3) was used, as a control, for comparison purposes. While jiotilla extract had cytotoxicity against HepG2 (47.31 ± 0.03%) and PC-3 (53.65 ± 0.04%). These results demonstrated that Chico and jiotilla are excellent resources of biologically active constituents with nutraceuticals potentialities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 1214 KiB  
Article
Euphorbia cuneata Represses LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice via Its Antioxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Activities
by Hossam M. Abdallah, Dina S. El-Agamy, Sabrin R. M. Ibrahim, Gamal A. Mohamed, Wael M. Elsaed, Amjad A. Elghamdi, Martin K. Safo and Azizah M. Malebari
Plants 2020, 9(11), 1620; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9111620 - 21 Nov 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3221
Abstract
Euphorbia cuneata (EC; Euphorbiaceae), which widely grows in Saudi Arabia and Yemen, is used traditionally to treat pain and inflammation. This study aimed to evaluate the protective anti-inflammatory effect of a standardized extract of EC against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in [...] Read more.
Euphorbia cuneata (EC; Euphorbiaceae), which widely grows in Saudi Arabia and Yemen, is used traditionally to treat pain and inflammation. This study aimed to evaluate the protective anti-inflammatory effect of a standardized extract of EC against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice and the possible underlying mechanism(s) of this pharmacologic activity. ALI was induced in male Balb/c mice using intraperitoneal injection of LPS. A standardized total methanol extract of EC or dexamethasone was administered 5 days prior to LPS challenge. Bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) and lung samples were collected for analysis. The results demonstrated the protective anti-inflammatory effect of EC against LPS-induced ALI in mice. Standardized EC contained 2R-naringenin-7-O-β-glucoside (1), kaempferol-7-O-β-glucoside (2), cuneatannin (3), quercetin (4), and 2R-naringenin (5) in concentrations of 6.16, 4.80, 51.05, 13.20, and 50.00 mg/g of extract, respectively. EC showed a protective effect against LPS-induced pulmonary damage. EC reduced lung wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio and total protein content in BALF, indicating attenuation of the pulmonary edema. Total and differential cell counts were decreased in EC-treated animals. Histopathological examination confirmed the protective effect of EC, as indicated by an amelioration of LPS-induced lesions in lung tissue. EC also showed a potent anti-oxidative property as it decreased lipid peroxidation and increased the antioxidants in lung tissue. Finally, the anti-inflammatory activity of EC was obvious through its ability to suppress the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and hence its reduction of the levels of downstream inflammatory mediators. In conclusion, these results demonstrate the protective effects of EC against LPS-induced lung injury in mice, which may be due to its antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

16 pages, 2788 KiB  
Article
Biomolecule from Trigonella stellata from Saudi Flora to Suppress Osteoporosis via Osteostromal Regulations
by Hairul-Islam Mohamed Ibrahim, Hossam M. Darrag, Mohammed Refdan Alhajhoj and Hany Ezzat Khalil
Plants 2020, 9(11), 1610; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9111610 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3082
Abstract
Trigonella stellata has used in folk medicine as palatable and nutraceutical herb. It also regulates hypocholesterolemia, hypoglycemia, and has showed anti-inflammatory activities as well as antioxidants efficacy. Osteoporosis is a one of bone metabolic disorders and is continuously increasing worldwide. In the present [...] Read more.
Trigonella stellata has used in folk medicine as palatable and nutraceutical herb. It also regulates hypocholesterolemia, hypoglycemia, and has showed anti-inflammatory activities as well as antioxidants efficacy. Osteoporosis is a one of bone metabolic disorders and is continuously increasing worldwide. In the present study, caffeic acid was isolated from Trigonella stellata and identified using 1 D- and 2 D-NMR spectroscopic data. Caffeic acid was investigated on osteoblast and osteoclast in vitro using mice bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells. Caffeic acid played reciprocal proliferation between osteoblast and osteoclast cells and accelerated the bone mineralization. It was confirmed by cytotoxicity, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alizarin red S (ARS), and Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) assay. Caffeic acid regulated the osteogenic marker and upregulated the osteopontin, osteocalcin, and bone morphogenic proteins (BMP). Quantitative real time PCR and Western blot were used to quantify the mRNA and protein markers. It also regulated the matrix metalloprotease-2 (MMP-2) and cathepsin-K proteolytic markers in osteoclast cells. In addition, caffeic acid inhibited bone resorption in osteoclast cells. On the other hand, it upregulate osteoblast differentiation through stimulation of extracellular calcium concentrations osteoblast differentiation, respectively. The results also were confirmed through in silico docking of caffeic acid against cathepsin-B and cathepsin-K markers. These findings revealed that caffeic acid has a potential role in bone-metabolic disorder through its multifaceted effects on osteoblast and osteoclast regulations and controls osteoporosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 737 KiB  
Article
Antibacterial Activity of Arbutus pavarii Pamp against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and UHPLC-MS/MS Profile of the Bioactive Fraction
by Nawal Buzgaia, Tahani Awin, Fakhri Elabbar, Khaled Abdusalam, Soo Yee Lee, Yaya Rukayadi, Faridah Abas and Khozirah Shaari
Plants 2020, 9(11), 1539; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9111539 - 11 Nov 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3855
Abstract
Arbutus pavarii Pamp is a medicinal plant commonly used by local tribes in East Libya for the treatment of many diseases, such as gastritis, renal infections, cancer and kidney diseases. In this study, the antibacterial activity of the leaf and stem bark extracts [...] Read more.
Arbutus pavarii Pamp is a medicinal plant commonly used by local tribes in East Libya for the treatment of many diseases, such as gastritis, renal infections, cancer and kidney diseases. In this study, the antibacterial activity of the leaf and stem bark extracts of the plant against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), as well as the metabolite profiles of the bioactive fractions, was investigated. The antibacterial activity was determined by disc diffusion method, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), while the microbial reduction by the bioactive fraction was evaluated using time–kill test. The bioactive fraction was further subjected to ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS) analysis to putatively identify the chemical constituents contained therein. All the extracts and fractions showed different levels of antibacterial activity on the tested MRSA strains. The highest total antibacterial activity, i.e., 4007.6 mL/g, was exhibited by the crude leaf methanolic extract. However, the ethyl acetate fraction of the leaf showed moderate to significant antibacterial activity against MRSA at low MIC (0.08–1.25 mg/mL). Metabolite profiling of this fraction using UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS resulted in the putative identification of 28 compounds, which included phenolic acids, flavan-3-ols and flavonols. The results of this study showed that the ethyl acetate fraction of Arbutus pavarii leaf possessed potential antibacterial activity against MRSA and hence can be further explored for pharmaceutical applications as a natural antibacterial agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

15 pages, 2004 KiB  
Article
Natural Surfactant Saponin from Tissue of Litsea glutinosa and Its Alternative Sustainable Production
by Jiratchaya Wisetkomolmat, Ratchuporn Suksathan, Ratchadawan Puangpradab, Keawalin Kunasakdakul, Kittisak Jantanasakulwong, Pornchai Rachtanapun and Sarana Rose Sommano
Plants 2020, 9(11), 1521; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9111521 - 9 Nov 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 5677
Abstract
In this research, we assessed the detergency properties along with chemical characteristic of the surfactant extracts from the most frequently cited detergent plants in Northern Thailand, namely, Sapindus rarak, Acacia concinna, and Litsea glutinosa. Moreover, as to provide the sustainable [...] Read more.
In this research, we assessed the detergency properties along with chemical characteristic of the surfactant extracts from the most frequently cited detergent plants in Northern Thailand, namely, Sapindus rarak, Acacia concinna, and Litsea glutinosa. Moreover, as to provide the sustainable option for production of such valuable ingredients, plant tissue culture (PTC) as alternative method for industrial metabolite cultivation was also proposed herein. The results illustrated that detergent plant extracts showed moderate in foaming and detergency abilities compared with those of synthetic surfactant. The phytochemical analysis illustrated the positive detection of saponins in L. glutinosa plant extracts. The highest callus formation was found in L. glutinosa explant cultured with MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/L Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The callus extract was chemical elucidated using chromatography, which illustrated the presence of saponin similar to those from the crude leaf and Quillaja saponin extracts. Compact mass spectrometry confirmed that the surfactant was of the steroidal diagnostic type. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

17 pages, 1455 KiB  
Article
Optimization of a Green Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Different Polyphenols from Pistacia lentiscus L. Leaves Using a Response Surface Methodology
by Cassandra Detti, Luana Beatriz dos Santos Nascimento, Cecilia Brunetti, Francesco Ferrini and Antonella Gori
Plants 2020, 9(11), 1482; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9111482 - 3 Nov 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2957
Abstract
Pistacia lentiscus leaves are used in several applications, thanks to their polyphenolic abundance. Thiswork aimed to characterize the polyphenols and to optimize the extraction conditions to shorten the time, decrease the consumption of solvent, and to maximize the yield of different classes of [...] Read more.
Pistacia lentiscus leaves are used in several applications, thanks to their polyphenolic abundance. Thiswork aimed to characterize the polyphenols and to optimize the extraction conditions to shorten the time, decrease the consumption of solvent, and to maximize the yield of different classes of phenolics, which have diverse industrial applications. The variables were optimized by applying a Box–Behnken design. Galloyl and myricetin derivatives were the most abundant compounds, and two new tetragalloyl derivatives were identified by LC-MS/MS. According to the models, the maximum yields of polyphenols (51.3 ± 1.8 mg g−1 DW) and tannins (40.2 ± 1.4 mg g−1 DW) were obtained using 0.12 L g−1 of 40% ethanol at 50 °C. The highest content of flavonoids (10.2 ± 0.8 mg g−1 DW) was obtained using 0.13 L g−1 of 50% ethanol at 50 °C, while 0.1 L g−1 of 30% ethanol at 30 °C resulted in higher amounts of myricitrin (2.6 ± 0.19 mg g−1 DW). Our optimized extraction decreased the ethanolic fraction by 25% and halved the time compared to other methods. These conditions can be applied differently to obtain P. lentiscus extracts richer in tannins or flavonoids, which might be employed for various purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

14 pages, 2632 KiB  
Article
Herbal Combination of Phyllostachys pubescens and Scutellaria baicalensis Inhibits Adipogenesis and Promotes Browning via AMPK Activation in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes
by Yoon-Young Sung, Eunjung Son, Gayoung Im and Dong-Seon Kim
Plants 2020, 9(11), 1422; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9111422 - 23 Oct 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2622
Abstract
To investigate the anti-obesity effects and underlying mechanism of BS21, a combination of Phyllostachys pubescens leaves and Scutellaria baicalensis roots was used to investigate the effects of BS21 on adipogenesis, lipogenesis, and browning in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The expression of adipocyte-specific genes was observed [...] Read more.
To investigate the anti-obesity effects and underlying mechanism of BS21, a combination of Phyllostachys pubescens leaves and Scutellaria baicalensis roots was used to investigate the effects of BS21 on adipogenesis, lipogenesis, and browning in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The expression of adipocyte-specific genes was observed via Western blot, and the BS21 chemical profile was analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). BS21 treatment inhibited adipocyte differentiation and reduced the expression of the adipogenic proteins peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP-α), and adipocyte protein 2 (aP2), as well as the lipogenic proteins sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) and fatty-acid synthase (FAS). BS21 enhanced protein levels of the beta-oxidation genes carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT1) and phospho-acetyl-coA carboxylase (p-ACC). BS21 also induced protein expressions of the browning marker genes PR domain containing 16 (PRDM16), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1-alpha (PGC1α), and uncoupling protein (UCP) 1, and it induced the expression of the thermogenic gene UCP2. Furthermore, BS21 increased adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. UPLC analysis showed that BS21 contains active constituents such as chlorogenic acid, orientin, isoorientin, baicalin, wogonoside, baicalein, tricin, wogonin, and chrysin. Our findings demonstrate that BS21 plays a modulatory role in adipocytes by reducing adipogenesis and lipogenesis, increasing fat oxidation, and inducing browning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

17 pages, 2698 KiB  
Article
Potential Nutraceutical Benefits of In Vivo Grown Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) As Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory, Anticoagulant, and Antidepressant in Mice
by Asif Khan, Nur Airina Muhamad, Hammad Ismail, Abdul Nasir, Atif Ali Khan Khalil, Yasir Anwar, Zahid Khan, Amjad Ali, Rosna Mat Taha, Baker Al-Shara, Sara Latif, Bushra Mirza, Yousef Abdal Jalil Fadladdin, Isam Mohamed Abu Zeid and Saed Ayidh Al-Thobaiti
Plants 2020, 9(11), 1414; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9111414 - 22 Oct 2020
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 5222
Abstract
Crocus sativus, a medicinally important herbaceous plant, has been traditionally used to cure coughs, colds, insomnia, cramps, asthma, and pain. Moreover, the therapeutic applications of saffron include its immunomodulatory and anticancer properties. The current experimental analysis was performed to explore the potential [...] Read more.
Crocus sativus, a medicinally important herbaceous plant, has been traditionally used to cure coughs, colds, insomnia, cramps, asthma, and pain. Moreover, the therapeutic applications of saffron include its immunomodulatory and anticancer properties. The current experimental analysis was performed to explore the potential nutraceutical efficacy of corm, leaf, petal, and stigma of saffron ethanolic extracts as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, and antidepressant using hot plate, carrageenan-induced paw edema, capillary tube and forced swim test, respectively in mice. The results indicated that among all the extracts, stigma ethanolic extract (SEE) represented maximum latency activity (72.85%) and edema inhibition (77.33%) followed by petal ethanolic extract (PEE) with latency activity and edema inhibition of 64.06 and 70.50%, respectively. Corm ethanolic extract (CEE) and leaf ethanolic extract (LEE) displayed mild analgesic activity of 22.40% and 29.07%, respectively. Additionally, LEE (53.29%) and CEE (47.47%) exhibited mild to moderate response against inflammation. The coagulation time of SEE (101.66 s) was almost equivalent to the standard drug, aspirin (101.66 s), suggesting a strong anticoagulant effect followed by PEE (86.5 s). LEE (66.83 s) represented moderate inhibitory effect on coagulation activity while CEE (42.83 s) showed neutral effect. Additionally, PEE and SEE also expressed itself as potential antidepressants with immobility time ≤76.66 s, while CEE (96.50 s) and LEE (106.83 s) indicated moderate to mild antidepressant efficacy. Based on the in vivo activities, saffron extract, particularly SEE and PEE, can be used as a potential nutraceutical and therapeutic agent due to its significant pharmacological activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

26 pages, 2215 KiB  
Article
Suaeda vermiculata Aqueous-Ethanolic Extract-Based Mitigation of CCl4-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats, and HepG-2 and HepG-2/ADR Cell-Lines-Based Cytotoxicity Evaluations
by Salman A. A. Mohammed, Riaz A. Khan, Mahmoud Z. El-Readi, Abdul-Hamid Emwas, Salim Sioud, Benjamin G. Poulson, Mariusz Jaremko, Hussein M. Eldeeb, Mohsen S. Al-Omar and Hamdoon A. Mohammed
Plants 2020, 9(10), 1291; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9101291 - 29 Sep 2020
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3480
Abstract
Suaeda vermiculata, an edible halophytic plant, used by desert nomads to treat jaundice, was investigated for its hepatoprotective bioactivity and safety profile on its mother liquor aqueous-ethanolic extract. Upon LC-MS (Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry) analysis, the presence of several constituents including three major [...] Read more.
Suaeda vermiculata, an edible halophytic plant, used by desert nomads to treat jaundice, was investigated for its hepatoprotective bioactivity and safety profile on its mother liquor aqueous-ethanolic extract. Upon LC-MS (Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry) analysis, the presence of several constituents including three major flavonoids, namely quercetin, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, and kaempferol-O-(acetyl)-hexoside-pentoside were confirmed. The aqueous-ethanolic extract, rich in antioxidants, quenched the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radicals, and also showed noticeable levels of radical scavenging capacity in ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) assay. For the hepatoprotective activity confirmation, the male rat groups were fed daily, for 7 days (n = 8/group, p.o.), either carboxyl methylcellulose (CMC) 0.5%, silymarin 200 mg/kg, the aqueous-ethanolic extract of the plant Suaeda vermiculata (100, 250, and 500 mg/kg extract), or quercetin (100 mg/kg) alone, and on day 7 of the administrations, all the animal groups, excluding a naïve (250 mg/kg aqueous-ethanolic extract-fed), and an intact animal group were induced hepatotoxicity by intraperitoneally administering carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). All the animals were sacrificed after 24 h, and aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase serum levels were observed, which were noted to be significantly decreased for the aqueous-ethanolic extract, silymarin, and quercetin-fed groups in comparison to the CMC-fed group (p < 0.0001). No noticeable adverse effects were observed on the liver, kidney, or heart’s functions of the naïve (250 mg/kg) group. The aqueous-ethanolic extract was found to be safe in the acute toxicity (5 g/kg) test and showed hepatoprotection and safety at higher doses. Further upon, the cytotoxicity testings in HepG-2 and HepG-2/ADR (Adriamycin resistant) cell-lines were also investigated, and the IC50 values were recorded at 56.19 ± 2.55 µg/mL, and 78.40 ± 0.32 µg/mL (p < 0.001, Relative Resistance RR 1.39), respectively, while the doxorubicin (Adriamycin) IC50 values were found to be 1.3 ± 0.064, and 4.77 ± 1.05 µg/mL (p < 0.001, RR 3.67), respectively. The HepG-2/ADR cell-lines when tested in a combination of the aqueous-ethanolic extract with doxorubicin, a significant reversal in the doxorubicin’s IC50 value by 2.77 folds (p < 0.001, CI = 0.56) was noted as compared to the cytotoxicity test where the extract was absent. The mode of action for the reversal was determined to be synergistic in nature indicating the role of the aqueous-ethanolic extract. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1871 KiB  
Article
Chemical Composition of Cuticular Waxes and Pigments and Morphology of Leaves of Quercus suber Trees of Different Provenance
by Rita Simões, Ana Rodrigues, Suzana Ferreira-Dias, Isabel Miranda and Helena Pereira
Plants 2020, 9(9), 1165; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9091165 - 9 Sep 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3785
Abstract
The chemical composition of cuticular waxes and pigments and the morphological features of cork oak (Quercus suber) leaves were determined for six samples with seeds of different geographical origins covering the natural distribution of the species. The leaves of all samples [...] Read more.
The chemical composition of cuticular waxes and pigments and the morphological features of cork oak (Quercus suber) leaves were determined for six samples with seeds of different geographical origins covering the natural distribution of the species. The leaves of all samples exhibited a hard texture and oval shape with a dark green colour on the hairless adaxial surface, while the abaxial surface was lighter, with numerous stomata and densely covered with trichomes in the form of stellate multicellular hairs. The results suggest an adaptive role of leaf features among samples of different provenance and the potential role of such variability in dealing with varying temperatures and rainfall regimes through local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity, as was seen in the trial site, since no significant differences in leaf traits among the various specimens were found, for example, specific leaf area 55.6–67.8 cm2/g, leaf size 4.6–6.8 cm2 and photosynthetic pigment (total chlorophyll, 31.8–40.4 µg/cm2). The leaves showed a substantial cuticular wax layer (154.3–235.1 µg/cm2) composed predominantly of triterpenes and aliphatic compounds (61–72% and 17–23% of the identified compounds, respectively) that contributed to forming a nearly impermeable membrane that helps the plant cope with drought conditions. These characteristics are related to the species and did not differ among trees of different seed origin. The major identified compound was lupeol, indicating that cork oak leaves may be considered as a potential source of this bioactive compound. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

13 pages, 2088 KiB  
Article
Phytochemical, Cytotoxicity, Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Psilocybe Natalensis Magic Mushroom
by Sanah M. Nkadimeng, Alice Nabatanzi, Christiaan M.L. Steinmann and Jacobus N. Eloff
Plants 2020, 9(9), 1127; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9091127 - 31 Aug 2020
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 17876
Abstract
Psilocybin-containing mushrooms, commonly known as magic mushrooms, have been used since ancient and recent times for depression and to improve quality of life. However, their anti-inflammatory properties are not known. The study aims at investing cytotoxicity; antioxidant; and, for the first time, anti-inflammatory [...] Read more.
Psilocybin-containing mushrooms, commonly known as magic mushrooms, have been used since ancient and recent times for depression and to improve quality of life. However, their anti-inflammatory properties are not known. The study aims at investing cytotoxicity; antioxidant; and, for the first time, anti-inflammatory effects of Psilocybe natalensis, a psilocybin-containing mushroom that grows in South Africa, on lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Macrophage cells were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide and treated with different concentrations of Psilocybe natalensis mushroom extracted with boiling hot water, cold water and ethanol over 24 h. Quercetin and N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester were used as positive controls. Effects of extracts on the lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, and cytokine activities were investigated. Phytochemical analysis, and the antioxidant and cytotoxicity of extracts, were determined. Results showed that the three extracts inhibited the lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, and interleukin 1β cytokine production significantly in a dose-dependent manner close to that of the positive controls. A study proposed that ethanol and water extracts of Psilocybe natalensis mushroom were safe at concentrations used, and have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Phytochemical analysis confirmed the presence of natural antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds in the mushroom extracts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

9 pages, 994 KiB  
Article
Anti-Melanoma Activities and Phytochemical Compositions of Sorbus commixta Fruit Extracts
by Sora Jin, Kyeoung Cheol Kim, Ju-Sung Kim, Keum-Il Jang and Tae Kyung Hyun
Plants 2020, 9(9), 1076; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9091076 - 21 Aug 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2778
Abstract
Sorbus commixta Hedl. (Rosaceae family) has a long history as a medicinal plant in East Asian countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of S. commixta fruit extracts prepared with different ethanol concentrations on anti-melanoma activity, and the extraction yield of phenolic [...] Read more.
Sorbus commixta Hedl. (Rosaceae family) has a long history as a medicinal plant in East Asian countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of S. commixta fruit extracts prepared with different ethanol concentrations on anti-melanoma activity, and the extraction yield of phenolic compounds and flavonoids. Using the partitioned fractions from the EtOH extract, we found that the butanol fraction (BF) possessed strong cytotoxic activity against SK-MEL-2 cells (human melanoma cells) but not against HDFa cells (human dermal fibroblast adult cells). Additionally, BF-induced cell death was mediated by the inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular regulated kinase (MEK/ERK) signaling pathway, coupled with the upregulation of caspase-3 activity in SK-MEL-2 cells. Furthermore, HPLC analysis of polyphenolic compounds suggested that S. commixta fruits contained several active compounds including chlorogenic acid, rutin, protocatechuic acid, and hydroxybenzoic acid, all of which are known to possess anti-cancer activities. Although this study has been carried out by cell-based approach, these results suggest that S. commixta fruits contain promising anti-melanoma compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 1844 KiB  
Article
Optimized Extraction of Polysaccharides from Bergenia emeiensis Rhizome, Their Antioxidant Ability and Protection of Cells from Acrylamide-induced Cell Death
by Chen Zeng and Shiling Feng
Plants 2020, 9(8), 976; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9080976 - 31 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2573
Abstract
Bergeniaemeiensis is a traditional herb in Chinese folk medicine. Most related studies are focused on the bioactivity of bergenin, neglecting other bioactive compounds. In our previous work, polysaccharides were identified in B. emeiensis rhizome. To evaluate the extraction process and the antioxidant [...] Read more.
Bergeniaemeiensis is a traditional herb in Chinese folk medicine. Most related studies are focused on the bioactivity of bergenin, neglecting other bioactive compounds. In our previous work, polysaccharides were identified in B. emeiensis rhizome. To evaluate the extraction process and the antioxidant ability of these polysaccharides, a response surface method and antioxidant assays were applied. The results showed that the yield of polysaccharides was highly affected by extraction time, followed by temperature and solvent-to-sample ratio. Under the optimal conditions (43 °C, 30 min and 21 mL/g), the yield was 158.34 ± 0.98 mg/g. After removing other impurities, the purity of the polysaccharides from B. emeiensis (PBE) was 95.97 ± 0.92%. The infrared spectrum showed that PBE had a typical polysaccharide structure. Further investigations exhibited the PBE could scavenge well DPPH and ABTS free radicals and chelate Fe2+, showing an excellent antioxidant capacity. In addition, PBE also enhanced the cell viability of HEK 239T and Hep G2 cells under acrylamide-exposure conditions, exhibiting great protection against the damage induced by acrylamide. Therefore, PBE can be considered a potential natural antioxidant candidate for use in the pharmaceutical industry as a health product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

17 pages, 2313 KiB  
Article
Identification of Bioactive Phytochemicals in Leaf Protein Concentrate of Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.)
by László Kaszás, Tarek Alshaal, Hassan El-Ramady, Zoltán Kovács, Judit Koroknai, Nevien Elhawat, Éva Nagy, Zoltán Cziáky, Miklós Fári and Éva Domokos-Szabolcsy
Plants 2020, 9(7), 889; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9070889 - 14 Jul 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3415
Abstract
Jerusalem artichoke (JA) is widely known to have inulin-rich tubers. However, its fresh aerial biomass produces significant levels of leaf protein and economic bioactive phytochemicals. We have characterized leaf protein concentrate (JAPC) isolated from green biomass of three Jerusalem artichoke clones, Alba, Fuseau, [...] Read more.
Jerusalem artichoke (JA) is widely known to have inulin-rich tubers. However, its fresh aerial biomass produces significant levels of leaf protein and economic bioactive phytochemicals. We have characterized leaf protein concentrate (JAPC) isolated from green biomass of three Jerusalem artichoke clones, Alba, Fuseau, and Kalevala, and its nutritional value for the human diet or animal feeding. The JAPC yield varied from 28.6 to 31.2 g DM kg−1 green biomass with an average total protein content of 33.3% on a dry mass basis. The qualitative analysis of the phytochemical composition of JAPC was performed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-Orbitrap/mass spectrometry analysis (UHPLC-ESI-ORBITRAP-MS/MS). Fifty-three phytochemicals were successfully identified in JAPC. In addition to the phenolic acids (especially mono- and di-hydroxycinnamic acid esters of quinic acids) several medically important hydroxylated methoxyflavones, i.e., dimethoxy-tetrahydroxyflavone, dihydroxy-methoxyflavone, hymenoxin, and nevadensin, were detected in the JAPC for the first time. Liquiritigenin, an estrogenic-like flavanone, was measured in the JAPC as well as butein and kukulkanin B, as chalcones. The results also showed high contents of the essential amino acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs; 66-68%) in JAPC. Linolenic acid represented 39–43% of the total lipid content; moreover, the ratio between ω-6 and ω-3 fatty acids in the JAPC was ~0.6:1. Comparing the JA clones, no major differences in phytochemicals, fatty acid, or amino acid compositions were observed. This paper confirms the economic and nutritional value of JAPC as it is not only an alternative plant protein source but also as a good source of biological valuable phytochemicals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

13 pages, 913 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Alpha-Amylase Inhibitory, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Potential and Phytochemical Contents of Polygonum hydropiper L.
by Abdul Nasir, Mushtaq Khan, Zainab Rehman, Atif Ali Khan Khalil, Saira Farman, Naeema Begum, Muhammad Irfan, Wasim Sajjad and Zahida Parveen
Plants 2020, 9(7), 852; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9070852 - 6 Jul 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3828
Abstract
Polygonum hydropiper L. is a traditionally used medicinal plant. The present study was designed to explore the α-amylase inhibitory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of Polygonum hydropiper L. Polarity-based solvent extracts (n-hexane, acetone, chloroform, methanol, ethanol, and water) of Polygonum hydropiper leaves [...] Read more.
Polygonum hydropiper L. is a traditionally used medicinal plant. The present study was designed to explore the α-amylase inhibitory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of Polygonum hydropiper L. Polarity-based solvent extracts (n-hexane, acetone, chloroform, methanol, ethanol, and water) of Polygonum hydropiper leaves and stem were used. Antioxidant activity was assessed by free radical scavenging assay (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity methods. Quantitative phytochemical analyses suggested that the stem of Polygonum hydropiper L. contains higher levels of bioactive compounds than its leaves (p < 0.05). The results suggested that stem-derived extracts of Polygonum hydropiper L. are more active against bacterial species, including two Gram-positive and three Gram-negative strains. Moreover, our results showed that the bioactive compounds of Polygonum hydropiper L. significantly inhibit α-amylase activity. Finally, we reported the polarity-based solvent extracts of Polygonum hydropiper L. and revealed that the stem, rather than leaves, has a high antioxidant potential as measured by FRAP and DPPH assay with IC50 values of 1.38 and 1.59 mg/mL, respectively. It may also be deducted from the data that the Polygonum hydropiper L. could be a significant candidate, which should be subjected to further isolation and characterization, to be used as an antidiabetic, antimicrobial and antioxidant resource in many industries, like food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2184 KiB  
Article
Optimized Extraction of Total Triterpenoids from Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) and Comprehensive Analysis of Triterpenic Acids in Different Cultivars
by Lijun Song, Li Zhang, Long Xu, Yunjian Ma, Weishuai Lian, Yongguo Liu and Yonghua Wang
Plants 2020, 9(4), 412; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9040412 - 27 Mar 2020
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 4387
Abstract
Triterpenoid compounds are one of the main functional components in jujube fruit. In this study, the optimal process for ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of total triterpenoids from jujube fruit was determined using response surface methodology (RSM). The optimal conditions were as follows: temperature of [...] Read more.
Triterpenoid compounds are one of the main functional components in jujube fruit. In this study, the optimal process for ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of total triterpenoids from jujube fruit was determined using response surface methodology (RSM). The optimal conditions were as follows: temperature of 55.14 °C, ethanol concentration of 86.57%, time of 34.41 min, and liquid-to-solid ratio of 39.33 mL/g. The triterpenoid yield was 19.21 ± 0.25 mg/g under optimal conditions. The triterpenoid profiles and antioxidant activity were further analyzed. Betulinic acid, alphitolic acid, maslinic acid, oleanolic acid, and ursolic acid were the dominant triterpenoid acids in jujube fruits. Correlation analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between the major triterpenic acids and antioxidant activities. The variations of triterpenoid profiles and antioxidant activity within the jujube fruits and the degree of variation were evaluated by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA), respectively. The results provide important guidance for the quality evaluation and industrial application of jujube fruit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

22 pages, 4125 KiB  
Review
Phytochemicals and Biological Activity of Desert Date (Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Delile)
by Hosakatte Niranjana Murthy, Guggalada Govardhana Yadav, Yaser Hassan Dewir and Abdullah Ibrahim
Plants 2021, 10(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10010032 - 25 Dec 2020
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 14526
Abstract
Many underutilized tree species are good sources of food, fodder and possible therapeutic agents. Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Delile belongs to the Zygophyllaceae family and is popularly known as “desert date”, reflecting its edible fruits. This tree grows naturally in Africa, the Middle East [...] Read more.
Many underutilized tree species are good sources of food, fodder and possible therapeutic agents. Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Delile belongs to the Zygophyllaceae family and is popularly known as “desert date”, reflecting its edible fruits. This tree grows naturally in Africa, the Middle East and the Indian subcontinent. Local inhabitants use fruits, leaves, roots, stem and root bark of the species for the treatment of various ailments. Several research studies demonstrate that extracts and phytochemicals isolated from desert date display antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective and molluscicidal activities. Mesocarp of fruits, seeds, leaves, stem and root bark are rich sources of saponins. These tissues are also rich in phenolic acids, flavonoids, coumarins, alkaloids and polysterols. Some constituents show antioxidant, anticancer and antidiabetic properties. The objective of this review is to summarize studies on diverse bioactive compounds and the beneficial properties of B. aegyptiaca. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 4631 KiB  
Review
Euphorbia antisyphilitica Zucc: A Source of Phytochemicals with Potential Applications in Industry
by Romeo Rojas, Julio César Tafolla-Arellano and Guillermo C. G. Martínez-Ávila
Plants 2021, 10(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10010008 - 23 Dec 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3108
Abstract
Euphorbia antisyphilitica Zucc, better known as the candelilla plant, is one of the 10 non-timber forest products of greatest economic importance in the desert and semi-desert regions of Mexico. Moreover, it is a potential source of some functional phytochemicals such as polyphenolic compounds, [...] Read more.
Euphorbia antisyphilitica Zucc, better known as the candelilla plant, is one of the 10 non-timber forest products of greatest economic importance in the desert and semi-desert regions of Mexico. Moreover, it is a potential source of some functional phytochemicals such as polyphenolic compounds, wax and fiber, with potential applications in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Thus, this review aims to describe these phytochemicals and their functional properties as antimicrobial, antioxidant, reinforcing and barrier agents. In addition, a suitable valorization of the candelilla plant and its byproducts is mandatory in order to avoid negative effects on the environment. This review provides, for the first time, an overview of the alternative methodologies for improving candelilla plant production, pointing out some of the agricultural aspects of the cultivation of this plant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

34 pages, 687 KiB  
Review
Zebrafish as a Successful Animal Model for Screening Toxicity of Medicinal Plants
by Amir Modarresi Chahardehi, Hasni Arsad and Vuanghao Lim
Plants 2020, 9(10), 1345; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9101345 - 12 Oct 2020
Cited by 87 | Viewed by 11310
Abstract
The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is used as an embryonic and larval model to perform in vitro experiments and developmental toxicity studies. Zebrafish may be used to determine the toxicity of samples in early screening assays, often in a high-throughput manner. The [...] Read more.
The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is used as an embryonic and larval model to perform in vitro experiments and developmental toxicity studies. Zebrafish may be used to determine the toxicity of samples in early screening assays, often in a high-throughput manner. The zebrafish embryotoxicity model is at the leading edge of toxicology research due to the short time required for analyses, transparency of embryos, short life cycle, high fertility, and genetic data similarity. Zebrafish toxicity studies range from assessing the toxicity of bioactive compounds or crude extracts from plants to determining the optimal process. Most of the studied extracts were polar, such as ethanol, methanol, and aqueous solutions, which were used to detect the toxicity and bioactivity. This review examines the latest research using zebrafish as a study model and highlights its power as a tool for detecting toxicity of medicinal plants and its effectiveness at enhancing the understanding of new drug generation. The goal of this review was to develop a link to ethnopharmacological zebrafish studies that can be used by other researchers to conduct future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Back to TopTop