Advances in the Valorization of Fruit and Vegetable Wastes and By-Products

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This special issue belongs to the section "Phytochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2023) | Viewed by 12532

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Cesumar Institute of Science, Technology and Innovation-ICETI, Cesumar University–UniCesumar, 1610 Guerdner Venue, Acclimation Gardner, Maringa, PR, Brazil
Interests: food science; food chemistry; natural products; food waste recovery
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Chemical and Food Engineering Department, Federal Universy of Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, Brazil
Interests: food waste; extraction; bioactive compounds; multivariate analysis
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Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus Santa Apolonia, 300-253 Braganca, Portugal
Interests: bioactive compounds; food chemistry; phenolic compounds; chromatography; mass spectrometry
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Postgraduate Program in Biochemistry, Department of Biochemistry, State University of Maringa, Maringa, Brazil
Interests: biochemistry of microorganisms: bioremediation, agro-industrial residues; bioactive compounds; circular economy
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1. Postgraduate Program in Clean Technologies, Cesumar University, Unicesumar, Maringa, Brazil
2. Cesumar Institute of Science, Technology and Innovation - ICETI, Maringa, Brazil
Interests: essential oil; chemical analysis

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Fruits and vegetables are a magnificent source of nutrients, with countless health benefits. The majority of global consumers are not meeting the daily recommended intake of these foods. Despite this fact, an immense mass of fruits and vegetables produced and processed by the food industry is wasted. There are a number of possibilities to recover wasted fruits and vegetables as well as the by-products of fruits and vegetables for manufacturing value-added products to meet consumers’ demand for more natural and healthier products, improve their diet sustainability and, not least, to reduce the environmental impact. In this sense, green extraction approaches can enhance the economic relevance of the obtained natural products. Environmentally friendly techniques allied with prolific natural matrices may result in sustainable bioactive formulations of high industrial interest.

The forthcoming Special Issue aims to provide quality comprehensive research and development contributions that address key challenges and topics related to the valorization and exploitation of fruit and vegetable waste and by-products for the obtainment of high-added-value natural ingredients for the industry. There is particular interest in: (i) green approaches for the recovery of bioactive compounds from food vegetable residues; (ii) characterization studies regarding nutritional, phytochemical, and biological profiles of wasted horticultural products; and (iii) the development of novel food, cosmetical and pharmaceutical products based on these matrices or their bioactive extracts. Nonetheless, other related research findings are greatly encouraged. Authors are cordially invited to contribute original research articles and reviews. All research will be published in open-access format.

Prof. Dr. Rúbia Carvalho Gomes Corrêa
Prof. Dr. Acácio Antonio F. Zielinski
Dr. Maria Inês Dias
Prof. Dr. Rosane Marina Peralta
Prof. Dr. José Eduardo Gonçalves
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • sustainable food systems
  • upcycling food residues
  • fruit and vegetable wastes
  • agro-industrial by-products
  • green extraction
  • clean technologies
  • bioactive compounds recovery
  • natural ingredients
  • food security
  • sustainable diet

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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10 pages, 759 KiB  
Article
Bioactive Compounds from BRS Violet Grape Pomace: An Approach of Extraction and Microencapsulation, Stability Protection and Food Application
by Edilson Bruno Romanini, Leticia Misturini Rodrigues, Ana Paula Stafussa, Talita Perez Cantuaria Chierrito, Aline Finger Teixeira, Rúbia Carvalho Gomes Corrêa and Grasiele Scaramal Madrona
Plants 2023, 12(18), 3177; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12183177 - 05 Sep 2023
Viewed by 779
Abstract
Microencapsulating phenolic compounds and anthocyanins from grape pomace, a by-product of the food industry, is attractive because of the many beneficial health effects associated with these compounds. At first, we evaluated the cultivar BRS Violeta using microencapsulation, indicating the degree of innovation in [...] Read more.
Microencapsulating phenolic compounds and anthocyanins from grape pomace, a by-product of the food industry, is attractive because of the many beneficial health effects associated with these compounds. At first, we evaluated the cultivar BRS Violeta using microencapsulation, indicating the degree of innovation in the present research. This study aims to microencapsulate grape pomace extract in a combination of maltodextrin and xanthan gum via lyophilization, and determine the protective effect of this microcapsule on the phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. Thus, the microcapsule stability was determined over 120 days, under different temperature conditions (4 and 25 °C) and in the presence or absence of light. Additionally, a gelatin application test was performed to investigate the effect of the microcapsule on color stability. When comparing the extract versus microcapsules, the microcapsule results were better both for total anthocyanins (1.69 to 1.54-fold) and total phenolic compounds (3.06 to 1.74-fold), indicating a longer half-life after encapsulation. The microcapsule application in gelatin demonstrated that the encapsulating matrix retained the color for 30 days. Thus, the encapsulation method can be recommended to preserve the bioactive compounds and the coloration in food products such as gelatin. Full article
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16 pages, 2522 KiB  
Article
Improving Enzymatic Saccharification of Peach Palm (Bactris gasipaes) Wastes via Biological Pretreatment with Pleurotus ostreatus
by Kamila de Cássia Spacki, Danielly Maria Paixão Novi, Verci Alves de Oliveira-Junior, Daniele Cocco Durigon, Fernanda Cristina Fraga, Luís Felipe Oliva dos Santos, Cristiane Vieira Helm, Edson Alves de Lima, Rosely Aparecida Peralta, Regina de Fátima Peralta Muniz Moreira, Rúbia Carvalho Gomes Corrêa, Adelar Bracht and Rosane Marina Peralta
Plants 2023, 12(15), 2824; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12152824 - 31 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1058
Abstract
The white-rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus was used for biological pretreatment of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) lignocellulosic wastes. Non-treated and treated B. gasipaes inner sheaths and peel were submitted to hydrolysis using a commercial cellulase preparation from T. reesei. The amounts of [...] Read more.
The white-rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus was used for biological pretreatment of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) lignocellulosic wastes. Non-treated and treated B. gasipaes inner sheaths and peel were submitted to hydrolysis using a commercial cellulase preparation from T. reesei. The amounts of total reducing sugars and glucose obtained from the 30 d-pretreated inner sheaths were seven and five times higher, respectively, than those obtained from the inner sheaths without pretreatment. No such improvement was found, however, in the pretreated B. gasipaes peels. Scanning electronic microscopy of the lignocellulosic fibers was performed to verify the structural changes caused by the biological pretreatments. Upon the biological pretreatment, the lignocellulosic structures of the inner sheaths were substantially modified, making them less ordered. The main features of the modifications were the detachment of the fibers, cell wall collapse and, in several cases, the formation of pores in the cell wall surfaces. The peel lignocellulosic fibers showed more ordered fibrils and no modification was observed after pre-treatment. In conclusion, a seven-fold increase in the enzymatic saccharification of the Bactris gasipaes inner sheath was observed after pre-treatment, while no improvement in enzymatic saccharification was observed in the B. gasipaes peel. Full article
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19 pages, 2953 KiB  
Article
Morphological Characterization of Nicotiana tabacum Inflorescences and Chemical-Functional Analysis of Extracts Obtained from Its Powder by Using Green Solvents (NaDESs)
by Mariana Leal, María Alejandra Moreno, Patricia Liliana Albornoz, María Inés Mercado, Iris Catiana Zampini and María Inés Isla
Plants 2023, 12(7), 1554; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12071554 - 04 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2226
Abstract
The production of smokeable tobacco for use in cigarettes is characterized by the production of pre-harvest and post-harvest waste, with ensuing undesirable effects on the environment. The inflorescences of tobacco after blunting, deflowering, or topping are considered pre-harvest waste and left in the [...] Read more.
The production of smokeable tobacco for use in cigarettes is characterized by the production of pre-harvest and post-harvest waste, with ensuing undesirable effects on the environment. The inflorescences of tobacco after blunting, deflowering, or topping are considered pre-harvest waste and left in the field. Using green and ecofriendly solvents such as Natural deep eutectic solvents (NaDESs), these wastes could be used to obtain antioxidant molecules of interest in cosmetics. Taking into account its potential as plant matrix to obtain metabolites of commercial interest, tobacco inflorescences and inflorescence powders of different particle sizes were characterized by optic and electronic microscopy. Thus, the powdered inflorescences were extracted with four conventional solvents, i.e., distilled water (DW), acetone: distilled water (AW), ethanol 70° (EW), methanol (Me), and five NaDESs, i.e., lactic acid: sucrose (LAS), lactic acid: sucrose: distilled water (SALA), fructose: glucose: sucrose: distilled water (FGS), choline chloride: urea: distilled water (CU), and citric acid: propylene glycol (CAP). Among the tested NADESs, SALA was the most promising solvent; higher extraction yields of total phenolic compound (3420.0 ± 9.4 µg GAE/mL) than conventional solvents were attained and it was the only selective solvent to phenolics. CU was the best solvent for flavonoids and alkaloids extraction (215.3 ± 3.2 µg QE/mL and 392.3 ± 8.0 µg ACE/mL, respectively). All extracts showed antioxidant activity. A heatmap with dendrogram and main component analysis showed that acid-based NaDESs are grouped together, this group being the one with the best performance in H2O2 scavenging. The extracts obtained with green solvents could be used directly in cosmetic formulations as antioxidant ingredients because both tobacco flower oil and flower extracts are listed in the cosmetic ingredients database as non-toxic products. Additionally, the demand for sustainable ecological cosmetics is growing. In this sense, NaDESs represent an opportunity to develop innovative extracts with unique phytochemical fingerprints and biological activities. Full article
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16 pages, 1748 KiB  
Article
Effect of Different Drying Treatments and Sieving on Royal Gala Apple Pomace, a Thickening Agent with Antioxidant Properties
by Lina Cossignani, Federica Ianni, Francesca Blasi, Luna Pollini, Alessandro Di Michele, Cinzia Pagano, Maurizio Ricci and Luana Perioli
Plants 2023, 12(4), 906; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12040906 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1224
Abstract
Currently, there is an increasing interest in the search of natural derived materials as valuable substitutes for microplastics. One of the categories investigated, represented by thickening agents deriving from agri-food waste and apple pomace (AP), was considered of interest. In this study AP [...] Read more.
Currently, there is an increasing interest in the search of natural derived materials as valuable substitutes for microplastics. One of the categories investigated, represented by thickening agents deriving from agri-food waste and apple pomace (AP), was considered of interest. In this study AP was submitted to three different treatments and drying conditions (oven drying at 55 °C for 12 h; homogenization and oven drying at 55 °C for 12 h; homogenization and freeze-drying), and then grinded and sieved obtaining three different dimensional fractions (>400 µm, 250–400 µm and <250 µm). The hydroalcoholic extracts of these fractions, obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction, were analyzed to compare their total phenol content (TPC), antioxidant properties, and phenol profile. Correlation studies between the above-indicated parameters were also carried out. The highest values of TPC, antioxidant capacity, and phenol content (determined by liquid chromatography) were found for oven dried AP (250–400 μm) or homogenized and freeze-dried (>400 μm) samples. Both samples were most suitable to form stable hydrogels and the sample obtained after drying at 55 °C showed the best performances in terms of ability to form a stable hydrogel. Among the studied treatments and drying conditions, the oven dried AP was demonstrated to be an interesting stabilizing material with potential applications in many fields (such as food, cosmetics, and nutraceuticals) showing both antioxidant activity and thickening capacity. Full article
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Review

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21 pages, 2313 KiB  
Review
A Critical Appraisal of the Most Recent Investigations on the Hepatoprotective Action of Brazilian Plants
by Jéssica Amanda Andrade Garcia-Manieri, Vanesa Gesser Correa, Emanueli Backes, Anacharis Babeto de Sá-Nakanishi, Lívia Bracht, Jurandir Fernando Comar, Rúbia Carvalho Gomes Corrêa, Rosane Marina Peralta and Adelar Bracht
Plants 2022, 11(24), 3481; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11243481 - 12 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1520
Abstract
Conventional treatments for liver diseases are often burdened by side effects caused by chemicals. For minimizing this problem, the search for medicines based on natural products has increased. The objective of this review was to collect data on the potential hepatoprotective activity of [...] Read more.
Conventional treatments for liver diseases are often burdened by side effects caused by chemicals. For minimizing this problem, the search for medicines based on natural products has increased. The objective of this review was to collect data on the potential hepatoprotective activity of plants of the Brazilian native flora. Special attention was given to the modes of extraction, activity indicators, and identification of the active compounds. The databases were Science direct, Pubmed, and Google Academic. Inclusion criteria were: (a) plants native to Brazil; (b) studies carried out during the last 15 years; (c) high-quality research. A fair number of communications met these criteria. Various parts of plants can be used, e.g., fruit peels, seeds, stem barks, and leaves. An outstanding characteristic of the active extracts is that they were mostly obtained from plant parts with low commercial potential, i.e., by-products or bio-residues. The hepatoprotective activities are exerted by constituents such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, vitamin C, phytosterols, and fructose poly- and oligosaccharides. Several Brazilian plants present excellent perspectives for the obtainment of hepatoprotective formulations. Very important is the economical perspective for the rural producers which may eventually increase their revenue by selling increasingly valued raw materials which otherwise would be wasted. Full article
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18 pages, 3580 KiB  
Review
Full Exploitation of Peach Palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth): State of the Art and Perspectives
by Kamila de Cássia Spacki, Rúbia Carvalho Gomes Corrêa, Thaís Marques Uber, Lillian Barros, Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira, Rosely Aparecida Peralta, Regina de Fátima Peralta Muniz Moreira, Cristiane Vieira Helm, Edson Alves de Lima, Adelar Bracht and Rosane Marina Peralta
Plants 2022, 11(22), 3175; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11223175 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4785
Abstract
The peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) is a palm tree native to the Amazon region, with plantations expanding to the Brazilian Southwest and South regions. This work is a critical review of historical, botanical, social, environmental, and nutritional aspects of edible and [...] Read more.
The peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) is a palm tree native to the Amazon region, with plantations expanding to the Brazilian Southwest and South regions. This work is a critical review of historical, botanical, social, environmental, and nutritional aspects of edible and nonedible parts of the plant. In Brazil, the importance of the cultivation of B. gasipaes to produce palm heart has grown considerably, due to its advantages in relation to other palm species, such as precocity, rusticity and tillering. The last one is especially important, as it makes the exploitation of peach palm hearts, contrary to what happens with other palm tree species, a non-predatory practice. Of special interest are the recent efforts aiming at the valorization of the fruit as a source of carotenoids and starch. Further developments indicate that the B. gasipaes lignocellulosic wastes hold great potential for being upcycled into valuable biotechnological products such as prebiotics, enzymes, cellulose nanofibrils and high fiber flours. Clean technologies are protagonists of the recovery processes, ensuring the closure of the product’s life cycle in a “green” way. Future research should focus on expanding and making the recovery processes economically viable, which would be of great importance for stimulating the peach palm production chain. Full article
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